List of Papers

(Unless otherwise specified, the correspondence is from or to officials in the Department of State.)

THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS

Chapter I: January 1–April 5, 1935

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Jan. 1 (1) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Announcement that postal services are to be resumed between China and “Manchoukuo;” causes of uncertainty in North China’s future, despite partial fulfillment of Tangku Truce stipulations.
1
Jan. 4 (2) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Request for radio report when postal services are inaugurated between China and “Manchoukuo.”
2
Jan. 7 From the War Department
Japanese extension of military control in North China, and preparation for an early war with Russia, which is regarded as inevitable.
2
Jan. 8 (3) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice of unfounded Japanese press reports in regard to the completion of negotiations for the sale of the Chinese Eastern Railway.
4
Jan. 8 From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union, Temporarily in Washington
Conversations with Far Eastern leaders indicating in part a belief that the railroad negotiations will succeed, that Japan’s war thinking is aimed at the United States, and that the Chinese fear further Japanese encroachment.
4
Jan. 9 (L–561 Dipl.) From the Counselor of Legation in China to the Chargé in China
Summary of observations made by a Chinese official in regard to Japan’s political program in China.
7
Jan. 10 (12) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Resumption of ordinary mail service between China and “Manchoukuo.”
9
Jan. 16 (19) From the Chargé in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Japanese Chargé’s expectation that the sale of the Chinese Eastern Railway will be consummated within 6 weeks.
9
Jan. 18 (3279) From the Chargé in China
Press report of dissatisfaction of Japanese military officers with General Chiang Kai-shek and with Chinese failure to carry out certain terms of the Tangku Truce.
9
Jan. 19 (10) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Confidential information concerning small detachment of Kwantung Army in operation against bandit troops in Jehol.
11
Jan. 19 (30) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Japanese issuance of ultimatum for withdrawal of Chinese forces from the Jehol–Chahar area.
12
[Page VI]Jan. 21 (11) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
British Ambassador’s denial of Japanese press rumors of a revival of the Anglo-Japanese alliance in the near future.
12
Jan. 22 (32) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Advice of withdrawal of Chinese forces in accordance with the wishes of the Japanese military.
13
Jan. 22 (14) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that agreement has been reached for sale of Chinese Eastern Railway, subject to confirmation by the governments concerned.
13
Jan. 22 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Analysis of speech delivered in the Diet by the Japanese Foreign Minister, indicating need for continuing U. S. caution and reserve in relations with Japan.
13
Jan. 24 (34) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Report of Japanese action in the disputed area lying between the Great Wall and the Jehol–Chahar boundary.
15
Jan. 24 (L–578 Dipl.) From the Counselor of Legation in China to the Chargé in China
Representations to Chinese leaders by the Japanese Legation, seeking either cooperation or stated resistance, the latter policy automatically leading to some regrettable “incident.”
16
Jan. 25 (35) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Proposal by Chiang Kai-shek for appointment of an American Army Air Force officer to the position of aviation adviser to China, to take charge of Hangchow aviation school.
18
Jan. 25 (12) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Advice of a report as to Chiang Kai-shek’s adoption of policy of “cooperating” with Japan, and of acceptance of Japanese financial assistance.
18
Jan. 25 (36) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Further information in regard to Japanese military action within the Great Wall.
19
Jan. 26 (13) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Continuation of efforts to verify reported Chinese acceptance of Japanese financial assistance, and request for information about any discussions of U. S. financial assistance to China.
20
Jan. 26 (14) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Unconfirmed reports of proposed visit to Nanking by the Japanese Foreign Minister, and of suggested offensive and defensive alliance between China and Japan.
20
Jan. 26 (25) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Instructions relative to oral representations to Chiang Kai-shek discouraging the appointment of any active U. S. Army officer to the service of China.
21
Jan. 28 (16) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Conversation with Mme. Chiang Kai-shek in regard to alliance and financial proposals by the Japanese Government.
21
Jan. 28 (40) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Continuing efforts to obtain information in regard to Sino-Japanese negotiations.
22
[Page VII]Jan. 28 (18) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Interview with Foreign Minister indicating no change in Sino-Japanese relations.
23
Jan. 28 (41) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Request for further instructions in regard to making the services of an American Army officer available to the Chinese Government.
24
Jan. 28 (L–864) From the Consul General at Tientsin to the Chargé in China
Impact of Chahar incident on Sino-Japanese relations; indications of Japanese determination to coerce China into “Sino-Japanese cooperation” by forceful measures if diplomatic negotiations fail.
25
Jan. 29 (17) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Oral information from the Foreign Office indicating no change in Sino-Japanese relations.
26
Jan. 29 (28) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Instructions to adhere to U. S. policy outlined in telegram No. 25 of January 26.
27
Jan. 29 From the Counselor of Embassy in the United Kingdom
Résumé of British views on the Japanese question.
28
Jan. 30 (19) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Comments by an official of the Japanese Legation on the present state of Sino-Japanese relations.
29
Jan. 30 (51) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Plans to carry out Department’s instructions in telegram No. 28 of January 29.
(Footnote: Information on execution of plans.)
30
Jan. 30 (9038) Report by the Military Attaché in China
Nanking Government’s concern over Soviet competition in the economically productive area of Sinkiang Province.
31
Jan. 31 (30) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Commendation of Counselor of Legation for promptness in making reports to the Department, and instructions to continue to telegraph at once any further information, with interpretative comment; remarks on proper approach in seeking information.
32
Jan. 31 (20) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Information from various individuals relative to talked-of Sino-Japanese alliance, Japanese intention to scrap the Nine Power Treaty, and Chinese work on some scheme of monetary reform.
33
Jan. 31 From President Roosevelt
Belief that United States should watch developments closely and be prompt in asking for official information both from China and from Japan if and when the situation warrants.
34
Jan. 31 To the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
Confidential reply to oral request for views in regard to Senate Resolutions 32 and 33, which propose Committee inquiries into Japanese policy in Manchuria and Japanese fulfillment of obligations in Japanese Mandated Islands.
34
[Page VIII]Feb. 1 (54) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Inauguration of parcel post and money order services between China and “Manchoukuo.”
36
Feb. 1 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Confidential information from the Chinese Minister in regard to a telegram from the Foreign Minister concerning Japanese propaganda, and the advisability of Chinese avoidance of any concession involving a loss of sovereign rights.
36
Feb. 2 (21) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Finance Minister’s report attributing the gravity of the financial situation to the U. S. silver purchase policy, and reference to recent Chinese proposal for U. S. financial aid to offset Japanese world-wide threat. Legation’s opinions as to reasons for the present Chinese reticence and contradictory statements.
37
Feb. 2 (22) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Press rumors of proposals for new Sino-Japanese agreements, indicating probability of economic rather than political difficulties.
38
Feb. 2 (57) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Beginning of a 3-day conference between Chinese and Japanese officers for settlement of the Jehol Province boundary dispute.
39
Feb. 3 (60) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Press reports indicating Chiang Kai-shek’s favorable attitude toward Hirota’s recent propitiating remarks; comments on reports of Japanese consideration of certain points in forming China policy.
39
Feb. 4 (22) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Report on an American adviser’s conversations with important Chinese officials pointing up growth of antiforeignism with respect to Americans and Europeans, and inextricable position in which Chiang Kai-shek now finds himself.
40
Feb. 4 (23) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Comment on analysis of the Japanese situation by the Tokyo correspondent of the New York Times; Foreign Office denial that Japan is making demands on China at present.
41
Feb. 5 (686) To the Ambassador in Japan
Reply to request for provisional instructions in regard to the acceptance of invitations to functions given by the so-called Emperor of “Manchoukuo,” or in his honor.
41
Feb. 6 (64) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Press report of settlement of Sino-Japanese incident on Chahar border; information from Japanese Legation alleging Chinese responsibility for the trouble.
42
Feb. 7 (66) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Information regarding changes which Chiang Kai-shek has decided to effect in North China, indicating a gradual yielding by the National Government to Japanese pressure.
43
[Page IX]Feb. 7 To President Roosevelt
Transmittal of telegrams from the Tokyo Embassy and the Nanking Legation indicating the bearing of the silver question upon developments in Sino-Japanese relations.
44
Feb. 7 (1162) From the Ambassador in Japan
Analysis of the Foreign Minister’s speech on foreign relations at the opening session of the Diet; reference to earlier speeches of similar tenor.
45
Feb. 8 (1165) From the Ambassador in Japan
Analysis of efforts of Japan and the Soviet Union to adjust themselves to the situation created by the separation of Manchuria from the rest of China, and expectation that Japan will genuinely work for the improvement of Soviet-Japanese relations.
49
Feb. 9 (27) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Confirmation of informal discussions between Chinese and Japanese officials of schemes to promote friendly relations between the two Governments.
54
Feb. 11 (28) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Conversation between Suma, First Secretary of the Japanese Legation, and the French Minister in regard to Japan’s reiterated insistence upon China’s acceptance of the inevitable close association with Japan.
55
Feb. 11 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Résumé of conversation with Lord Lytton, chairman of League Commission of Inquiry sent to the Far East in 1932, in regard to submitting a joint British and American recommendation for Japan’s consideration in connection with procedure in Far Eastern matters.
56
Feb. 14 (32) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Interview by Chinese newsmen with the Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs, who indicated China’s willingness to accept economic assistance from any nation which offered it on a basis of equality and reciprocity.
57
Feb. 15 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Information on mission of Japanese Major General Doihara to investigate the economic boycott and other conditions in North and Central China, and to cultivate good feeling.
58
Feb. 18 (73) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Arrival of Doihara, quoted by the press as emphasizing that all anti-Japanese activities in China must be discontinued before a Sino-Japanese agreement can be reached.
58
Feb. 19 To the Counselor of Embassy in the United Kingdom
Appreciation for letter of January 29 in regard to British views on the Japanese question.
59
Feb. 21 (84) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s speech before the Central Political Council, February 20, seemingly another cautious move in the regimentation of public opinion toward acceptance of Sino-Japanese “cooperation.”
60
[Page X]Feb. 21 (37) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Comments on the Foreign Minister’s address of February 20. Unconfirmed report of an invitation from Japan to China to send an economic mission to Japan.
62
Feb. 27 (42) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Conversation with the Administrative Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs, who stressed the need for increased trade between China and Japan, pointing out the problems involved.
62
Feb. 27 (3382) From the Minister in China
Despatch from the Consul General at Mukden, February 16 (text printed), suggesting possible desirability of withdrawing consular representatives from Manchuria if and when Japan relinquishes extraterritorial rights in “Manchoukuo;” request for comments.
63
Mar. 1 (97) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Japanese Legation’s denial of most of a press report (excerpt printed) in regard to Japanese proposals for rapprochement with China, but admission of discussions concerning elimination of anti-Japanese propaganda from textbooks used in Chinese schools.
66
Mar. 2 (43) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with the Foreign Minister, who spoke of concentration of efforts toward improved relations between Japan, China, and the Soviet Union as preliminary to the solution of naval and other problems.
67
Mar. 3 From the Consul General at Canton (tel.)
Résumé of recent press statements made by Hu Han-min; attitude of local authorities toward Doihara’s visit; disquieting reports of military developments.
68
Undated From the Chinese Legation
Quotation of the portion of the Foreign Minister’s speech of February 20 in which he commented favorably on the Sino-Japanese policy presented on January 23 to the Diet by the Japanese Foreign Minister. Chiang Kai-shek’s views on the Sino-Japanese situation as expressed in a recent press interview.
70
Mar. 6 (107) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Further information from T. V. Soong relative to Japanese proposals for a rapprochement, and his opinions regarding a possible international loan to China.
73
Mar. 7 (109) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information, as previously requested by the Department, as to present status of the Shanghai defense scheme.
75
Mar. 9 (111) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, March 7: Information in regard to progress in the diplomatic and military agreements between Chinese and Japanese leaders.
75
Mar. 11 (113) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice of status of the matter of consular representation on the Shanghai defense committee.
76
[Page XI]Mar. 12 (52) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information from the Soviet Embassy of the initialing of documents relative to the sale of Soviet rights in the Chinese Eastern Railway to “Manchoukuo,” with no specific mention in the documents of Soviet recognition of “Manchoukuo.”
76
Mar. 16 (119) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Broadcast in Japan of Sun Fo’s speech commemorating the tenth anniversary of the death of his father, Sun Yat-sen, and recommending a closer alliance between Japan and China in fulfillment of the “Greater Asia” policy.
76
Mar. 16 (108) From the Chargé in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Press statement by Litvinov (excerpt printed) regarding Soviet and Japanese demilitarization, interpreted as an effort to placate the Japanese because of anxiety over possible German aggression and to impress the United States and Great Britain with the possibility of a new orientation in the Far East.
77
Mar. 17 (50) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Foreign Office declaration that the transfer by sale or otherwise of the Chinese Eastern Railway, which lies entirely in China, is illegal.
78
Mar. 18 (121) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, March 16: Request for instructions in connection with Japanese nonacceptance of the proposed draft for the Shanghai defense scheme.
78
Mar. 19 (82) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Department’s desire for more reports of a general nature, portraying the situation as a whole and giving estimates of trends; instructions also to coordinate and supervise the reporting work of consular officers with this end in view.
(Instructions to repeat to Embassy in Tokyo.)
79
Mar. 21 (3473) From the Minister in China
Memorandum (text printed) giving a summary of conversations with responsible merchants and officials of the Chinese Government relative to the financial crisis in Shanghai and the Sino-Japanese “collaboration” in economic fields, the latter being a change apparently brought about by the Japanese military.
79
Mar. 21 (60) From the Consul General at Harbin to the Minister in China
Discussion of probable effects of the abolition of extraterritoriality in “Manchoukuo,” and belief that it would be unwise to withdraw American Consular representation from Manchuria.
86
Mar. 22 (60) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Difficulties in assessing the situation in Japan relative to China, arising from failure of the Japanese Government to act as a unit.
88
Mar. 22 (88) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for information concerning the reason for Japanese objection to proposed draft for the Shanghai defense scheme; suggested possible changes in wording.
89
[Page XII]Mar. 23 (126) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion that alleged conversations between certain Chinese and Japanese are for the purpose of general and gradual improvement in Sino-Japanese relations, which is presumed to be the so-called Hirota policy and is not approved by the military.
90
Mar. 25 (3455) From the Minister in China
Difficulty in securing any reliable and significant information concerning the rumored Sino-Japanese negotiations for a rapprochement; continuing divergence of Japanese approach by the military and by the Foreign Office.
91
Mar. 26 (103) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Press statement (text printed) by the Secretary General of the League of Nations in regard to Japan’s withdrawal from the League.
93
Mar. 27 (105) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Statements by the Japanese Consul General and the Chinese Minister concerning Japan’s withdrawal from the League and the Secretary General’s statement.
93
Mar. 28 (148) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Conversation with the Permanent Secretary of the Treasury, who believes that the only way to reduce tension in the Far East is by direct negotiations between Japan and China, for which the Western Powers could contribute a suitable forum.
95
Mar. 29 (3478) From the Minister in China
Economic aspects of reported Japanese efforts to persuade the Chinese authorities to “cooperate” with Japan.
97
Mar. 30 (3481) From the Minister in China
Summary of comments by the General Manager of the Peiping and Tientsin offices of the Rengo News Agency in regard to the reported negotiations between China and Japan.
100
Apr. 1 (152) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information as to reasons for the closing of the Mukden branch of the National City Bank, and that of Andersen, Meyer, and Co.
101
Apr. 1 (3486) From the Minister in China
Information relative to alleged unfairness in censorship of outgoing telegraphic messages of American newspaper correspondents in Shanghai.
102
Apr. 2 (134) From the Chargé in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Litvinov’s assertion that Great Britain and the Soviet Union will henceforth collaborate in all spheres of international affairs, including Japan.
103
Apr. 5 (1235) From the Ambassador in Japan
Signature on March 23 by Japan, the Soviet Union, and “Manchoukuo” of documents transferring the Soviet interest in the Chinese Eastern Railway to “Manchoukuo,” entailing heavy financial and political commitments by the Japanese.
103
[Page XIII]

Chapter II: April 5–May 31, 1935

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Apr. 5 (1236) From the Ambassador in Japan
Analysis of Japanese-Soviet relations following liquidation of Soviet interests in Manchuria.
106
Apr. 10 Memorandum by the Second Secretary of Legation in China
Résumé of analysis of the Sino-Japanese situation by the Soviet First Secretary of Embassy, in conversation on April 8.
111
Apr. 13 (1782) From the Ambassador in France
Foreign Minister’s confirmation of French intervention for the protection of French private interests in the Chinese Eastern Railway.
112
Apr. 16 (72) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Receipt of information concerning Japanese Minister’s unexpected expression of his Government’s satisfaction with Chinese suppression of the anti-Japanese boycott.
113
Apr. 19 (1244) From the Ambassador in Japan
Interpretation of public mood concerning Japan’s withdrawal from the League of Nations.
113
Apr. 20 (1254) From the Ambassador in Japan
Account of lavish and deferential treatment accorded “Emperor Kangte” of “Manchoukuo” on his visit to Japan.
117
Apr. 20 (1255) From the Ambassador in Japan
Foreign Minister’s opinion that the so-called “democratic” influence is steadily growing stronger in Japan.
119
Apr. 22 (1638) To the Minister in China
Request for comments on an analysis in the Paris Temps of the Central Asian political and economic situation, and for information on an alleged agreement mentioned as concluded in 1932 between the Governor of Sinkiang Province and the Soviet Union.
120
Apr. 22 (1643) To the Minister in China
Suggestion that consideration be given to certain political as well as material factors in formulating further recommendations in connection with the possible relinquishment by Japan of its extraterritorial rights in “Manchoukuo;” request also for views of other interested legations.
121
Apr. 23 (540) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union
Conversation with the Chinese Ambassador to the Soviet Union in regard to conditions in Sinkiang, and apparent improvement in Soviet attitude toward China.
121
Apr. 25 (83) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Lull in Japanese-Chinese conversations, with expectation of greater activity before the summer passes.
123
Apr. 26 (159) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Tass report of a Sinkiang Congress announcement of belief that completely friendly relations exist between the Soviet Union and Sinkiang.
123
Apr. 29 (3539) From the Minister in China
Despatch from Tientsin giving impression of ascendency of the Soviet political influence in Sinkiang and increasing diversion of trade into strictly Soviet-Sinkiang channels.
124
[Page XIV]Apr. 30 (L–695 Dipl.) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China to the Minister in China
Review of statements by various Chinese officials in regard to the present Sino-Japanese situation; detailed observations on the situation.
125
Apr. 30 From the Minister in China
Conversation with the Japanese Consul General concerning improved trade relations with the Chinese and the possibility of foreign financial assistance.
132
May 1 (177) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information in regard to negotiations concerning the Shanghai defense scheme.
133
May 1 From the Minister in China
Interpretation of certain factors involved in the future of Japan in Asia, particularly with reference to Japan’s policy toward China and Chinese response to that policy.
134
May 2 (179) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report from the Consul General at Shanghai concerning attempt to arrange for the inclusion of equal rights in the Shanghai defense scheme.
144
May 2 (1252 Pol.) From the Consul at Geneva
Transmittal of two documents drawn up by the League Secretariat for its own guidance in matters having a relation to Japan’s withdrawal from the League.
144
May 3 (214) From the Consul General at Shangahi (tel.)
Quotation from an article in a Shanghai-British monthly criticizing U. S. silver policy in its effect on China.
147
May 3 (1279) From the Ambassador in Japan
Discussion of (1) an apparent Japanese trend away from war, but no evidence that the military is losing influence; (2) question of whether democratic influences are increasing, and position and influence of Hirota.
148
May 3 (91) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China
Report concerning a series of interviews with leading Japanese and Japanese “Manchoukuo” officials by a recently retired British Vice Consul at Mukden, with particular reference to the subjects of nonrecognition of “Manchoukuo” and the future possibilities of foreign business enterprise in Manchuria.
151
May 4 (95) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Understanding that the Soviet Ambassador, recently returned to China from Moscow, will begin discussions with the Foreign Office in regard to a new commercial and possibly a nonaggression treaty with China.
154
May 4 (1281) From the Ambassador in Japan
Developments in connection with a cultural, economic, and political rapprochement gradually coming about between Japan and Siam.
155
May 7 Memorandum by the Minister in China
Conversation with the Soviet Ambassador in regard to the recent rapid development of Eastern Siberia.
158
[Page XV]May 9 From the Minister in China
Observations on change in attitude of T. V. Soong toward the Japanese, one of various evidences of an increasing belief of Chinese officials that “friendship” with Japan is practically inevitable.
159
May 9 From the Minister in China
Comment by T. V. Soong and by S. Matsumoto, head of Japanese news agency in China, in regard to recent Sino-Japanese conversations bearing on general improvement of relations.
160
May 10 (1289) From the Ambassador in Japan
Apparent lessening of interest of the Japanese press in the reported negotiations toward a Sino-Japanese rapprochement, possibly attributable to the prevailing uncertainty with regard to the sincerity of China’s friendly gestures.
163
May 11 (192) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Arrival of Chiang Kai-shek at Yunnanfu; reported position of several thousand Reds in the mountains north of Wuting.
166
May 14 (191) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Information from the Chinese Ambassador that upon his return to Moscow he had brought to the Soviet Government Chiang Kai-shek’s assurance of armed support in case of war with Japan.
166
May 15 From the Minister in China
Information from the Soviet Ambassador regarding unsuccessful efforts to negotiate a nonaggression treaty with China, and his belief that failure was due to Japanese advice to China that such an arrangement would be considered an unfriendly act.
167
May 15 From the Consul at Dairen to the Ambassador in Japan
Press statement (extracts printed) by the chief of staff of the Japanese garrison in North China.
167
May 16 (198) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Information that the Soviet Union has informed Japan of its readiness to enter negotiations for an extension of fishing convention.
169
May 18 From the Siamese Minister
Assurance, in connection with question of Japanese influence in Siam, that Siamese policy is to strengthen the bonds of friendship with all treaty powers alike.
169
May 18 (222) From the Minister in Siam
Detailed summary of rumors relative to a rapprochement between Siam and Japan, with evidences of the trend of Siamese policy, and the influences tending to promote or curb such a rapprochement.
170
May 18 (10066) From the Consul General at Shanghai
Information of Chinese plans for drastic curtailment of American instruction in the Central Aviation Academy at Hangchow.
177
May 21 To the Siamese Minister
Acknowledgment of Siamese Minister’s communication of May 18.
178
[Page XVI]May 22 (210) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden: Sudden resignation of “Manchoukuo” Premier and installation of new cabinet.
178
May 23 (211) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Minor disturbance attributed to Chinese volunteers inside the Wall, and entrance of Japanese troops into the demilitarized zone to suppress the rebels.
178
May 23 (212) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice that the Japanese believe that high Chinese officials are implicated in the assassination of two pro-Japanese Chinese editors in the Japanese concession at Tientsin, and will lodge a strong protest with Chinese authorities.
179
May 23 (116) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Conversation with Administrative Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs concerning the murder of the two editors at Tientsin and the Japanese troop movements in the demilitarized zone.
180
May 24 (117) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Attitude of the Japanese Embassy that the disturbance involving Japanese troops and Chinese rebels is a “local matter,” but that the murder of the two Chinese editors at Tientsin is a “very serious matter.”
181
May 25 (111) From the Ambassador in Germany (tel.)
Unconfirmed information of a secret German-Japanese military alliance, with 70 Japanese officers en route to Germany for liaison purposes.
181
May 27 (124) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from a well-informed source that the assassins of the two Chinese editors were three members of the Peiping gendarmerie and that the Japanese have demanded that they be handed over. Belief of Japanese Embassy in possible “necessity” for Japanese occupation of North China.
181
May 27 (1274 Pol.) From the Consul at Geneva
Report in regard to continuing Japanese representation on League committees.
182
May 27 (30) From the Consul at Tsingtao to the Minister in China
Information concerning China’s intention to forfeit redemption of its own note issue for the Tsingtao-Tsinan Railway.
183
May 28 (223) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Suppression of bandits in the Tsunhua area and withdrawal of Japanese troops to points along the Wall.
185
May 28 (224) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Japanese intention to send a high commissioner to China to meet a special commissioner appointed by China for the specific purpose of negotiating a rapprochement. Japanese pressure for guarantee against recurrence of such affairs as the murders in the Japanese Concession at Tientsin.
185
May 29 (215) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Information from Foreign Commissar Litvinov of Soviet Government’s preference for Sinkiang as a buffer state under its economic control rather than under a soviet form of government,
186
[Page XVII]May 30 (227) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Press statement (text printed) issued by Japanese Military Attachés office in Peiping in regard to the unsatisfactory conditions in North China; increasing signs of Japanese utilization of the Tientsin murders as a basis for drastic threats.
187
May 30 (228) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Japanese aide-mémoire to Provincial authorities containing threatening representations in regard to the situation at Tientsin.
188
May 31 From the Consul at Tientsin (tel.)
Provocative activities of Japanese garrison; departure of numerous Chinese from the Chinese city to the British Concession.
188
May 31 (217) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Tass statement (text printed) indicating Japanese desire to revise 1928 fishing convention, and Soviet willingness to begin negotiations.
189
May 31 (129) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Finance Minister’s views on Japanese charges of Chinese responsibility for the assassination of the two editors and for rebel activities in North China. Report that the Japanese military have admitted their intention to Manchurianize a buffer state in North China.
189
May 31 (230) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Demonstration of Japanese soldiers at Tientsin, apparently in an effort to force Provincial Government headquarters to move to Paotingfu.
191
May 31 (133) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of Chinese leaders’ compliance with the “advice” (which accompanied Japanese demonstration) that the Provincial Government move to Paotingfu.
191
May 31 (115) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Press reports, substantiated by the War Office, in regard to Japanese military demands leading to an enlarged demilitarized zone.
192
May 31 (1331) From the Ambassador in Japan
Attitude of Japanese military indicating displeasure with the Soviet Government despite the striking improvement in Soviet-Japanese relations.
193

Chapter III: June 1–July 31, 1935

Date and number Subject Page
1935 June 1 (233) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Hope of temporary relief in Sino-Japanese situation by removal of Hopei Provincial Government to Paoting and by changes in present Government personnel, some long disliked by the Japanese.
196
June 1 (117) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Evidence of widening schism between the Japanese military and civil elements, the military continuing to make demands on the Chinese without foreknowledge of the Foreign Office.
197
[Page XVIII]June 1 (235) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden: Belief of local Japanese military official that the Chinese will accept demands for an extension of the demilitarized zone.
198
June 2 (236) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Chiang Kai-shek has ordered disbandment of the Third gendarmerie with headquarters at Tientsin.
198
June 3 (241) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Further details on the situation at Tientsin.
199
June 4 (136) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Evidences of Japanese bitterness against Chiang Kai-shek in spite of his conciliatory pronouncements; also of Chinese compliance with the “advice” of the Japanese military.
199
June 4 (242) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information concerning developments in relation to the general North China ambitions of the Japanese.
200
June 5 (139) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice of Chinese dismissals and appointments in conformance with Japanese desires; plan of Chinese leaders to meet in Hankow June 10 to attempt formulation of a definite future policy in respect to the North China region.
200
June 5 (243) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information concerning political reorganizations and indicacations of Chinese response to the recent Japanese “warning.”
201
June 5 (119) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Lessening of press attention to the North China situation; Japanese Army’s insistence upon further political replacements, the withdrawal of Nationalist troops from North China, and the suppression of organized anti-Japanese propaganda.
202
June 5 From the Consul General at Canton to the Minister in China
Information concerning Japanese Envoy Matsumoto’s efforts to secure a definite statement of cooperation from Kwangsi and Kwangtung leaders; account of several incidents indicative of Japanese machinations in South China.
202
June 6 Memorandum by the Counselor of Legation in China, Temporarily in Washington
Struggle for official positions in China between Chinese educated in Europe or America and those educated in Japan, the latter group now gaining influence through the growth of Japanese domination by the threat of force; process of formulation of Chinese foreign policies.
207
June 6 (140) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Evidences of continuing Japanese movements against Chiang Kai-shek; possibility that the demilitarized zone will not be extended if the Chinese are compliant with the wishes of the Japanese military.
213
June 6 (285) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Object of Japanese military evidently to eliminate Chiang Kai-shek as a potential menace to Japanese interests.
214
[Page XIX]June 6 (244) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for instructions relative to customs tariff on official consular supplies entering “Manchoukuo;” Legation’s view that payment should be authorized without protest, but that Consul General at Mukden might appropriately discuss the matter informally with the Hsinking authorities at next opportunity.
216
June 7 (141) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice that the Japanese have apparently accomplished their immediate purposes in North China.
217
June 7 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Transfer of Yu Hsueh-chung from chairmanship of Hopei Province to position of Bandit Suppression Commander for the Szechuan, Shansi, and Kansu border.
217
June 7 From the Secretary of the Navy
Message from the Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet (text printed) indicating plan of Japanese military leaders to ask permission from Japanese Emperor to exercise a free hand in North China.
217
June 7 (3606) From the Minister in China
Information concerning Japanese pressure for dismissal of the Mayor of Tsinan.
218
June 8 (123) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information regarding Japanese accusations against Chiang Kai-shek, interpreted as intimidation measures rather than intention to overthrow the Central Government at Nanking.
218
June 8 (249) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Substantial strengthening of Tientsin garrison due to retention of Japanese troops beyond expiration of term of duty.
219
June 8 (143) From the Minister in China (tel.)
New threats by the Japanese military, angry with the Foreign Office over its conciliatory references to Chiang Kai-shek, and determined to act independently of any civil branch of the Government.
219
June 8 (252) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information in regard to the North China situation, and Japanese insistence upon Chinese recognition of “Manchoukuo.”
220
June 10 (257) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report from Dairen on refusal of “Manchoukuo” Customs to grant free entry of official consular supplies to countries not recognizing the State of “Manchoukuo.”
221
June 10 (125) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Rumor of a Japanese ultimatum in North China, unconfirmed by Foreign Office and War Office.
221
June 10 (258) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Withdrawal of Chinese troops in accordance with Japanese demands, demilitarizing the Peiping–Tientsin area, and Japanese arrangements for exchange of replacement troops between Tangpu and Tientsin.
222
[Page XX]June 10 (259) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Evidence of ultimate aim of Japanese to purge North China of all anti-Japanese officials.
222
June 10 (156) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization to instruct Consul General at Mukden to have informal discussion with Hsinking authorities on question of customs tariff on official consular supplies entering “Manchoukuo.”
224
June 10 (10115) From the Consul General at Shanghai
Details concerning the organization and operation of the Central Aviation School at Hangchow and its importance from the standpoint of American commercial aviation.
224
June 10 (112) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China
Information in regard to the political-economic crisis in “Manchoukuo.”
226
June 11 (148) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice from a Foreign Office official that the Japanese desire a Chinese-financed administration in North China compliant to wishes of the Japanese Army; that the outbursts of the Japanese military against Chiang Kai-shek are due to his rising power and to their realization of his irreconcilably anti-Japanese views.
229
June 11 (128) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Message from the Ministry of War (substance printed) in regard to the precautionary measures taken by the Japanese Army and stating desire of the Tokyo military authorities for a peaceful North China with no political change.
230
June 11 (263) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice of mandate by National Government directing Chinese to be sincerely friendly to friendly countries; and of Japanese demand for dissolution of the Peiping political affairs committee and military council.
231
June 12 (46) To the Second Secretary of Legation in China, at Nanking (tel.)
Request for verification of Associated Press report that the Central Political Council has rejected Japanese demands affecting North China, and has instructed the Minister of War to prepare against threatened Japanese advance upon Peiping and Tientsin.
231
June 12 From the Chinese Foreign Office to the Chinese Legation
Chinese compliance with certain demands made by Japanese military in respect to North China; critical situation resulting from refusal of other Japanese terms.
232
June 13 (149) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Further demands of Japanese, including insistence that Chiang Kai-shek himself return to Nanking to meet with Japanese military officials; conference of Chinese leaders reported to favor formation of Sino-Japanese political partnership to block further Japanese military advance.
233
June 13 (150) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Preliminary reply to Department’s telegram No. 46 of June 12, indicating the Council’s rejection of certain Japanese demands.
234
[Page XXI]June 13 (268) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Incident at Kalgan involving reported insulting treatment of four Japanese military by Chinese military.
234
June 13 (151) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information verifying rejection by the Council of Japanese demands mentioned in telegrams Nos. 149 and 150, and certain additional ones.
235
June 13 (152) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Resolution by the Central Political Council to sustain position against any further Japanese demands.
236
June 13 (153) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice of Japanese threat of reorganization of the Chinese National Government in the event of Chinese rejection of demands; factors involved in possibility of Chinese armed resistance.
236
June 13 (270) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Chinese position in regard to signing a draft of requirements which the Japanese have presented. Indications that the Japanese military is progressing toward elimination of North China control by the National Government.
237
June 13 (154) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that the far-reaching character of the Japanese demands was due to Japanese discovery that Chiang Kai-shek had issued orders for anti-Japanese activities.
238
June 13 (271) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice that pamphlets denouncing Chiang Kai-shek and advocating an independent state have been distributed in Peiping. Japanese refusal to accept official apology for the incident reported in telegram No. 268, June 13.
239
June 14 (155) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Substance of oral statement by the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs in regard to conditions leading to the present grave situation in North China, and his request for information concerning the U. S. attitude toward the developments.
239
June 14 (274) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, June 13: Japanese press forecast that a political bloc being formed by Hopei, Shantung, Shansi, and Chahar in opposition to the Nanking Government and the Kuomintang, will lead toward development of a new nation hostile to Chiang Kai-shek.
241
June 14 (156) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of continuing Japanese demand for Chiang Kai-shek’s return to Nanking, the requirement now being for him to meet with Ariyoshi, the Japanese Minister in China, rather than with the Japanese military.
241
June 14 (312) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Press item (text printed) quoting denouncement by the Japanese Military Attaché of the U. S. economic policy as being more harmful to China than Japanese military aggression.
242
[Page XXII]June 14 (275) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Continuing uneasiness in Peiping; reports of troop movements, and of Japanese military stabling horses on American mission property.
243
June 14 (159) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Expectation of Chiang Kai-shek’s arrival in Nanking; China’s attitude toward any further capitulation to Japan’s demands.
244
June 14 (276) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden: Press reports alleging complicity of Chiang Kai-shek in Chahar’s anti-Japanese activities.
244
June 14 (1350) From the Ambassador in Japan
Analysis and evaluation of the action of the Japanese military in the North China area.
244
June 15 (129) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice that the British Ambassador has received instructions to inquire of the Japanese as to accuracy of their reported demand that the Chinese appoint no officials in North China without Japanese consent, and, if true, to point out that the demand constitutes a violation of the Nine Power Treaty.
248
June 15 (282) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report on minor troop movements. Information that Chinese educators of Peiping are discussing alternatives of moving south or closing the five leading universities.
249
June 15 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the British Ambassador concerning developments in North China, British proposed invocation of the Nine Power Treaty, and question of any similar action by United States.
249
June 15 (238) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Information from Chinese Ambassador that the Japanese military are in full control with Foreign Minister Hirota’s acquiescence; that Chiang Kai-shek intends to continue his campaign against the Communists and believes any opposition to the Japanese by force would be disastrous.
251
June 15 (93) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador relative to various reports and rumors concerning North China, and Secretary’s emphasis on the need for Japanese continuing clarification of the situation.
252
June 15 (167) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Confidential communication by the Chinese Minister of information substantially the same as that contained in telegram No. 155 of June 14.
253
June 15 (130) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation between the British Counselor of Embassy and the Chief of the East Asia Department, indicating Foreign Office unawareness of a military demand preventing appointment of officials in North China without Japanese consent; British Ambassador’s desire to invoke the Nine Power Treaty only as a last resort.
253
[Page XXIII]June 16 (163) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Chinese official denial of alienation of Kwangtung, Kwangsi, and Hunan Provinces. Advice that thus far Chiang Kai-shek has not come to Nanking.
254
June 16 (165) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Advice that censorship has been lifted on press despatches concerning situation in North China.
254
June 16 (283) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Japanese demands and Chinese action in connection with Chahar incident. Observations regarding continuing unsettled conditions.
255
June 17 (287) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Announcement by Japanese military in regard to the unsettled state of the Chahar affair. Telegram from Canton concerning present atmosphere there.
256
June 17 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the British Ambassador concerning conflicting reports emanating from China and Japan and the need for utmost caution in making any representations to the Japanese Government.
256
June 17 (288) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion as to inadvisability of calling attention of the Japanese Foreign Office to the obvious contraventions of Nine Power Treaty, as the Japanese military have evidently acted without consultation with the Foreign Office.
257
June 17 (3621) From the Minister in China
Information concerning the present relationship between Sinkiang and the Soviet Union.
258
June 18 (167) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Assertion by Japanese Embassy official that the Japanese are at present quietly observing whether the Chinese authorities are carrying out the “suggestions” made by the Japanese military.
261
June 18 (132) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Account of a conversation between the British Ambassador and the Foreign Minister. Opinion that no U. S. action is necessary at present.
262
June 18 (168) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Understanding that Executive Yuan has approved appointment of Chin Teh-chun to be Chahar Provincial Chairman replacing Sung Cheh-Yuan, and that he is acceptable to the Japanese.
263
June 18 (292) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Menacing attitude of Kwantung Army with respect to Chahar, and evident intention of Japanese to demilitarize that part of Chahar contiguous to Jehol.
263
June 18 (171) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for information in regard to reported Japanese negotiations with China for the purchase of Pratas Reef, situated between Hong Kong and Northern Luzon.
265
[Page XXIV]June 19 (169) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Information from authoritative source as to reasons for the dismissal of Sung Cheh-yuan, and possibility of a revolt in Kwangtung and Kwangsi as a move against Chiang Kai-shek.
265
June 19 (297) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Indications of unsettled Chahar situation despite appointment of officials satisfactory to the Japanese.
266
June 20 (51) To the Second Secretary of Legation in China, at Nanking (tel.)
Instructions to express appreciation to Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs for information on events in North China, and to apprise him of a conversation which the Department had with the Chinese Minister on June 18.
267
June 20 (301) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Growing uneasiness concerning the Chahar situation and the future activities of Sung Cheh-yuan’s army.
268
June 21 (174) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Informal conversation with Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs confirming Legation’s understanding of the situation in North China, as reported in earlier communications.
268
June 21 (175) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Unconfirmed report of Kwangtung air force planes being sent to the Hunan border due to dissatisfaction with actions of the National Government resulting in strategic isolation and adverse economic effect upon Kwangtung and Kwangsi.
269
June 21 (305) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Suggested reasons for present lull in North China developments; belief that Japanese military will adhere to their objectives; Japanese military’s insistence that the Chahar question and the North China situation are separate matters.
270
June 22 (177) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Inability to verify reports mentioned in Department’s No. 171, June 18, or any Japanese suggestion for the transfer to Japan of territory for naval bases or other purposes.
271
June 22 (95) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Receipt of information indicating Soviet Commissar Litvinov’s concern over North China developments, and his belief that some action by Great Britain and United States would cause Japanese public opinion to react against the military.
272
June 22 (3643) From the Minister in China
Conversation with the Soviet Military Attaché concerning North China, during which he stated that if Russia were forced to fight, she would fight on foreign soil.
272
June 23 (307) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Press report from Tientsin of alleged interview at Nanking between the Foreign Minister and Japanese newsmen setting forth the Chinese objectives of harmony and friendship, uniting China’s raw materials and Japan’s technique as a foundation of Far Eastern economy.
272
[Page XXV]June 24 (138) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Apparent routine acceptance of the activity of the military by the Japanese people; belief that British and U. S. interposition would be inadvisable and would solidify sentiment in favor of the army.
273
June 24 (309) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice of negotiations relative to Chahar situation and of opinion in Kalgan that Sung Cheh-yuan’s troops will be moved from the area.
274
June 24 (123) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China
Discussion with Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs in regard to the imposition of duty upon official supplies, and his explanation that the action had been taken by the Finance Department rather than the Foreign Office; advice of receipt of supplies following payment of duty by the forwarding agent.
275
June 26 (315) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Two Tientsin appointments by National Government without consultation with the Japanese. Indications of intention of Japanese military to avoid the use of force to attain their further objectives.
276
June 26 (183) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Conversation with Suma of the Japanese Embassy, who indicated complete settlement of Sino-Japanese issues in Hopei, and Chinese agreement in principle to Japanese points in regard to the Chahar question.
277
June 26 (141) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice of the successful conclusion of negotiations for settlement of the Chahar incident. Press report of a disturbance involving an undisciplined detachment of Sung’s army and “Manchoukuo” frontier guards.
277
June 26 To the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
Views concerning Senate Resolution 154 authorizing a Committee examination of the Japanese policy in Manchuria and in China proper, with opinion that a Senate investigation at this time would not be in the public interest.
278
June 27 (321) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Japanese military’s announcement of settlement of Chahar incident by Chinese accession to Japanese demands.
280
June 27 (1375) From the Ambassador in Japan
Advice of revival of Japanese interest in question of Soviet–“Manchoukuo” frontier following inspection tour of the War Minister. Discussion of reports pertaining to possible negotiation of a Japanese-Soviet nonaggression pact and appointment of a joint border commission.
281
June 28 (185) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Opinion of Ministers of Industries and Navy that Pratas Reef is of no real value and could not be used for naval or aviation station.
283
June 29 (143) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice that the Prime Minister is believed to be in a strong position in his determination to control situation in China without major military operations and by settlement of differences through peaceful measures.
283
[Page XXVI]June 29 (324) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harbin, June 28 and June 29: Information regarding attack on a Kwantung Army surveying party by Outer Mongolian troops; report that a possible break-up of the Manchuli conference has apparently been averted.
284
June 29 (187) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Final settlement of all questions relating to Chahar situation.
284
June 29 (325) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information concerning precautionary measures and the suppression of trouble at Fengtai instigated by plain-clothes men, apparently intending to organize an anti-Chiang Kai-shek government, after a mistaken anticipation of Japanese support; establishment of martial law in Peiping every night, 9 p.m. to 6 a.m.
285
July 1 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Remarks to the British Ambassador recalling the U. S. position with respect to Japanese intentions in North China.
286
July 1 (189) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Advice of Chinese impression that the United States has shown a cold attitude toward the North China situation. Summary of certain trends including the withdrawal of Japanese demands relative to official appointments in Hopei.
287
July 2 (330) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information regarding daily arrival of several hundred Japanese and Koreans at Peiping prior to the Fengtai trouble, and continuation of martial law to enable authorities to complete a survey of the situation.
288
July 2 (261) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Soviet apprehension that the succession of incidents on the Soviet-Manchurian frontier presages a Japanese demand for demilitarization of the border zone and the sale of the northern half of Sakhalin Island.
288
July 3 (3662) From the Minister in China
Soviet confirmation of existence of a 1931 Sinkiang-Soviet treaty, denial of any intention to expand into Sinkiang, and indication of willingness to support any Chinese-designated leader in Sinkiang who would resist Japanese penetration.
289
July 3 (3667) From the Minister in China
Despatch from the Consul General at Shanghai (text printed) regarding the proposed revision of the Shanghai defense scheme, and general opposition to an amendment suggested by Commander of the Japanese Naval Landing Party at Shanghai.
289
July 4 (263) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
French Communist leader’s confirmation of report of a scheduled Congress of the Third International in Moscow, and verification of Japanese demands for the Soviet Union to sell the northern half of Sakhalin.
292
July 4 (266) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Discussion with Litvinov, who denied that Japan had demanded sale of northern Sakhalin and the demilitarization of the Siberian frontier, said Japan desired a boundary commission, and gave his opinion that Japan desired peace.
292
[Page XXVII]July 5 (268) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Japanese Embassy’s confirmation of Litvinov’s comments on Sakhalin and on a boundary commission, and advice of “Manchoukuo’s” determination not to relinquish its claim to the large island at the juncture of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers, which has potential military importance.
293
July 5 (192) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Japanese objections to an article in the Chinese publication New Life, later reprinted by another publication, and dissatisfaction with delay in punishment of the author and publisher.
293
July 5 (56) To the Second Secretary of Legation in China, at Nanking (tel.)
Digest of a statement made to the Chinese Minister refuting implications of a U. S. “cold attitude” toward difficulties recently experienced by China.
295
July 7 (196) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Advice that there are no indications of imminent sweeping government changes unless the Foreign Minister’s physical condition worsens; that there is an increasing possibility of eventual Chinese resistance due to Chiang Kai-shek’s idea that the penalties of resistance can be no greater than those of acquiescence.
296
July 9 (199) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Confidential information concerning frequent unauthorized visits to Pratas Reef by Japanese fishermen and seaweed hunters in motor launches.
297
July 9 (200) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Kuomintang warning in regard to violating the Government mandate prohibiting discriminatory or provocative writing or comment such as recently appeared in New Life.
298
July 9 (146) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Résumé of recent conversations with the Soviet Ambassador and with the Counselor in regard to Soviet-Japanese relations, indicating Soviet unwillingness to sell North Sakhalin or to agree to a demilitarized zone along the Soviet-”Manchoukuo” border.
299
July 9 (202) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China, (tel.)
Decision by a group of Provincial chairmen and Nanking Government officials to recommend acceptance of a Japanese proposal including a mutual defense provision; unfavorable attitude of the Chinese Foreign Minister.
300
July 9 (693) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union
Remarks of the Counselor of the Chinese Embassy indicating that the Sinkiang-Soviet treaty of 1931 is of a temporary nature and will become ineffective upon the conclusion of the general Chinese-Soviet commercial treaty, now being negotiated.
300
July 10 (348) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from the Soviet Embassy concerning the detention and release by Outer Mongolian authorities of two men in the service of the Japanese Army.
301
[Page XXVIII]July 10 (3679) From the Minister in China
Observations in regard to the grave situation in China, and to signs pointing to ultimate subjugation by the Japanese military.
303
July 12 (3675) From the Minister in China
Review of developments in China during the first six months of 1935.
306
July 14 (288) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Information from the Japanese Counselor of Embassy in regard to status of fisheries negotiations with the Soviet Foreign Office, and in regard to a boundary commission.
310
July 15 (3690) From the Minister in China
Indications of a steadily increasing Japanese interest and influence in Shanghai.
310
July 16 (151) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with Foreign Minister in regard to the gradual changes being effected in the Government.
314
July 17 (404) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Chiang Kai-shek’s program leading to eventual resistance to Japan, including emphasis on necessity for exterminating the Reds first.
314
July 18 (250) From the Minister in Siam
Résumé of circumstances leading to publication in New York Times of Siamese denial of Japanese allegations of a close alliance between Japan and Siam; report on interviews with the Siamese Premier indicating Siam’s independent policy.
315
July 19 (368) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Increasing possibility of formation of a North China regime for the five Northern provinces which will be nominally under the control of the National Government and at the same time “cooperative” with the Japanese.
317
July 23 (373) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Japanese military’s continuing dissatisfaction with Chinese activities.
318
July 25 (216) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Report of Chiang Kai-shek’s yielding to Japanese pressure and to pleas of Government leaders to come to Nanking to declare himself unequivocally in respect to Sino-Japanese issues, and observations thereon.
320
July 25 (376) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Japanese threat of “positive measures” to be taken by the Kwantung Army to insure Outer Mongolian Government’s compliance with representations of the “Manchoukuo” government.
321
July 26 (308) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Conversation with Yen, the Chinese Ambassador, who brought up the urgent desire of his Government for U. S. appointment of an American financial expert to China. Confidential information from Yen concerning four new Japanese demands, and Yen’s message to Chiang Kai-shek that it would be better to fight than to make further concessions.
322
[Page XXIX]July 29 (170) To the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Instructions to inform the Chinese Ambassador that the United States is considering the question of appointment of a financial expert in China, but no decision has yet been reached.
323
July 31 (161) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
No verification of reported new Japanese demands.
323

Chapter IV: August 1–October 31, 1935

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Aug. 1 (390) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from Consul General at Mukden regarding Japanese denial of extraterritorial rights to a British national in “Manchoukuo.”
324
Aug. 2 (221) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Information similar to that contained in telegram No. 308 of July 26 from the Ambassador in the Soviet Union in regard to Japanese demands and need for decision by Chiang Kai-shek.
325
Aug. 2 (223) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Conversation with the Acting Foreign Minister, who expressed personal opinion that China must resist by force any further Japanese demands for territory, or for the relinquishment of sovereign rights.
325
Aug. 2 (3728) From the Minister in China
Opinion regarding inadvisability of proceeding further toward obtaining revision of part II, paragraph 4, of the Shanghai Defense Scheme, proposed by the Department in 1934.
326
Aug. 8 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Indications of a possible Anglo-Japanese conference to be held in Tokyo to consider naval questions and Far Eastern relations; need for U. S. consideration of course to pursue with reference to cooperation with Great Britain and aid to China.
328
Aug. 8 (1424) From the Chargé in Japan
Appointment by the Cabinet of American-educated Matsuoka as president of the South Manchuria Railway, a move to rectify the prevailing differences of opinion between the Kwantung Army and the railway management.
330
Aug. 10 (411) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Outer Mongolian reply to a “Manchoukuo”–Kwantung Army note proposing exchange of resident representatives whose authority would be limited to settlement of border disputes.
334
Aug. 13 (415) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of Japanese offers to Prince Teh as an inducement to declare Inner Mongolian independence from China.
334
Aug. 20 (247) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Alleged reconsideration by Wang of his expressed determination to retire from the Government; China’s disappointment over the failure of the United States and Great Britain to assist her in solving her problems with Japan.
335
[Page XXX]Aug. 21 (249) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Arrival of Wang Ching-wei for meeting with Chiang Kai-shek; obscurity of situation in southwest China.
337
Aug. 22 (252) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Withdrawal of Wang’s resignation, indicating vindication of his foreign and domestic policies by Chiang Kai-shek; Chiang’s plan to return to Chengtu immediately, which is taken as indication that the Government crisis has passed.
338
Aug. 24 Memorandum by Mr. Raymond C. Mackay, of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs, of a Conversation With Mr. L. R. Holbrook
Information in regard to Mr. Holbrook’s new affiliation with the Chinese Government as a technical adviser to the Central Trust, recently created purchasing department of the Central Government and for the present dealing only with aviation.
339
Aug. 26 (437) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Inclination of Consul General at Harbin to accept, in an unofficial capacity, an invitation to a “Manchoukuo” naval review; informal inquiry from British Embassy concerning U. S. intentions.
340
Aug. 26 (389) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Advice from Chinese Ambassador that China felt compelled to accede to Japanese demands for “full economic cooperation.”
340
Aug. 27 (263) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions for the Legation and the Consulate General at Harbin to work out with the British a decision in regard to attendance at the “Manchoukuo” naval review.
340
Aug. 28 (442) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Clarification of some phases of the North China situation, and information in regard to results of recent conferences under Chiang Kai-shek’s direction.
341
Aug. 30 (449) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Exchange of telegrams with the Consul General at Harbin (texts printed) in regard to the “Manchoukuo” naval review and Consul General’s intention to attend informally.
343
Aug. 30 (447) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice of abolition of the Peiping Political Affairs Readjustment Committee, and of a move toward organization of new Hopei Economic Association. Press reports of Japanese demands for settlement for the Peiping–Mukden Railway holdup of August 15.
343
Sept. 3 (407) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Representations by the Japanese Ambassador to a Soviet official alleging malicious attacks by the recent Comintern Congress, in violation of the comity of nations, and Soviet position in the matter. Japanese delay in expediting settlement of fisheries dispute with the Soviet Union.
345
Sept. 4 (1744) To the Minister in China
Commendation for recent information submitted indicating the increasing Japanese interest in Shanghai, and instructions to continue sending analyses of developments and reporting the attitude of the British Embassy thereon.
346
[Page XXXI]Sept. 5 (457) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Unfavorable disposition of Japanese military toward the proposed Hopei Economic Association; other developments in North China, including advice of Chinese reply in respect to Peiping–Mukden train robbery.
347
Sept. 6 (463) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Japanese military’s acceptance of Sung Cheh-yuan, who is apparently becoming the dominant Chinese figure in Northern Hopei and Chahar.
348
Sept. 10 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Second Secretary of the French Embassy
Discussion of a French aide-mémoire in regard to the question of abolition of extraterritoriality in Manchuria.
349
Sept. 10 (520) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Paraphrase of interview given to New York Times correspondent by Japanese Military Attaché concerning necessity for early improvement of the entire political and military situation in North China.
350
Sept. 25 (10) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Press statement by Major General Tada, Tientsin garrison commander, characterizing Chiang Kai-shek, his capitalistic group and the National Government personnel as the common enemy of the Chinese people, and declaring the eradication of this evil as Japan’s mission.
351
Sept. 25 (9) From the Ambassador in China
Résumé of conversation with the Minister of War, who referred particularly to differences of opinion and lack of unity of action among various Japanese military units and individuals in China, as well as in the Government at Tokyo.
352
Sept. 26 (15) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Conversation with an emissary from the Finance Minister, who inquired as to the probable U. S. attitude in the event of decisions by China which might conceivably result in a Sino-Japanese alliance similar to the “Manchoukuo” set-up.
353
Sept. 26 (12) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Understanding that Japanese newspapers at Tientsin have been reprimanded for publishing General Tada’s statement, as being unrepresentative of the policy of the Army or of the Government.
355
Sept. 26 Memorandum by the Ambassador in China
Conversation with Sun Fo, President of the Legislative Yuan, concerning Japanese plans for establishing a separatist government in the North, and Nanking’s efforts to thwart the attempt.
355
Oct. 2 (20) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Evidence of agreement among the Japanese civil and military authorities on Japan’s China policy to a greater degree than heretofore, and indications of forthcoming important developments.
356
[Page XXXII]Oct. 3 (133) From the Consul General at Harbin to the Ambassador in China
Newspaper reports regarding relations between Manchuria and Outer Mongolia, and the vital interest of both Japan and Soviet Russia in extending their respective power and influence in Outer Mongolia; press statement from Tokyo setting forth the principles of Japan’s new China policy.
357
Oct. 3 Memorandum by the Ambassador in China of a Conversation With the Japanese Ambassador in China
Discussion of disturbed situation in North China, aggravated by General Tada’s statement.
360
Oct. 3 Memorandum by the Ambassador in China of a Conversation With the Japanese Ambassador in China
Japanese Ambassador’s opinion that China’s recognition of “Manchoukuo” would help settle many of the border questions; his denial of Japanese interest in a separatist government in North China.
360
Oct. 7 (579) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Departure of Chinese economic inquiry group for Japan to investigate economic and trade development in an effort toward a real Sino-Japanese economic rapprochement.
361
Oct. 8 (25) From the Ambassador in China
Information in regard to the rapid extension of Soviet influence in Sinkiang.
361
Oct. 12 (26) From the Consul General at Sydney
Analysis of Australian Government’s view of its present-day relations with Japan, its basic policy being to avoid giving Japan any excuse to adopt an anti-Australian policy, either political or commercial.
363
Oct. 13 (454) From the Chargé in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Soviet protest to Tokyo in regard to skirmishes instigated by Japanese Manchurian divisions which crossed the Soviet frontier and fired on Soviet border guards.
365
Oct. 17 (71) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Newspaper reports of important decisions at a Dairen conference concerning Japan’s new China policy; inference that the Japanese plan will depend upon Sino-Japanese economic cooperation for the extension of Japan’s influence in North China.
365
Oct. 18 (74) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
From Canton, October 16: Confidential information concerning strong possibility of a separatist move by the Southwest.
367
Oct. 19 (35) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Evaluation of the political situation and the main problems being dealt with by Chiang Kai-shek.
367
Oct. 19 (78) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Objections of Consul General at Harbin to “head tax on individuals”, since effort may be made to apply it to extraterritoriality nationals, and his suggestion of an arrangement whereby Americans would pay the tax as a “voluntary contribution.”
(Footnote: Department’s approval of suggestion.)
368
[Page XXXIII]Oct. 21 (79) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
From Harbin: Plan of “Manchoukuo” to dispatch an expedition to establish by force a “Manchoukuo” diplomatic representative at Urga in the event of continued refusal by Outer Mongolia to accept such an appointee.
369
Oct. 21 Memorandum by the Second Secretary of Embassy in China
Observations in regard to decreased prestige of the Japanese Army and efforts for control by various military cliques. Opinions of certain informants that the policy of the League of Nations and of Secretary of State Stimson with regard to the Manchurian situation had in no way restrained the Japanese military.
370
Oct. 22 (80) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Attitudes of Soviet Union and Japan regarding repeated frontier incidents involving the Japanese-”Manchoukuo” and Soviet border patrols.
373
Oct. 22 (249) From the Consul General at Harbin
German delay in recognition of “Manchoukuo” until China’s recognition is accorded; “Manchoukuo’s” request for visit of German economic mission despite nonrecognition.
374
Oct. 23 (8936) From the Consul General at Shanghai to the Ambassador in China
Protests by Japanese Consul General, with request for apology, concerning articles published in the China Weekly Review, of which Mr. John B. Powell is American editor and publisher.
375
Oct. 24 From the Ambassador in China
Conversations with the U. S. Secretary of War, on a visit to China, and the Chinese Minister of Finance, during which the latter expressed belief that Japan plans to move along from its advance in North China to an eventual domination of the world.
375
Oct. 24 Memorandum by the Ambassador in China of a Conversation With the British Ambassador in China
Discussion with reference to Japanese plans in China, with emphasis on economic relations, and Japanese disregard of the Nine Power Treaty and the four-power understanding.
376
Oct. 25 (37) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Circulation of Reuters news release (text printed) purporting to give the latest version of specific Japanese demands on China.
378
Oct. 25 (623) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
From the Ambassador: Refutation of recent press reports of new Japanese demands; recent agreement by Japanese Army, Navy, and Foreign Ministries upon a unified China policy advocating an autonomous North China regime not detrimental to “Manchoukuo” interests.
379
Oct. 25 (459) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Conversation with the Vice Commissar in charge of Far Eastern relations, who believes that a Sino-Japanese conflict will result from Japanese demands which Chiang will be unable to accept; views of the Chinese Ambassador, who considers the situation less critical.
380
[Page XXXIV]Oct. 25 (38) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Criticism by a Chinese Foreign Office official of Japanese Army’s practice of presenting demands to individual high Chinese officials instead of having political matters of mutual interest handled exclusively by the Foreign Offices of the two Governments.
381
Oct. 25 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Chinese allegations in regard to uprisings of farmers in certain areas and Japanese military protests.
382
Oct. 26 (982) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union
Refutation of rumor from Tokyo concerning the establishment of a soviet government in Sinkiang.
383
Oct. 27 (463) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Confidential information from the Chinese Ambassador of urgent pressure by Japan on China for support in an attack on the Soviet Union.
383
Oct. 28 (98) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Peasant disorders in the district of Hsiangho on the border of the demilitarized zone.
384
Oct. 28 (167) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Ambassador in China
Observations concerning Japan’s fundamental continental policy as expressed in an article in Manmo Hyoron, a Japanese language weekly.
385
Oct. 29 (39) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Advice of continuation of Chinese conciliation policy toward Japan in reference to all questions exclusive of Manchuria and not involving cession of territory.
389
Oct. 30 (105) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Japanese warning to Chinese authorities in the Peiping–Tientsin area concerning nonfulfillment of promises to eliminate all anti-Japanese and anti-”Manchoukuo” organizations.
390
Oct. 30 (615) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Return of Chinese economic inquiry group and probability of a Sino-Japanese trade association similar to the Chinese-American Trade Council.
390
Oct. 30 (40) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Reports of continuing Japanese pressure in a “three-point program” to secure genuine Chinese effort toward improving relations, toward cooperation in the economic development of North China, and in opposition to the Communists.
391
Oct. 31 (108) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information regarding the new concerted action policy being practiced by Japanese military and civil officials in North China, with analysis of trends in Chinese policy formulation.
392

Chapter V: November 1–December 31, 1935

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Nov. 1 (43) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information from a Chinese official concerning the formulation of a united Japanese program for China.
393
[Page XXXV]Nov. 1 (45) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Advice of an attempt to assassinate Chiang Kai-shek and other Chinese leaders at the Central Party Headquarters.
394
Nov. 1 (15) To the Second Secretary of Embassy in China, at Nanking (tel.)
Instructions to convey to the Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs a message of sympathy (text printed) relative to the attempts upon the lives of certain Chinese Government officials.
395
Nov. 2 (113) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Report of the arrest of several suspects, former Kuomintang members, in accordance with Japanese demand that action be taken against secret anti-Japanese organization; trend toward Tientsin’s becoming “another Mukden.”
396
Nov. 2 (472) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Litvinov’s opinion that the Japanese intend to make every effort to dominate North and Central China, and that China must fight soon or lose her independence.
397
Nov. [3] (114) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Reported reply to Japanese démarche, referred to in telegram No. 105 of October 30, assuring satisfactory adjustment of the complaint.
397
Nov. 4 (116) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Further indications of Chinese conformance with the recent Japanese démarche.
398
Nov. 5 (55) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information from Suma of the Japanese Embassy regarding the problems of Japanese diplomacy in effecting the China policy.
398
Nov. 6 (121) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Confirmation by the Japanese Assistant Military Attaché of arrests of Chinese allegedly connected with the Blue Shirt Society.
399
Nov. 6 From the Ambassador in China
Summary of conversation with Chinese officials and intellectuals with regard to the “probability” of active military measures against the Japanese in the near future.
400
Nov. 7 (122) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Advice of appointment of two close followers of Sung Cheh-yuan to important posts.
402
Nov. 9 (126) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information regarding the existence of a list of Chinese suspects in North China, and report of many arrests both by Chinese and Japanese and the departure from North China of a considerable number of suspects.
402
Nov. 9 (70) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Japanese difficulty in attempting to create a single regime to include all five northern Chinese provinces, and growing apprehension over the probable refusal of the Chinese to accede to further Japanese demands.
403
[Page XXXVI]Nov. 9 (38) From the Ambassador in China
Comments by Dr. Chiang Monlin, Chancellor of the National Peking University, in regard to Chinese preparations for military resistance; his intention to return to Peiping despite warning of his inclusion on the list of suspects.
403
Nov. 11 (72) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Outline of three desiderata in Japan’s policy toward China; Japanese intention, in the event of China’s nonconcession, to foster harassing autonomous movements rather than to take drastic action.
404
Nov. 12 (133) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information regarding current conduct of Sino-Japanese relations.
406
Nov. 12 (30) To the Ambassador in China
Concurrence in opinion that further effort toward revision of part II, paragraph 4, of the Shanghai Defense Scheme would serve no useful purpose.
406
Nov. 12 (72) From the Ambassador in China
Observations concerning realization by Chinese groups of the necessity for adopting a common policy against foreign aggression, and their recognition of the inherent weakness of the policy of “conciliation”.
407
Nov. 13 (74) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Opening of Fifth Kuomintang Congress; prevalent theory among some Chinese that recrudescence of Japanese activity in North China is partially the result of Japanese displeasure at apparent progress in the unification of various Chinese political factions with the National Government.
411
Nov. 13 (137) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Press interview given by retired Japanese General Matsui, indicating his opinions as to the probable administration and functioning of “The new Northern autonomous government,” and his belief that Japan should take any necessary action to liberate the Chinese people from oppression.
412
Nov. 13 (209) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information from the Foreign Office concerning its attitude in regard to recent anti-Japanese incidents in Shanghai.
413
Nov. 14 (75) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Oral representations by the Japanese Embassy requesting the Foreign Office to take measures looking toward the cessation of anti-Japanese activities and the suppression of anti-Japanese organizations.
414
Nov. 14 (674) From the Consul General at Shangahi (tel.)
Tense conditions in Shanghai, with numerous anti-Japanese incidents; considerable exodus from Chapei to the International Settlement.
415
Nov. 15 (77) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Conversation with Suma of the Japanese Embassy, who stated that Sino-Japanese diplomatic discussions were at a standstill, and that indications pointed to a stiffening of the Chinese attitude toward Japan.
416
[Page XXXVII]Nov. 15 (80) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Information from the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs regarding the present critical stage of Sino-Japanese relations; Japanese mistrust of China’s monetary measures and suspicion of a military understanding with the Soviet Union.
417
Nov. 15 (677) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Continuing exodus of Chinese from Chapei; many alarming rumors, with Chinese statements of reassurance and Japanese requests for calmness; opinion that Japanese have no intentions of military activity in the Yangtze Valley.
418
Nov. 15 (181) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Ambassador in China
Conversation with the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs concerning the matter of import duties on official supplies for the Consulates General at Harbin and Mukden.
419
Nov. 16 (151) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Arrival of some 3,000 Japanese troops at Shanhaikwan; unconfirmed report of Japanese order for 10 trains in “Manchoukuo” to move troops westward.
420
Nov. 16 (83) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Suma’s observations in regard to division in Chinese attitude toward Japan as evidenced in the Fifth Kuomintang Congress, and information concerning concentration areas of Chinese troops.
420
Nov. 18 (154) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
From Mukden, November 17: Information regarding recent night movements of troop trains to Shanhaikwan, also preparations to take over Shanhaikwan–Peiping Railway if necessary; Japanese troops held in readiness for emergencies.
421
Nov. 18 (85) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Synopsis of a Reuters news despatch indicating Chinese anxiety over the threatened Japanese invasion, with the dilemma of either consenting to political detachment of North China or seeing military occupation of Chinese territory.
421
Nov. 18 (157) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Observations with respect to progress in Japanese plans for a new regime in North China.
422
Nov. 19 (89) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Reuters news despatch to the effect that the five Northern provinces are to declare autonomy on November 20; Suma’s prediction that the declaration will not be made so soon, and that disorders will increase.
423
Nov. 19 (90) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Confidential information from a Foreign Office official regarding expected early crystallization of the North China situation.
423
Nov. 19 (177) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to report fully all important developments affecting relations between China and Japan, including Embassy’s comments and analysis.
424
[Page XXXVIII]Nov. 19 (161) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Press information regarding Doihara’s insistence upon an autonomous government in North China, with threats of force in the event of military action by the National Government against the new regime. Reported decision by Northern leaders to create a new organization to be called the Anti-Communist Autonomous Commission of North China.
424
Nov. 20 (91) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Summary of Chiang Kai-shek’s address before the Fifth Kuomintang Congress, revealing Chiang’s official attitude toward the North China crisis and Sino-Japanese relations in general.
426
Nov. 20 (212) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information pertaining to Japanese troop movements toward North China; vernacular newspaper reports concerning Japanese policy in regard to the autonomy movement.
427
Nov. 20 (163) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Postponement of the formation of the new regime in North China; interpretation by one Chinese official of Chiang Kai-shek’s speech before the Kuomintang as indicative of China’s specific intentions.
428
Nov. 20 (178) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Request for text of a reported Foreign Office statement denying Japanese responsibility for the autonomy movement in North China, and instructions to cable any further Japanese official statements pertaining to the North China situation.
428
Nov. 20 (94) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information in regard to the War Minister’s signature of an agreement for the demilitarization of Hopei and other parts of North China, Japanese assurances of no military action in China except for defense purposes, and expectation of an autonomous regime soon.
429
Nov. 20 Memorandum by the Ambassador in China
Conversation with the British Ambassador and Leith-Ross, British economic representative, analyzing Sino-Japanese political situation.
429
Nov. 21 (96) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Conference between Ariyoshi, the Japanese Ambassador, and Chiang Kai-shek, which seemingly has averted a crisis for the time being.
431
Nov. 21 (213) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
No confirmation of reported Foreign Office statement referred to in the Department’s No. 178 of November 20.
432
Nov. 21 (97) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Foreign Office version of Ariyoshi-Chiang conference, and confirmation of earlier information concerning the Chinese Government’s willingness to discuss Foreign Minister Hirota’s three-point program.
432
Nov. 21 (166) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Uncertainty concerning the next measures to be taken by the Japanese military in regard to the intended North China regime.
433
[Page XXXIX]Nov. 22 (351) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Request for verification of a London press report that Great Britain had exerted diplomatic pressure in both China and Japan to check the move for an autonomous North China.
434
Nov. 22 (179) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Request for telegraphic report and analysis of reliable information in regard to the North China situation, and an estimate of probable future developments.
434
Nov. 22 (501) From the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Litvinov’s belief that negotiations between “Manchoukuo” and the “Mongolian Republic” will be broken off, and that Japan, although provoking frontier incidents, will make no serious move against the “Republic” for a long time.
435
Nov. 23 (172) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Opinion in regard to four possible courses open to Chiang Kai-shek; rumors of a military agreement between Chinese and Japanese authorities.
435
Nov. 23 (214) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Efforts to obtain and evaluate data as requested in Department’s No. 179 of November 22.
436
Nov. 25 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Account of activity in the native city in connection with the autonomy movement, and report of armored cars in front of the heavily guarded Peace Preservation Corps.
437
Nov. 25 (175) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Announcement by officials of the demilitarized zone of the establishment of the Eastern Hopei Communist Prevention Autonomous Council, denunciation of the Kuomintang, and the separation of the demilitarized zone from the Central Government.
438
Nov. 25 (176) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Inauguration of new regime at Tungchow.
439
Nov. 25 (216) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Résumé by the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs of recent Sino-Japanese relations, with apparently frank indication that although Japanese demands remain unchanged, the general attitude is not so uncompromising as previously seemed to be the case.
440
Nov. 26 (108) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Japanese attempt to secure definite Chinese commitment on North China, where the autonomy movement temporarily collapsed November 20; plausible explanation by a Chinese official of Japanese about-face.
442
Nov. 26 (109) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information that the Chinese Government will take no overt action against the “autonomous Government” in East Hopei, but will resist by arms any interference south of Hopei; that Suma has asked Chinese Foreign Office for “concrete proposals” to carry out Hirota’s three-point program.
443
[Page XL]Nov. 26 (111) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Foreign Office report of certain steps taken which appear to be a form of compliance with Japanese suggestions to Chiang affecting Peiping, Chahar, and Hopei.
444
Nov. 26 (177) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Observations in regard to attempted autonomy movement in Tientsin.
444
Nov. 26 Memorandum by the First Secretary of the American Embassy in Japan of a Conversation With the First Secretary of the Soviet Embassy
Soviet attitude toward Japanese attempt to establish an autonomous state in North China, and toward Outer Mongolia, which in unfriendly hands would endanger the Trans-Siberian Railway.
445
Nov. 27 (179) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information concerning Japanese troop movements.
446
Nov. 27 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Further report of Japanese troop concentrations.
447
Nov. 27 (219) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Attitude in Japan in regard to the autonomous state in the demilitarized zone in North China; Foreign Office views concerning forthcoming visit of C. T. Wang, former Chinese Minister for Foreign Affairs.
447
Nov. 27 (595) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Foreign Office instructions to the British Chargé in Japan to point out to the Foreign Minister the British Government’s concern over disturbing reports of Japanese activities aimed at administrative separation of North China, and desire for assurances that the Nine Power Treaty principles are being observed.
448
Nov. 27 (113) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Summary of Suma’s comments in regard to the Chinese Government’s “unilateral” measures in the Sino-Japanese situation and the certainty of serious trouble if the autonomy movements are suppressed.
449
Nov. 27 (182) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Arrival of Japanese troops at various railway stations between Tientsin and Shanhaikwan; evaluation of Peiping situation in view of Japanese demonstrations of force.
450
Nov. 27 (183) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
From Harbin: Confirmation by Japanese Consulate General of press statements reporting the failure of the Manchuli Conference, and Hsinking Foreign Office opinion that Outer Mongolia is responsible for the failure.
451
Nov. 28 (223) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information from Army authorities that no additional Japanese troops have been sent to North China, and that troop movements there are garrison units moving in connection with annual inspection.
451
[Page XLI]Nov. 28 (185) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Opinion that purposes of Japanese troop movements have been to prevent rumored removal southward of railway rolling stock and to frighten Chinese leaders into agreement with Japanese wishes.
452
Nov. 28 (114) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Confidential information that the Chinese Ambassador at Washington will probably be instructed to call on the Secretary of State in connection with the North China situation. Foreign Office views concerning Japanese troop movements.
453
Nov. 29 (185) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Request for comments concerning reported British Foreign Office instructions to the British Chargé in Tokyo.
(The same to the Ambassador in China.)
454
Nov. 29 (186) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Belief that major part of troops arriving in North China during the last few days belong to the Kwantung Army.
454
Nov. 29 (116) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Vice Minister’s comments clarifying newspaper reports regarding recent occurrences in North China; no expectation of early adjustment of Sino-Japanese controversies.
455
Nov. 30 (118) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Note from Foreign Office (text printed) regarding the National Government’s order for the dismissal and arrest of Yin Yu-keng, instigator of attempted revolt against the National Government.
455
Nov. 30 (119) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information that the Foreign Office has lodged with the Japanese Embassy a written protest against Japanese instigation of the so-called autonomy movement in North China.
456
Nov. 30 (64) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Conversation with the Chinese Ambassador in regard to the North China situation.
456
Nov. 30 (188) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Reports of decision by the Chahar clique to declare autonomy in the North, brought about apparently by the Kwantung Army’s show of force rather than by any growing sentiment toward that end.
457
Nov. 30 (189) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Arrival at Shanhaikwan of 10 trainloads of Japanese troops from the North.
457
Nov. 30 (120) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information from Hsu Mo, Political Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs, regarding Chinese determination to suppress an autonomous state if declared and to oppose with armed force Japanese troops if injected into North China.
458
Dec. 1 (121) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Departure of Chinese officials for Peiping to deal with Sino-Japanese relations.
458
[Page XLII]Dec. 1 (49) From the Ambassador in China
Summary of remarks made by Hsu Mo to the Embassy’s guest, Mr. William Allen White, denouncing Japanese activities in China.
459
Dec. 2 (225) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Japanese opinion that presence of Leith-Ross in China concerns political intrigues and not government finance; Embassy’s belief that the Japanese are offering inducements to keep the North China autonomists in line.
459
Dec. 2 (191) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Opinion that it would be valueless to bring up the matter of principles of the Nine Power Treaty with the Japanese Foreign Office. Opinions regarding Japanese activities and the autonomy movement.
460
Dec. 2 (192) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Information concerning Japanese troop assignments; also Japanese military request that Peiping Railway officials cease telegraphic communications to the National Government on political and technical phases of the North China situation.
462
Dec. 2 (226) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Conversation between Military Attaché and a War Office liaison officer concerning Japanese troop movements; Military Attaché’s impression that some sort of agreement has been reached between the Japanese and the Nanking Government in regard to the North China autonomy movement.
462
Dec. 2 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Considerations in connection with the question of a possible diplomatic approach to Japan in regard to the North China matter; conclusion that United States should make a statement to the British expressing sympathy with their efforts in respect to the Nine Power Pact, and that the Secretary should make a prepared statement to the press for publication.
463
Dec. 3 (125) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Confidential report of certain officials’ determination that Chiang must either fight the Japanese or retire from the Government.
467
Dec. 3 (193) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Advice of propaganda pamphlets being distributed from planes over Peiping, apparently by the new regime in demilitarized zone; of negotiations for a compromise proposal for the administration of the five Northern provinces; and of expectation of immediate Japanese action in Tientsin.
468
Dec. 4 (126) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Advice regarding plans under way for establishing a special new administration for Hopei, headed by Ho Ying-chin.
468
Dec. 4 (228) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Opinion that any protest to Japan regarding Nine Power Treaty violations would have to be backed by irrefutable proof. Belief that Japan will fight if necessary to carry out her aims in North China.
469
[Page XLIII]Dec. 4 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Radiotelephone Conversation With the American Delegation Aboard the S. S. “Aquitania”
Delegation’s view that a U. S. inquiry to Tokyo similar to that of the British Government would be helpful to the Delegation at the Naval Conference; Department’s plan to take other action.
470
Dec. 5 (202) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Advice concerning Japanese dissatisfaction with Ho Yingchin’s arrival and the National Government’s efforts to solve the North China situation.
471
Dec. 5 (128) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Account of conversation with the Acting President of the Executive Yuan, who spoke of anticipated further Japanese encroachments, and of Japan’s extensive ambitions in the Far East.
472
Dec. 5 (191) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Statement issued by the Secretary for publication December 6 (text printed) on the U. S. attitude toward the autonomy movement in North China.
473
Dec. 5 (380) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Instructions to inform the Foreign Office of the Secretary’s press statement for publication December 6, and of U. S. close observation of developments in North China and hope for continued free and frank exchange of views with the British. Instructions to inform American delegation to the Naval Conference of this telegram.
474
Dec. 6 (203) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Advice of seeming inevitability of autonomy in Hopei and Chahar, activity of planes over Peiping, and civilian demonstration in front of Ho’s residence in favor of autonomy.
474
Dec. 6 (118) From the Ambassador in China
Advice that Dr. Chiang Mon-lin, Chancellor of the National University of Peking, was summoned to headquarters of Japanese Gendarmerie and questioned in a locked room concerning his alleged anti-Japanese views.
475
Dec. 7 (129) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Unofficial reports as to appointments of new government officials.
477
Dec. 7 (233) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
General restraint of Japanese newspapers in regard to the Secretary’s press statement concerning Sino-Japanese relations in North China.
477
Dec. 7 (130) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Account of conversation with Foreign Office officials in respect to the Secretary’s press statement.
478
Dec. 8 (209) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Expectation of the establishment at Hopei and Chahar of semi-autonomous government with the National Government’s acquiescence.
479
[Page XLIV]Dec. 9 (131) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Opinion of Kung, Acting President of the Executive Yuan, that continued U. S. and British interest in treaty observance will tend to restrain activities of the Japanese military with regard to North China.
480
Dec. 9 (211) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Student demonstrations against the autonomy movement. Kwantung Army’s disapproval of the proposed Council for Hopei and Chahar, reputedly favored by Japanese authorities and the Chinese National Government.
480
Dec. 9 (1582) From the Chargé in Japan
Reported close relations between German and Japanese General Staffs; Soviet Embassy’s opinion that both Germany and Poland collaborate with the Japanese General Staff.
481
Dec. 10 (213) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Difficulties attendant upon premature establishment of the proposed Council. Japanese branding of student demonstration as Communist. Report of fighting in Eastern Chahar between “Manchoukuo” forces and Chinese Peace Preservation Corps.
482
[Dec. 11] (218) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Comments in regard to the lull in activities bearing on the present political situation.
483
Dec. 12 (239) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information from the Japanese War Office of satisfaction with progress made in Hopei and Chahar, no present intention to increase combat forces of the North China garrison, and of orders to Japanese Army to arrest the Japanese “China Ronin” who have been making trouble in North China.
483
Dec. 12 (136) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
List of Cabinet Ministers named by the Central Executive Committee.
484
Dec. 12 (137) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Mandate issued by National Government giving names of members of the Hopei–Chahar Political Affairs Commission.
484
Dec. 12 (138) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Confidential information from a Foreign Office official that he does not consider the new arrangement in the North as a diplomatic victory for China, nor does he anticipate that it will be successful; that he believes the Chinese should have waited for Japan to try force, as it will in the end.
485
Dec. 12 (139) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
List of additional appointees to new Hopei–Chahar Commission.
486
Dec. 13 (140) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information on background of the establishment of the new arrangement for the special administration in Hopei and Chahar, with an indication of the extent of control by the National Government,
486
[Page XLV]Dec. 13 (141) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information regarding the various “Cabinet” changes and appointments indicating a decline in Kuomintang power.
487
Dec. 13 (223) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Brief survey of situation in North China under the new Council, whose functions have not yet been made public; belief that the area in Chahar north of the Great Wall will be controlled by the Japanese military through manipulation of the Mongols.
488
Dec. 14 (520) From the Chargé in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Conversation between the Chinese Ambassador and Litvinov on the attitude of the Soviet Government toward any threat to Far Eastern peace; Litvinov’s opinion that Japan will take no immediate armed action against Mongolia. Information that a large Mongolian delegation has arrived in Moscow for conferences.
489
Dec. 14 (227) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Reports of withdrawal of Japanese troops northward; observation that this may indicate Japanese satisfaction with the North China situation.
490
Dec. 18 (233) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Report of Japanese military demands in regard to recent student demonstrations; inauguration of Hopei–Chahar Political Council; expectation that Japanese will extend the demilitarized zone to include Tientsin.
491
Dec. 18 (1600) From the Ambassador in Japan
Information from the British Ambassador that the Japanese are apparently willing to conclude nonaggression pacts with Great Britain and the United States, but that the Japanese military regard war with the Soviet Union as inevitable.
492
Dec. 20 (532) From the Chargé in the Soviet Union (tel.)
Report of serious Mongol-Japanese incident in Outer Mongolia following Soviet warning that provocations were about to take place; reason for attempt of Soviet officials to minimize the border difficulties.
492
Dec. 20 (236) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Information concerning Japanese agreement to let the new Political Council function for 3 months on trial.
493
Dec. 21 (240) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Nanking, December 20: Japanese Ambassador’s conversation with Chiang Kai-shek; Japanese disappointment over Chinese toleration of student agitation in North China.
493
Dec. 23 (243) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Observations concerning the handling of Sino-Japanese matters under the 3-month trial of the new Council.
494
Dec. 24 (788) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Efforts of Chinese authorities to control demonstration by students at North Station demanding transportation to Nanking to interview Government leaders; student efforts to distribute pamphlets, and plan to seize South Station.
495
[Page XLVI]Dec. 24 (789) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information from reliable source that the Japanese naval landing force take a serious view of the Shanghai developments and will act independently, if necessary, to control the situation.
495
Dec. 24 (790) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Continuing efforts by Chinese authorities and university representatives to disperse the students.
496
Dec. 24 (792) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Report that efforts to disperse students by peaceful means have been exhausted; that some 2,000 were permitted to board train ostensibly for Nanking. Japanese conviction that anti-Chiang elements in the Nationalist Party are the instigators of these disturbances.
497
Dec. 25 (793) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Easing of the difficulties stemming from student demonstrations.
497
Dec. 26 (246) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, December 25: Assassination of Tang Yujen, former Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs; Japanese view that event demonstrates inability of Chinese authorities to prevent outrages by elements inimical to Sino-Japanese cooperation.
498
Dec. 26 (154) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information concerning efforts to control movements of demonstrating students.
498
Dec. 27 (247) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Hopei–Chahar Political Council’s appointment of Chen Chueh-cheng as acting managing director of the Peiping–Mukden Railway without prior approval of the National Government.
499
Dec. 27 (157) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Report that the Shanghai students at Wusih have entrained for Shanghai.
500
Dec. 27 (1607) From the Ambassador in Japan
Memorandum of a conversation between a member of the Embassy staff and Mr. Kurusu, of the Japanese Foreign Office (text printed), concerning the aims of the Japanese people.
500
Dec. 31 (160) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Statement from the Foreign Office in regard to a preliminary Sino-Japanese exchange of opinions looking toward a fundamental readjustment of relations.
502
1936 Jan. 3 (147) From the Ambassador in China
Review of political, military, and economic developments in China during the past 6 months.
502
[Page XLVII]

CHINA

Raising of the American Legation in China to the Status of Embassy and Abolition of the Consulate General at Nanking

Date and number Subject Page
1935 May 9 (101) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice of Japanese intention to raise its mission in China to status of an embassy, with reasons therefor, and indication that Japan would be pleased should the United States decide to take a similar step.
508
May 9 Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Views in regard to raising the diplomatic mission in China to the rank of embassy.
509
May 11 (100) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Confidential report from the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs that Chinese Legation in Japan and Japanese Legation in China will be raised to status of embassies very soon.
511
May 14 (80) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to inform Foreign Office that United States is exchanging views with other countries relative to raising the missions in China to embassies, and to express appreciation for advance notice affording opportunity for simultaneous action.
511
May 14 From the British Embassy
British intention to raise status of Legation in China.
512
May 15 (106) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice from Foreign Minister that official announcement of change in status of Japanese mission will be withheld to give the United States the opportunity for simultaneous announcement.
512
May 15 (36) To the Consul at Nanking (tel.)
For the Minister: Instructions to inform the Foreign Minister that the President has approved raising the American Legation in China to an Embassy, and that the U. S. Government would be pleased to have the Chinese Legation in Washington similarly raised.
513
May 16 To the British Embassy
Advice of President’s approval of raising the American Legation in China to the status of an Embassy.
514
May 22 (115) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for information regarding Department’s intended procedure in bringing about the change in status.
514
May 22 From the Minister in China
Views as to probable motives of the Japanese in elevating their Legation in China to an Embassy.
514
May 28 (221) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Plans for the British Minister to present credentials as Ambassador.
516
May 29 (145) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to investigate and submit recommendations in regard to the practicability of establishing a Shanghai–Nanking arrangement similar to the Peiping–Tientsin arrangement for taking care of consular functions.
516
[Page XLVIII]May 31 (1329) From the Ambassador in Japan
Observations in regard to Japanese publication of decision to raise status of its Legation in China without waiting for other interested governments to make simultaneous announcement. Japanese press comment on the raising of status of the mission in China.
517
June 6 (151) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Notification of appointment as Ambassador, and instructions to request agrément from the Chinese Government.
520
June 9 (145) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Chinese acceptance of ambassadorial appointee.
520
June 13 (267) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information as requested in Department’s No. 145 of May 29, indicating practicability of the proposed Shanghai–Nanking arrangement.
521
June 19 (178) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Agreement of the American Government with the proposed promotion of Minister Sze to be Ambassador to the United States.
522
June 21 (181) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Senate confirmation of appointment as Ambassador; details in regard to new status.
522
June 26 (317) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information concerning date for presenting letters of credence.
523
July 3 (198) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to inform British Legation informally in regard to the new arrangement to be put into effect at Nanking for facilitating work of mission.
(Footnote: Closing of Consulate General at Nanking, September 17, the date on which Legation became an Embassy.)
523
July 16 To the Counselor of Embassy in the United Kingdom
Transmission of summary of Department’s record of developments which resulted in announcements that three legations in China were to be raised to embassies; views as to the desirability and methods of cooperation between the U. S. and British Governments.
524
Aug. 20 (254) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice that the Chinese Ambassador is to present his letters of credence to the President on August 21.
526
[Page XLIX]

Problem of China’s Economic Reconstruction and the Attitude of the United States and Other Governments Respecting Financial Assistance to China

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Jan. 5 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Information from the Chinese Minister that T. V. Soong is to represent China in conversations regarding silver; also that the Minister has discussed with the Secretary of the Treasury the possibility of United States purchasing from China 10 million ounces of silver promised to the Cuban Government.
(Footnote: Canceling of Soong’s proposed trip.)
526
Jan. 8 (5) To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information that the American Chinese Trade Council, New York, proposes to send to China an unofficial American economic mission to study the possibility of increasing Sino-American trade.
527
Jan. 10 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Chinese Minister reiterating U. S. willingness to consider any plan offered by the Chinese Government relative to the silver problem.
527
Jan. 17 (13) To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Advice that the National Foreign Trade Council will sponsor an economic mission to China, Japan, and the Philippines to discuss mutual problems affecting trade; instructions to refer any inquiries to the Council.
527
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 21] From the Chinese Minister of Finance to the Chinese Legation
Proposal that United States limit the silver purchase price pending further negotiation and adopt measures to avoid purchasing silver illegally exported from China, and indication of readiness to transmit an outline for U. S. consideration.
528
Jan. 26 To the Chinese Legation
Indication that the Silver Purchase Act is mandatory; willingness to give the outline careful consideration upon its receipt.
529
Jan. 26 To the Chinese Legation
Statement that the U. S. Government has received no data specifically indicating the character and extent of adverse effects reputedly caused in China by the U. S. silver purchasing program.
529
Jan. 30 Memorandum by the Chinese Minister of Finance
Summary of previously submitted data together with a further statement of the disturbing effects of the American silver program upon the Chinese economic and financial situation.
530
Jan. 31 From Mr. T. V. Soong, of the Chinese National Economic Council, to the American Ambassador in the Soviet Union, Temporarily in Washington
Expression of hope for U. S. favorable consideration of a forthcoming Chinese proposal for an American loan which will avert a disastrous currency collapse.
532
Feb. 5 From the Chinese Minister
Submission of plan, including a proposed U. S. loan, looking toward the solution of the Chinese silver difficulty and encouraging trade development.
533
[Page L]Feb. 5 From the Chinese Minister
Observation that an exclusive silver purchasing arrangement with China would discourage smuggling and facilitate the Government’s obtaining desired quantities from the Chinese public.
535
Feb. 14 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with Treasury officials during which Secretary Morgenthau indicated his disapproval of the Department’s proposed reply to the Chinese Minister’s notes of February 5.
535
Feb. 18 (70) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information on the formation of a Monetary Advisory Committee, appointed to develop China’s economic strength and to handle the present difficult situation.
537
Feb. 19 Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Opinion that inclusion in the personnel of the American Economic Mission to China of any officers of the Government would be unfortunate, since it would be interpreted as a political factor.
538
Feb. 19 Draft Note to the Chinese Minister
Draft reply to notes of February 5, rejecting suggested silver plan, but offering to cooperate with other governments, should China desire, in exploring possibilities of collective assistance in Chinese currency reforms.
539
Feb. 20 To President Roosevelt
Transmittal of the draft note to the Chinese Minister, together with memorandums concerning Chinese currency reform.
540
Feb. 21 From President Roosevelt
Opinion that final sentence in draft note to the Chinese Minister should be revised.
540
Feb. 22 Memorandum by the Second Secretary of Legation in China
Conversation between the American Minister and the Political Affairs Director of the Executive Yuan, concerning the coming visit of an American economic mission to China, the American silver policy, and the possibility of U. S. payment in gold for the purchase of Chinese silver.
541
Feb. 25 From the British Embassy
Reasons for belief that foreign loans or credits for China would offer no real or lasting remedy.
542
Feb. 26 To the Chinese Minister
Reply to notes of February 5, indicating U. S. position that the suggested plan for a loan and credit to China would not be practicable.
542
Feb. 27 (41) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Conversation with Finance Minister, who described increasing gravity of the monetary situation in Shanghai, and requested U. S. consideration of certain specified points.
543
[Page LI]Mar. 1 (84) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Confidential views of the British Foreign Office Counselor relative to relieving the Far Eastern tension by an international loan to China.
544
Mar. 1 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Discussion with the British Ambassador regarding the extension of financial assistance to China.
545
Mar. 2 (63) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Reference to press reports of international diplomatic conversations on the possibility of cooperative financial assistance to China, and instructions to avoid discussion of the subject, stating to inquirers that the matter is being handled between the various Foreign Offices concerned.
547
Mar. 2 To President Roosevelt
Summary of week’s developments in regard to relations with China, and opinion that British initiative in the matter of financial assistance should be encouraged.
547
Mar. 4 (44) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Information indicating slight prospects of success in efforts by Chinese to obtain a large foreign loan from non-Japanese sources.
551
Mar. 4 (106) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Comments summarizing the acute financial situation in Shanghai; belief that Treasury authorization for Chase National Bank to leave silver in Shanghai temporarily until crisis has passed would be evidence of U. S. desire to assist.
551
Mar. 4 (47) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with the British Ambassador concerning international financial assistance to China.
554
Mar. 4 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Comments made in response to the Chinese Minister’s inquiry concerning the Department’s reply to the British communication with respect to financial assistance to China.
555
[Mar. 4] Oral Statement by the Under Secretary of State to the Japanese Ambassador
Views as expressed to the British and Chinese Governments, in response to inquiries, that financial assistance to China might best be extended by cooperative action of powers most interested and concerned.
556
Mar. 5 (1260) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom
Conversations with (1) a Foreign Office official, who states that the Office will not proceed further until the Chinese make proposals, and (2) the Chinese Minister, who said that the initiative must come from London or Washington.
556
Mar. 6 (94) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Observations regarding British Government’s preliminary démarche.
557
[Page LII]Mar. 8 (71) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Release to the press of the Under Secretary’s reply (text printed) to inquiries in regard to the recent discussions of Far Eastern affairs with the British Ambassador.
558
Mar. 18 (80) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice of Treasury Department’s views on Chinese suggestions reported in Minister’s No. 41 of February 27, with instructions to express Government’s regret that it cannot accede to them.
558
Mar. 19 (1204) From the Ambassador in Japan
Official and unofficial Japanese views concerning joint international financial aid to China; opinion that indications point to a Japanese return to the principle of befriending instead of coercing China.
560
Mar. 21 (53) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Aide-mémoire from the Foreign Office (text printed) indicating readiness of the National Government to participate in discussions with the U. S., British, Japanese, and French Governments in regard to China’s economic and financial difficulties.
563
Mar. 26 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Chinese Minister
Discussions indicating few new developments in connection with international assistance to China.
564
Mar. 27 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who doubted whether Foreign Minister Hirota favored the British plan for a joint loan or credit to China.
564
Mar. 28 (58) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Reported statement of British Minister that Sino-Japanese friendly understanding is essential condition of a loan; apparent lessening of Chinese interest in loan, perhaps due to reports that Japan will not participate.
565
Apr. 3 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Communication from Japanese Ambassador corroborating earlier oral statement that Japan had made no inquiry of the British relating to the financial situation in China.
566
Apr. 3 (155) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Reshuffling of the directing personnel in leading Chinese banks, placing the Government in a position to control banking and possibly currency and silver.
566
Apr. 3 (99) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Receipt of information that the British contemplate assigning a central bank economic technician to be attached to the British Legation in China; U. S. consideration of a similar assignment.
567
Apr. 4 (78) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Inquiries regarding the British appointment of an economic technician to China.
568
[Page LIII]Apr. 5 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Statement by the manager of the Mitsubishi Bank urging reliance on self-help, and attributing China’s financial difficulties to the U. S. silver purchase policy.
568
Apr. 5 (140) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion that the proposed British appointment of an economic technician to China is intended to intensify international interest in China’s financial situation, thereby preventing independent action by Japan in China.
569
Apr. 12 (1365) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom
Conversation with Sir Warren Fisher, Secretary of the British Treasury, regarding the British proposal for joint consultation between the United States, England, China, and Japan, which might lead gradually from technical discussions on Chinese finance to cooperation in larger fields.
570
Apr. 13 (149) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Conversation with the British Minister concerning the British Government’s proposed appointment of a financial expert.
571
Apr. 16 (71) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Information from Ministry of Finance that the recent lowering of the silver seigniorage rate in the United States had rendered the financial situation hopeless; Japanese dissatisfaction with the handling of the question of a foreign loan to China, and departure of British Minister without a Chinese formula for international financial assistance.
572
Apr. 17 (74) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Feeling of Finance Ministry official that British interest in the loan question had cooled, and his admission that Chinese interest had also cooled.
573
Apr. 19 (77) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Conversation with Chinese official concerning Chinese financial predicament and his opinion that currency inflation is inevitable.
574
Apr. 20 (87) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Advice that an economic observer (Prof. J. L. Buck) has been sent to China, and instructions to inform Foreign Office that this has no connection with the British suggestion relative to cooperative financial assistance to China; request for any pertinent information in regard to the proposed cooperation by the powers in sending financial experts to China.
574
Apr. 25 (186) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Reply to Department’s No. 87 of April 20, indicating progress of the British plans for sending a financial expert to China.
575
Apr. 25 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Chinese Minister’s expression of his Government’s concern over the increase in price of silver and its effect upon the Chinese economic and financial situation.
576
[Page LIV]Apr. 25 Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the Chinese Minister
Chinese Minister’s concern over the Borah Resolution prohibiting loans outside the Western Hemisphere.
576
May 1 (88) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request by T. V. Soong for an American economic attaché analogous to the British appointee; Japanese Minister’s assertion of Japanese disinterest in direct financial assistance to China or any loan for purpose of currency reform.
577
May 3 Memorandum by the Consul at Hankow, Temporarily in Washington
Belief that continuation of the U. S. silver policy will so weaken China politically and economically that she will become an easy prey to Japanese ambitions, a development which will seriously affect U. S. interests in China and possibly militate against U. S. relations with Japan.
578
May 6 (757) To the Ambassador in Japan
Interest in any information or comments regarding the present attitude of the Japanese Government toward removing the alleged Japanese-ordered boycott of cotton financed by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and purchased by the Chinese Government.
579
May 10 (93) To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
For Prof. J. L. Buck from the Treasury: Instructions to confer with Chinese officials and others for full information regarding existing conditions in the economic field, avoiding discussions of policy construable as negotiations or representations of American official views.
580
May 13 Memorandum by the Minister in China of a Conversation With the American Treasury Representative in China
Proffer of cooperative assistance to Professor Buck in his study of the financial and economic conditions in China.
580
May 15 (101) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of plan to reorganize League of Nations’ technical activities in China, assigning more competent League personnel to avoid possible replacement of League experts by Japanese advisers.
582
May 15 (103) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Letter from Kung (excerpt printed) inquiring whether the Treasury would be willing to cancel the balance of the silver contract or give China the right of further postponing delivery in view of the delicate monetary situation in China.
582
May 15 Memorandum by the Minister in China
Conversation with Mr. Plant, Shanghai manager of the U. S. Steel Products Co., and Mr. Campbell of the Wilcox-Hayes Co., and member of the American Economic Mission to China, with regard to projects for railway construction in China.
583
May 21 (135) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to report promptly any manifestations of anti-American feeling growing out of the U. S. silver program, and any developments tending toward a boycott of American goods.
584
[Page LV]May 22 (39) To the Consul at Nanking (tel.)
For the Minister: Instructions to incorporate in the reply to Kung’s letter the Treasury Department’s agreement to postpone delivery of the balance of silver until the end of July 1935.
585
May 23 (40) To the Consul at Nanking (tel.)
Inquiry as to whether there would be any objection by the appropriate Chinese authorities to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation’s publishing a statement (text printed) of the terms of the cotton and wheat credit agreement.
(Footnote: Minister’s advice that there was no objection.)
585
May 24 (254) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information with regard to American bank failures in China; also report of difficulty in converting notes into hard silver in quantities.
587
May 24 (255) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Effect of bank failures on American prestige.
587
May 27 From the Consul at Tsingtao (tel.)
No indications of boycott or anti-American feeling; opinion that real estate slump in Shanghai is playing greater part in financial crisis in China than is the silver program.
588
May 27 (220) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Tsinanfu: Little resentment toward American silver program and no developments tending toward boycott of American goods.
589
May 28 (262) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Press statement by F. J. Raven, bank official, that the bank failures are directly attributable to the American silver purchasing plan which has drained silver from the country; other indications that U. S. Government will be blamed for any severe collapse in banking and real estate in Shanghai.
589
May 29 (43) To the Consul at Nanking (tel.)
For the Minister: Inquiry as to Chinese attitude toward Treasury Department’s offer outlined in No. 39 of May 22.
590
May 31 (273) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Kung’s desire to accept U. S. proposal regarding payment for silver.
590
June 7 From the British Embassy
British appointment of Sir Frederick Leith-Ross as temporary financial adviser in China; expression of hope that U. S. Government will make a similar appointment.
591
June 11 (262) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Comments on the British appointment of a financial adviser; opinion that the Chinese financial situation is critical.
591
June 14 To the British Embassy
Acknowledgment of aide-mémoire of June 7, and advice that the United States is considering making a similar appointment.
593
[Page LVI]June 18 (320) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
For Secretary Morgenthau: Report that situation is not attributable to the silver policy, but entirely to real estate inflation and overspeculation.
(Footnote: Suggestion from Secretary Morgenthau that interview be given out in Shanghai covering information in No. 320 of June 18.)
593
June 19 (295) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Belief that anti-American boycott will not develop; apparent abatement of criticism of the American silver purchase policy.
594
June 25 (283) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Foreign Secretary’s statement before the House of Commons (text printed) relative to British hope that United States, France, Japan, and Italy will appoint financial advisers in China.
594
June 26 (287) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Receipt of unofficial report that French Government has appointed an economic expert to serve in China.
595
July 1 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the British Ambassador regarding a New York Times article misinterpreting a comment by the Secretary as an invitation to Leith-Ross to visit Washington, on his way to China, for discussion of various matters of mutual interest.
595
July 9 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with Mr. Morgenthau in regard to extending to Leith-Ross an invitation to discuss Chinese stabilization; reconciliation of State and Treasury positions in draft letter replying to a British inquiry.
596
July 9 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Views regarding the differences between the State and Treasury Departments in their conception of the present problem and procedure for dealing with it; reasons for favoring U. S. appointment of a financial attaché to the Peiping Legation.
599
July 10 (1383) From the Ambassador in Japan
Meager unofficial information available concerning reported Japanese boycott of American cotton, indicating need for further informal inquiry through official channels.
602
July 12 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Chinese Minister’s hope that United States will decide to send a financial attaché to China.
603
July 12 (353) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice that it is generally believed that silver smugglers are behind the recent bank run; possibility of a general moratorium on the exchange of silver for bank notes, and that the Japanese may endeavor to obtain control of Chinese currency in the anticipated crisis.
604
July 15 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with Secretary Morgenthau, who authorized an affirmative response in the event the British took the initiative in suggesting a visit by Leith-Ross.
605
[Page LVII]July 16 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of Stale
Conversations with the British Ambassador, who apparently attached no importance to the failure of Leith-Ross to come to Washington en route to China.
606
July 22 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Inquiry from the Chinese Minister regarding designation of an American financial adviser.
607
July 25 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Proposal by former Ambassador to Japan, W. Cameron Forbes, of Government aid in reactivating Russell and Company, and his interest in the formation of an American bank in Shanghai, the latter to assist in railway construction in Szechwan; opinion that a most conservative approach to these projects would be wise.
607
July 29 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
President’s belief that the best answer to inquiry in regard to an appointment of a financial adviser to China is that the matter is still under advisement.
609
July 29 (224) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to orally inform T. V. Soong that the American Government had made no commitment in regard to sending a financial expert to China, but is considering the matter.
609
Aug. 3 (396) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report on execution of instructions in Department’s No. 224 of July 29; Soong’s hope that the U. S. Government will send a financial expert to China.
610
Aug. 8 (124) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Opinion that discussion with officials regarding the reported Japanese boycott is not needed in view of nonofficial information in despatch No. 1383 of July 10.
610
Aug. 9 (227) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Inquiry of Finance Minister regarding the name and date of arrival of the American financial expert, and discussion of loan question and Sino-Japanese situation.
611
Aug. 10 (362) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Press statement of Leith-Ross, upon his departure for China via Canada and Tokyo, that he was not going to stop at Washington since he had not been invited to do so.
612
Aug. 11 (206) To the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Request for information and opinion regarding Leith-Ross’ references in his press conference to not visiting the United States on his way to China.
612
Aug. 12 (364) From the Chargé in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Information requested in Department’s No. 206 of August 11.
613
Aug. 12 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with Secretary Morgenthau in effort to get reversal of decision regarding suggested conference with Leith-Ross at the time of his visit in Canada.
614
[Page LVIII]Aug. 14 Memorandum by Mr. Raymond C. Mackay of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Summary of elements leading to decision against a suggested renewal of the cancelled portion of the cotton and wheat credit which was given China in May 1933.
616
Sept. 7 (173) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Arrival of Leith-Ross in Tokyo, and his press statements as to the purpose of his visit.
618
Sept. 16 (286) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to be friendly and cooperative with Leith-Ross; instructions also on how to reply to possible inquiry relative to the sending of a U. S. financial attaché.
618
Sept. 17 (178) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
For the Secretary of the Treasury: Information that Leith-Ross’ interviews with the Japanese in Tokyo had elicited no proposals but had dispelled much of the widespread suspicion in Japan regarding his mission.
619
Sept. 24 (11) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Finance Minister’s request that the Department be informed of China’s hope for an American representative to work with Leith-Ross, and Ambassador’s reply that he did not know whether the Department had formed any definite intention.
619
Sept. 25 (6) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
View that reply to Finance Minister should preferably have followed the formula outlined in telegram No. 286 of September 16. Reaffirmation of Department’s attitude, indicated in No. 71 of March 8, concerning the financial and monetary situation in China. Receipt of information that the French Government is not sending a financial representative to China.
620
Sept. 25 (12) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Conversation with Leith-Ross, who states that he expects to investigate the Chinese situation toward the end of evolving some practical formula.
620
Sept. 25 (7) From the Ambassador in China
Detailed report on the present status and the prospects of technical cooperation between the League of Nations and China.
621
Sept. 26 (14) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Reply to questions of Arthur Young, American adviser to the Finance Ministry, relative to U. S. attitude toward Leith-Ross’ efforts.
623
Oct. 1 Memorandum by the Ambassador in China of a Conversation With the Standing Member of the Chinese National Economic Council
T. V. Soong’s inquiry regarding the American Government’s assignment of a financial attaché to China; his opinion that the Japanese will take drastic action in November, and that the silver situation is desperate in Hong Kong.
624
[Page LIX]Oct. 3 Memorandum by the Ambassador in China
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who stated that instability of the Chinese political situation would make a linking of Chinese currency with sterling difficult.
624
Oct. 9 (29) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Conversation with Finance Minister Kung, who seemed reticent about the Leith-Ross discussions, but indicated he wished an American representative were present, and said a French representative had been selected.
625
Oct. 14 (10365) From the Consul General at Shanghai
Leith-Ross’ recommendation to Kung that subsidiary coins with a silver fineness of .500 be issued; assertion that the adoption of this proposal would form an entering wedge for the assumption of a definite relationship between the pound sterling and the Chinese silver dollar.
626
Oct. 25 (57) From the Ambassador in China
Transmission of memoranda of conversations indicating a badly deteriorated financial situation in China.
627
Oct. 29 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Information from the Chinese Ambassador concerning his conference with Secretary of the Treasury Morgenthau in regard to the Chinese Government’s desire to sell 100,000,000 ounces of silver.
628
Oct. 31 From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Belief among American bankers that the Chinese Government wants to sell its silver holdings to the United States for gold in order to attach the Chinese dollar to the customs gold unit.
628
Nov. 2 (551) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
For Treasury from Butterworth (Third Secretary of Embassy): Advice of a Bank of England committee set up to assist British holders of Chinese bonds; renewed criticism in London of American silver policy as responsible for recent financial difficulties in China.
628
Nov. 2 From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Information that Chinese Government plans to take over all silver reserves.
629
Nov. 4 (641) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Official summary (text printed) of the Government decree on currency reform and the Chinese financial policy.
629
Nov. 4 From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Information that the British authorities have advised British nationals to comply with the Chinese Government’s decree regarding the nationalization of silver.
630
Nov. 4 From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Advice from Leith-Ross that the Chinese decree was not British-instigated; his belief that the Japanese military is hostile to any measures pertaining to China that might originate with or be participated in by Western Nations.
631
[Page LX]Nov. 5 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Telephone conversation with Mr. Morgenthau, who gave details of his conversation with the Chinese Ambassador regarding U. S. purchase of Chinese silver.
632
Nov. 5 From the Economic Adviser to the Under Secretary of State
Observations regarding the Chinese currency program and possible effect on the U. S. Treasury.
633
Nov. 5 (57) From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
View of Chinese official that success of currency program depends on Japanese attitude toward it and upon cooperation of the Chinese people; reports on Japanese attitude, and on Chinese attempt to gain British cooperation.
635
Nov. 5 From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Information from Mackay, local manager of the National City Bank, regarding commitment of Hong Kong & Shanghai Bank to the Chinese plan.
636
Nov. 5 (290) To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
For the Ambassador: Request for full information on developments; advice of inquiry from Chinese Embassy as to what steps the U. S. Government had in mind relative to the Chinese nationalization of silver.
637
Nov. 6 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conference between the Chinese Ambassador and Secretary Morgenthau, who clarified the U. S. position on the purchase of Chinese silver, and on participation in a Chinese loan.
637
Nov. 6 (119) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information indicating uncertainty of Japanese position regarding the new Chinese monetary measures; probable factors on which Japanese position will depend
639
Nov. 8 (123) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Unsettled conditions related to the new Chinese currency program.
639
Nov. 9 (68) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Dissatisfaction of both Japanese Foreign Office and military personnel with the Chinese currency measure.
640
Nov. 13 (17) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Agreement between the Treasury Department and the Chinese Ambassador regarding arrangements for purchase of Chinese silver.
641
Nov. 15 (78) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Discussion with Suma, of the Japanese Embassy, in regard to the Sino-Japanese situation, and opinion that the Japanese will not cooperate toward the success of the Chinese stabilization plans.
642
Nov. 15 (676) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Attitudes of foreign banks toward surrendering silver to Chinese Government.
643
[Page LXI]Nov. 21 (168) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
From Yunnanfu, November 20: Report that Yunnan is unaffected by nationalization of silver, since the Province has its own independent monetary system.
644
Nov. 22 (103) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Suma’s report of evasive replies from Chiang Kai-shek with regard to the monetary scheme.
644
Nov. 22 (584) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
For Treasury from Butterworth: Confidential information that the British Embassy in the United States has been instructed, at Leith-Ross’ request, to explain to the American authorities something of Leith-Ross’ activities in China, pointing out the desirability of American cooperation.
645
Nov. 25 (590) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
For Morgenthau from Butterworth: British request for suggestions in regard to a desirable per mensem amount of silver to be marketed by Hong Kong.
647
Nov. 27 Memorandum by Mr. Raymond C. Mackay of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with W. I. Myers, Governor of the Farm Credit Administration, regarding the postponement of payments due on the U. S. wheat credit of 1931 to China.
(Footnote: Information of a similar conversation with an official of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation on December 2.)
647
Dec. 3 (727) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
For Hornbeck from Young: Hope for accession to Chinese request for a revision in the schedule of payments due to the Farm Credit Administration and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.
650
Dec. 3 From the Economic Adviser to the Secretary of State
Treasury Department’s refusal to consider a Chinese request for modification of the silver purchase contract.
650
Dec. 14 Memorandum by Mr. Raymond C. Mackay of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Review of loans to China, and suggestion that postponement of payments on the wheat and cotton credits of 1931 and 1933 would free sums of money which might be utilized to effect payments on the “Chicago Bank Loan”.
651
Dec. 18 (770) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Japanese consular police action against silver runners.
654
Dec. 19 (235) From the Ambassador in China (tel).
Implications that strong demand for foreign currencies is in anticipation of an early decline of the Chinese dollar and the possible severance of financial relations between North China and the rest of the country.
655
[Page LXII]Dec. 19 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Chinese Ambassador
Discussion relative to two documents handed to the Chinese Ambassador: (1) Oral statement (printed infra) regarding Chinese requests for alterations, favorable to the Chinese Government, in agreements governing wheat and cotton purchases in 1931 and 1933; (2) factual statement (printed on page 658) regarding the Chicago Bank Loan.
655
Undated Oral Statement by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs to the Chinese Ambassador on December 19, 1935
Text of statement regarding postponement of payments on the wheat and cotton credits, and relation of this matter to outstanding Chinese obligations to American creditors.
656
Undated To the Chinese Embassy
Factual statement with regard to the Chicago Bank Loan, handed to the Chinese Ambassador on December 19.
658
Dec. 27 Oral Statement by the Chinese Ambassador to the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs on December 27, 1935
Inadequacy of proposed schedules of loan payments; Finance Minister’s desire to contact authorized representatives with a view to the settlement of the Chicago Loan as soon as possible.
658
Dec. 27 Oral Statement by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs to the Chinese Ambassador on December 27, 1935
Reply to the Chinese Ambassador’s oral statement, calling attention to suggestions contained in the statements of December 19 relative to loan settlement.
659
Dec. 30 (800) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
For Hornbeck from Young: Plea for U. S. acceptance of reduced flood relief payment on December 31, pending completion of negotiations, which will afford a substantial and greatly needed current relief.
660
Dec. 31 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Résumé of conferences with the Chinese Ambassador relative to possible schedules for payment of obligations to American creditors; Department’s agreement to collection by the Farm Credit Administration of full amount due from China on December 31, and negotiations later regarding balance due in the future.
660

Measures Taken by the United States for the Protection of American Lives and Property in China

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Jan. 9 (11) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Telegram to Consul General at Hankow (text printed) requesting information relative to military activity in Szechwan area and suggesting, if situation warrants, that Americans in area be warned to withdraw while communication lines are open.
664
[Page LXIII]Jan. 12 (14) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Telegram from Hankow (text printed) advising that warning has been given to Americans, describing the military situation, and giving opinion that Reds will not enter Kweichow soon; advice of counter opinion from other sources.
665
Jan. 16 (21) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
To Nanking, January 15: Memorandum to be delivered to the Foreign Office (text printed) requesting the National Government to take prompt measures for the full protection of American citizens and property in and around Szechwan.
666
Jan. 16 (22) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 15: Efforts to secure information, and to insure protection of Americans and safe conduct should departure become imperative; dispatch of warning letters to mission stations and institutions in Szechwan.
666
Jan. 17 (6) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Delay in official Foreign Office report of apprehension of, confession by, and execution of the communist soldiers who murdered Mr. and Mrs. Stam in 1934.
667
Jan. 17 (26) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
To Nanking, January 17: Legation’s skepticism in regard to truth of Foreign Office report concerning the murderers of the Stams, and instructions to be noncommittal.
667
Jan. 26 (37) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Decision of Yangtze Rapids Steamship Co. to transport Chinese troops if requested; British Legation’s announcement that it would raise no objection to troop carrying by British companies.
668
Jan. 29 (47) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Formal request from the Foreign Minister that foreign diplomatic representatives instruct their shipping companies to permit the hiring of their vessels to transport troops to Szechwan; Legation’s proposed reply, and information as to British position.
668
Jan. 29 (27) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Concurrence in proposed reply to the Foreign Ministry.
669
Jan. 31 (3314) From the Chargé in China
Transmittal of memorandum from the Foreign Ministry indicating that conditions in Szechwan are peaceful and that heavy forces have been stationed along the Szechwan-Kweichow border to prevent entry of the Communists.
670
Feb. 5 (35) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Request for summary of steps taken by the Chinese Government relative to the Stam murders, and opinion as to whether suitable action has been taken.
670
Feb. 6 (65) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Account of Chinese efforts to apprehend the Stam murderers; Legation’s instructions to Nanking to urge the Foreign Minister to reply to the Legation’s representations.
671
[Page LXIV]Feb. 9 (69) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Translation of one section (text printed) of note which was submitted by the Foreign Office relative to progress in the Stam case; comment regarding peculiar absence of public announcement by the Chinese Government of the events described in the report.
671
Feb. 13 (73) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Summary of Foreign Office statements, and of the note partially translated in No. 69 of February 9; outline of proposed reply, requesting further investigation as to persons responsible for the murders and reasons for silence of the Chinese press.
672
Feb. 13 From the Counselor of Legation in China to the Chargé in China
Conversation with Dr. Liu of the Foreign Office clarifying the U. S. position in the matter of troop transportation by American commercial vessels on the Yangtze.
675
Feb. 14 (43) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Approval of proposed reply to Foreign Office note, as suggested in Legation’s No. 73 of February 13.
676
Feb. 18 (81) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Nanking: Compliance with Legation’s instructions to submit note to Foreign Office relative to the Stam murders.
677
Feb. 19 (82) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, February 18: Foreign Office promise to release information relative to the apprehension and execution of the Stam murderers.
677
Feb. 20 (83) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, February 19: Report of movements of Reds; warnings to Americans at stations in the path of the Reds.
678
Feb. 23 (87) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow: Increasing gravity of situation in South Shensi; request to Chairmen of Shensi and Kansu for protection and evacuation assistance to Americans if necessary.
678
Feb. 26 (96) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow: Information regarding Shensi and Kansu governments’ agreement to afford protection to American residents, with no danger apparent yet.
679
Mar. 1 (3402) From the Minister in China
Despatch from Hankow indicating that no Chinese troops have been transported to Szechwan on American vessels, although one American vessel carried ammunition.
679
Mar. 4 From the Consul General at Canton (tel.)
Report of communist advances; additional warnings to American missionaries.
680
Apr. 16 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information from British Consul General that foreign women and children are being evacuated from Chengtu as a precautionary measure.
680
Apr. 17 (157) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow: Evacuation of American and British missionaries from Chengtu.
680
[Page LXV]Apr. 18 (76) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Information from French Legation regarding the French Consul’s report of conditions in Chengtu, and his notification to French nationals to leave at their own discretion.
681
Undated (11) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Reported arrival of Chinese reeinforcements and improvement in military situation in Chengtu.
681
Apr. 25 (167) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Yunnanfu, April 24: Request for instructions regarding procedure in case situation becomes dangerous for the Consulate.
To Yunnanfu, April 25: Instructions as requested.
682
Apr. 26 (14) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Improvement in Chengtu situation due to arrival of reenforcements.
683
May 7 (186) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Yunnanfu, May 6: Report that Reds are crossing the Yangtze north of Mou, and foreigners are returning to Yunnanfu.
683
May 9 (188) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, May 8: Report of large band of Reds operating southeast of Yochow, and preparation for evacuation of American residents from that town.
683
May 10 (190) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, May 7: Safe evacuation of all Americans from Yochow; evidence of united Red bands with object of concentration unknown.
684
May 10 From the Consul at Swatow (tel.)
To the Legation: Disappearance of Father Henry J. Bush, American Catholic priest, of Maryknoll Mission, presumed to be in the hands of bandits.
684
May 28 (222) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report from Yunnanfu of return of all Americans.
685
June 4 (138) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Swatow, June 3: Summary of letter from Monsignor Ford, of Maryknoll Mission, requesting suspension of anti-bandit measures pending ransom release of Father Bush.
To Swatow: Instructions to avoid becoming associated with matters relating to ransom, and to hold Chinese authorities primarily responsible for safe delivery of Bush.
685
June 6 (245) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Yunnanfu, June 5: Capture of Luting and Tatsienlu by the Reds, but no information regarding American citizens at Tatsienlu.
686
June 9 (254) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Yunnanfu, June 8: Advice that American residents of Tatsienlu are safe at Chungking.
686
June 12 (264) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow: Bandit activity on the Hupeh-Honan border; departure of missionaries from Tungpeh and Tenghsien.
687
[Page LXVI]June 16 From the Consul at Swatow (tel.)
From Kaying: Rescue of Father Bush by military authorities.
687
June 21 From the Consul at Canton (tel.)
Official delivery to Consulate General of Father Bush, who ascribed his release to the strenuous efforts of the three first group army divisions mobilized by Marshal Chen Chi Tang for Bush’s rescue.
687
July 27 (381) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, July 26: Telegraphic warnings to American mission stations in southern Kansu regarding northward movement of main communist bodies.
688
Aug. 29 (444) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, August 28: (1) Preparations in Changteh against threatened attacks by Reds, and warnings to missionaries in vicinity; (2) information that British gunboat Sandpiper is en route to Changteh.
688
Oct. 1 (19) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Presence of Japanese gunboats and a cruiser at Swatow, which might be explained as connected with the rice tax, but persistent rumors indicate possible Japanese demands for a concession there.
689
Oct. 7 (51) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Penetration of Reds into eastern Kansu; efforts to secure protection for missionaries leaving Lanchow.
689
Oct. 10 (44) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Increased seriousness of Swatow situation resulting from Japanese threat to use marines to support her demands relative to rice imports, and concentration of Chinese troops to block threat.
690
Oct. 14 (55) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
To the Commander in Chief, U. S. Asiatic Fleet: Request that an American naval vessel be sent to Swatow to expedite communications and evacuation of Americans in the event that the Japanese place landing forces ashore.
691
Oct. 14 (23) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Suggestion that the Embassy may wish to reenforce Hankow’s warning to American citizens in Lanchow by communicating through the Consul General at Shanghai with the headquarters there of the American missions concerned.
691
Oct. 14 (58) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Departure of the U. S. S. Asheville for Swatow.
692
Oct. 15 (62) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Swatow, October 12: Request that an American warship be sent despite Japanese Admiral’s expectation of an early satisfactory settlement of the situation.
692
Oct. 17 (69) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Advice of reports from Consul at Canton and from the commanding officer of the U. S. S. Asheville that the Japanese vessels will withdraw, and that the incident at Swatow is closed.
693
[Page LXVII]Oct. 26 (54) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Safe arrival of missionary party at Paotow.
693
Oct. 28 (99) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Safe arrival of missionaries from Lanchow; names of the 11 Americans included in the party.
693
Oct. 29 (101) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
From the Ambassador, at Shanghai, October 28: Advice of request to Foreign Office for protection of Americans in Tatsienlu area.
694
Oct. 30 (107) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
From Yunnanfu, October 29: Belief of Provincial Government that situation at well-garrisoned Tatsienlu is not serious.
694
Nov. 1 (110) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
To Hankow: Receipt of advice that several mission stations in Kansu have been occupied by Chinese troops since departure of missionaries; instructions to request the Provincial Government to order the withdrawal of these troops.
694
Nov. 13 (57) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Report of communist advances, and heavy Government troop movements toward Chengtu; efforts to secure information regarding missionaries en route to Kiating by raft.
695
Nov. 14 (58) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Safe arrival of Yachow missionaries in Kiating; dispatch of a telegram to Tatsienlu, but no reply as yet.
696
Nov. 14 (59) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Report from Adventist Mission in Tatsienlu that the situation is serious and that the east and south roads are blocked.
696
Nov. 20 (97) From the Ambassador in China
Transmittal of despatch from Consulate at Swatow indicating that potentialities for future trouble still exist there.
696
Nov. 27 (112) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information regarding assurance from the Foreign Office that local authorities have been instructed to give protection to American citizens in troubled areas.
697
Nov. 30 (62) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Activities of divided forces of communist bandits; report from Catholic mission in Chihkiang of Red approach and impossibility of evacuation.
697
Dec. 2 (63) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Information regarding three-pronged drive of Communists, concentration of numerous missionaries in Changsha, and presence of the Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. steamer Meishan, being held there pending developments.
698
Dec. 4 (65) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Uncertainty with regard to Red destination; less nervousness in Changsha.
699
[Page LXVIII]Dec. 9 (68) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Continuing uncertainty with regard to Red destination. Advice that U. S. naval authorities are holding the Monocacy at Hankow in readiness for quick departure for Changsha if necessary.
699
Dec. 31 (250) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Hankow, December 30: Fighting in the Hungkiang and Kienyang areas; tense situation in Chihkiang but safety of missionaries assured by authorities.
700
1936 Jan. 7 (5) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 6: Report of safety of Catholic missionaries at Chihkiang, with Reds moving into Kweichow.
700

Retention of United States Army Forces in China

Date and number Subject Page
1935 June 18 (170) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice that the Department in reply to press inquiries stated that there had been no consideration in regard to removal of American troops from Peiping and Tientsin.
700
Sept. 6 (273) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Reference to a United Press report from Tientsin regarding withdrawal of U. S. troops from China; reaffirmation that the United States does not contemplate such withdrawal.
701
Nov. 19 From the Acting Secretary of War
Renewal of recommendation made in 1931 for the withdrawal of the American garrison from Tientsin, since it would constitute a potential source of complications in the event a pseudo-autonomous government should be set up in North China.
701
Nov. 20 To the Acting Secretary of War
Intention to confer with War Department at an early date regarding the matter discussed in the communication of November 19.
702

Denial by the United States of Responsibility for Alleged Killing of a Chinese by American Naval Enlisted Men in China

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Aug. 16 (344) From the Consul General at Hankow to the Minister in China
Detailed account of developments in regard to the alleged killing of a Chinese by American Naval enlisted men in China.
702
[Sept. 13] From the Chinese Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Minister in China
Communication from Hupeh Provincial Government (text printed) protesting that the American naval authorities have not cooperated in investigating the drowning of Chao Ch’ing-yün; request for U. S. action to effect a settlement of the case.
704
[Page LXIX]1934 Oct. 26 (824) From the American Chargé in China to the Chinese Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs
Résumé of Navy Department’s findings with reference to the death of Chao Ch’ing-yün allegedly at the hands of crew members of the U. S. S. Guam; conclusion that the evidence submitted fails to establish responsibility of any members of the U. S. S. Guam for the alleged act.
706
1935 July 11 (925) From the American Minister in China to the Chinese Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs
Reiteration of opinion that evidence submitted fails to establish responsibility of any members of the crew of the U. S. S. Guam for the death of Chao Ch’ing-yün.
710
(Note: Later report of deadlock, and Department’s decision in 1937 that it could admit no liability whatsoever in the matter.) 710

Attitude of the Department of State on the Export to China of Arms or Munitions, Including Military Aircraft

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Jan. 10 To the British Ambassador
Expression of hope that the British Government will give consideration to the possibility of modifying the procedure now in effect in Hong Kong with respect to the transshipment of arms to China.
711
Jan. 14 Memorandum by Mr. Joseph C. Green of the Division of Western European Affairs of a Conversation With the First Secretary of the British Embassy
Acknowledgment by the British official that the Hong Kong regulations in respect to transshipment of arms need to be stiffened.
713
Jan. 23 (3291) From the Chargé in China
Discussion of pertinent factors and circumstances in connection with contention of a representative of the Boeing Aircraft Co. that American sellers of military planes are being placed in a disadvantageous position compared with those of other nationalities because of U. S. Government regulations.
(Footnote: Information regarding clearance in August 1935 of 10 Boeing planes, requested in 1934, to be delivered to Cantonese forces.)
714
Feb. 15 Memorandum by Mr. Raymond C. Mackay of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Assurance to Chinese Minister that export licenses for 20 Boeing bombers, reported as desired by Canton, will not be given without Chinese Government’s consent.
716
Feb. 27 (98) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Chinese Government’s announcement of new regulations governing importation of airplane materials, specifying documents, taxes, and fees to be submitted through appropriate diplomatic channels.
717
[Page LXX]Mar. 12 (75) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Department’s concern lest compliance with new regulations, without reservation, might indicate assent to imposition of tax on American citizens; instructions to consult with other Legations and submit recommendations.
718
Mar. 27 (76) From the British Ambassador
Advice that careful consideration has been given to U. S. note of January 10, in consultation with the Governor of Hong Kong; that the latter has suggested that requirement of a Central Government “huchao” for re-export to China would deal effectively with the matter of transshipment of arms to China.
718
Mar. 29 (3480) From the Minister in China
Opinion that reservations regarding the new regulations governing the importation of airplane equipment would be unnecessary and undesirable; advice that British Legation does not contemplate making any reservations.
719
Apr. 8 (89) From the British Ambassador
Résumé of the generally favorable attitude of various countries toward the British position (set forth in 1934) in respect to regulations governing export of arms to China; intention to make further approaches to Belgium and Switzerland to secure their support, and request for U. S. cooperation.
719
Apr. 15 To the British Ambassador
Advice of instructions to U. S. representatives in Berne and Brussels to cooperate with their British colleagues as requested in No. 89 of April 8.
721
Apr. 19 To the British Ambassador
Request for further information with regard to procedure suggested in British note No. 76 of March 27; opinion that such procedure should apply equally to other powers concerned.
721
Apr. 30 (3863) From the Minister in Switzerland
Discussion with the British Minister relative to Swiss delay in passing a law governing arms exports to China in compliance with Chinese regulations.
722
May 3 To the Consul at Hong Kong (tel.)
Instructions to try to ascertain ultimate destination and other pertinent information relative to certain orders for which Smith and Wesson have requested an export license.
723
May 4 (3871) From the Minister in Switzerland
Advice from the Federal Political Department that methods of control of export of arms are under study, and that there is no indication that arms are being manufactured in Switzerland for contraband shipment to China.
724
May 7 (96) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for instructions relative to representations to the Foreign Office desired by a Boeing representative in connection with an export permit for armed airplanes.
725
[Page LXXI]May 9 (32) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Indication that Legation is not in a position to interpose in a situation where the initiative and responsibility lie with the Chinese Government and the interested American firm.
725
May 14 To the Secretary of Commerce
Explanation, in reply to an inquiry, of efforts to secure uniformity of procedure among all the governments concerned in the shipment of aircraft, aircraft parts, and accessories to China.
725
May 15 From the Consul at Hong Kong (tel.)
Information requested in Department’s telegram of May 3, indicating legitimacy of the shipment referred to.
727
May 21 Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Discussion among several Department officers of the question of licensing of exports of small arms and ammunition to Hong Kong, and conclusion that, pending further communication from the British Government, the Department should approve applications except when particular circumstances warrant withholding of a license.
728
May 29 (475) From the Chargé in Belgium
Assurance from the Foreign Office that Belgian producers do not export arms to China without a license from the Chinese Government.
729
June 12 Memorandum by Mr. Joseph C. Green of the Division of Western European Affairs
British Embassy’s report that no reply has been received as yet from London to U. S. inquiry of April 19 concerning the situation in Hong Kong with respect to transshipment and re-export of arms.
730
June 20 (3633) From the Minister in China
Information regarding a recently established airplane factory at Shiuchow, Kwantung, indicating a substantial market for American aviation materials, and possible desirability of revision of present U. S. attitude toward export regulations on aviation materials.
730
July 1 (179) From the British Ambassador
Information in answer to U. S. request of April 19, and inquiry as to whether the United States, in the light of this information, would be prepared to accept the procedure set forth in No. 76 of March 27.
731
July 22 To the British Ambassador
Provisional adherence to British suggested procedure, and request for information pertaining to transshipments from Hong Kong to Macao.
732
Aug. 1 To the British Ambassador
Suggestion that discussion be initiated toward reaching an agreement obviating the difficulties arising from differences in the British and American interpretations as to what constitutes military aircraft.
733
[Page LXXII]Aug. 27 (69) To the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Instructions to refer the Chinese Military Administration directly to the Stinson Aircraft Corporation or, as an alternative, to the Chinese Embassy in Washington in regard to its desire to purchase airplanes for aerial survey.
734
Aug. 31 To the British Chargé
Receipt of information regarding a Czechoslovakian shipment of arms and munitions to Canton, presumably not covered by a huchao from the Chinese Central Government.
735
Sept. 4 (193) From the Consul General at Hong Kong
Information from Hong Kong police of initiation of a new system relative to arms and ammunition, placing the burden of establishing legitimacy of shipments on authorities in the country of origin.
736
Sept. 19 (265) From the British Chargé
Reply to Department’s note of July 22, advising that (1) the new licensing procedure will go into effect October 1, and will apply to transshipments to Macao as well as to China; (2) British Government is prepared to submit informally to the U. S. Embassy in London the figures received bi-annually from Hong Kong covering shipments of arms from Belgium and Switzerland.
737
Sept. 28 To the British Chargé
Acknowledgment of note of September 19, with favorable comment on contents thereof.
737
Nov. 6 (4117) From the Minister in Switzerland
Information from the British Minister concerning the Swiss position with regard to an embargo on export of arms to China.
738

Problem of Controlling the Traffic in Opium and Narcotic Drugs in China, Including Manchuria and Jehol

Date and number Subject Page
1934 Dec. 7 (3178) From the Chargé in China
Apparent satisfaction of Chinese officials in the conduct of the recent search by the ship’s officers of the U. S. S. Tutuila for smuggled morphine.
739
1935 July 24 (3708) From the Minister in China
Note from the Foreign Ministry requesting cooperation of American authorities in carrying out the provisions of the League of Nations resolution for control of traffic in and manufacture of narcotic drugs by foreigners in China; request for instructions for an appropriate reply.
739
July 26 (3710) From the Minister in China
Foreign Office request that Legation issue instructions to American warships to pay serious attention to the matter of smuggling to avoid being refused permission to return to China.
741
Undated [Rec’d July 27] Report by the American Representative at the Twentieth Session of the Opium Advisory Committee of the League of Nations
Statement (text printed) made during the discussion of the proposed survey of cooperation.
742
[Page LXXIII]Aug. 1 (230) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for date when new system of narcotic drug import certificates will become effective; instructions to inform consular offices of the documentation necessary under that system.
744
Aug. 9 (409) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that the new system became effective on June 4.
744
Oct. 21 To the Secretary General of the League of Nations
Detailed commentary on two resolutions (texts printed) adopted by the League Opium Advisory Committee relative to manufacture of and illicit traffic in narcotic drugs in China, with citations to U. S. legislation applicable to American citizens in China.
744
Oct. 21 (20) To the Ambassador in China
Instructions for reply to the Foreign Ministry’s note described in despatch No. 3708 of July 24.
751
Dec. 5 (69) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Instructions to inform Chinese Government that no certificate for export of narcotic drugs to China will be issued except against import permit issued by the Chinese Public Health Administration.
753

Efforts for the Consideration of American Claims Outstanding Against China

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Apr. 1 (3484) From the Minister in China
Résumé of several conversations relative to the proposed Sino-American claims commission and to claims of British subjects against the Chinese Government.
753
Apr. 8 From the American Minister in China to the Chinese Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs
Additional list of claims of American creditors against the Chinese Government, and request for opinion as to progress made toward establishment of a Sino-American claims commission.
754
Apr. 22 (1636) To the Minister in China
Confirmation of Department’s earlier position, following study of Standard Oil Company’s brief, that the title to goods in the hands of Chinese agents remained in the company.
755
May 22 Memorandum by the Minister in China
Résumé of conversation with the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs regarding investigation and settlement of American claims listed with the Chinese Government.
755
June 13 (916) From the American Minister in China to the Chinese Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs
Request that the Minister of Railways be approached with respect to fulfillment of obligations to the American creditors of the Peiping-Hankow Railway.
757
[Page LXXIV]June 29 (192) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to submit from time to time comprehensive analyses, together with views and comments, in regard to various Sino-Japanese economic settlements and agreements insofar as they may indicate preferential treatment.
758
July 12 (205) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion that American claimants, with the active assistance of the Legation, should endeavor at this time to effect satisfactory settlement of their outstanding accounts with the Chinese Government.
759
July 19 (369) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for clarification of Department’s instruction No. 205 of July 12.
759
July 26 From the Chinese Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Minister in China
Reply to Minister’s No. 916, of June 13, including a statement by the Ministry of Railroads (text printed) claiming that obligations to American firms are being fulfilled.
760
July 26 (1721) To the Minister in China
Request for information in regard to various Chinese statements made regarding defaults in service of the Hukuang Railway Loan of 1911, particularly with reference to Chiang Kai-shek’s alleged proposal that a foreign executive committee be appointed to run the railroads in China.
761
July 29 (226) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to continue to urge strongly the creation of a Sino-American claims commission, and at the same time endeavor to effect settlement of individual American claims.
762
Aug. 31 (448) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for authorization to sign a joint memorandum, suggested by the British Embassy, urging the Chinese Government to provide for the servicing of the Hukuang Railway Loan.
(Footnote: Authorization granted on September 11.)
763
Sept. 13 (3788) From the Minister in China
Opinion that a recent Chinese railway survey by a British railway expert was not related to Chiang Kai-shek’s proposed plan to create a foreign executive committee to run the railroads of China.
764
Nov. 11 From the Chinese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in China
Reply to joint memorandum referred to in Minister’s No. 448, August 31, stating inability of the Ministries of Railway and Finance to pay additional instalments of interest on the Hukuang Railway Loan at the present time.
765
Dec. 16 From the American Embassy in China to the Chinese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Request that the Foreign Office bring to the attention of the Ministry of Railways the apparent discrimination against an American creditor of the Tientsin–Pukow Railway.
(Footnote: Settlement of creditor’s claim, March 31, 1936.)
766
[Page LXXV]

Representations by the United States Against the Establishment of Monopolies in China

Date and number Subject Page
1934 Dec. 12 (842) From the American Chargé in China to the Chinese Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs
Protest against reported monopoly arrangements of the Hunan Provincial Government for the control and export of antimony.
767
1935 Jan. 21 (14) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for report on existing situation in regard to Hunan antimony monopoly.
768
Jan. 22 (7) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Receipt of unofficial but apparently reliable report that the Chinese Government has almost completed a scheme for Government sugar monopoly, to be announced soon.
769
Jan. 22 (31) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Information that a German firm in Hankow was approached by the Hunan Antimony Syndicate with a proposition for the financing of antimony sales; increase in price of antimony due to the operations of the syndicate.
769
Jan. 25 (24) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Possible desirability of putting on record with Chinese authorities the fact that monopoly projects, if put into effect, would contravene existing treaty provisions; instructions to ascertain informally views of colleagues.
770
Jan. 28 (17) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Reported abandonment by the Government of idea of sugar monopoly and of intention to double the import duty on leaf tobacco; rumored match monopoly.
770
Feb. 1 (56) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Foreign Office contention that antimony syndicate is comparable to syndicates of productive enterprises in other countries, and does not contravene treaties; intention to draft another protest against the antimony monopoly.
771
Feb. 6 (37) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Department’s disagreement with Foreign Office contention, and approval of further protest. Inquiry as to any action by the Japanese Legation.
771
Feb. 15 (75) From the Counselor of Legation in China
British, Japanese, and Swedish positions concerning Chinese monopolies and the matter of registering protests.
772
Feb. 21 (46) To the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Instructions to continue in endeavors to ascertain views of various colleagues.
773
Feb. 25 (39) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Receipt of Chinese inquiry as to U. S. attitude toward a proposal made by the Benedum Trees Co. of Pittsburgh, Pa., which would appear to set up a state monopoly for the refining of oil and sale of oil products within China.
773
Mar. 1 (59) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion that the proposal described in No. 39 of February 25 would contravene article 3 of the Nine Power Treaty and that the U. S. Government would be forced to disapprove it.
774
[Page LXXVI]Mar. 19 (3441) From the Minister in China
Information regarding the present inactivity of the Hunan Antimony Syndicate.
775
Apr. 4 (3487) From the Minister in China
Information and background on the continuation of certain restrictions upon transport and sale of kerosene in Kiangsi Province, virtually a form of monopoly; résumé of inquiries and informal representations made to the Chinese authorities.
775
Apr. 12 (3503) From the Minister in China
Foreign Office note maintaining previous position that the Hunan Antimony Syndicate does not contravene relevant treaty provisions. Views of the British and Japanese Legations on the general subject of monopolies in China.
778
Apr. 16 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with representatives of the Benedum Trees Co. in regard to the question of U. S. sanction of proposed oil concessionary rights in China.
779
Apr. 19 (3517) From the Minister in China
Information from Hankow indicating abatement of the restrictions and hindrances upon trade in Kiangsi Province.
781
May 24 (138) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for views and recommendations as to possible future action in regard to the Hunan Antimony Syndicate.
782
June 15 (3619) From the Minister in China
Analysis of general situation with regard to monopolies in China, with views and recommendations as requested in Department’s No. 138 of May 24.
782
June 15 (3626) From the Minister in China
Press report of a proposed reorganization of the production and sale of tungsten in Kiangsi; Legation’s plan to take action along lines similar to those followed in the case of the Hunan Antimony Syndicate.
785
June 20 (3637) From the Minister in China
Information from Hankow relative to proposed establishment of a tungsten monopoly in Kiangsi; intention to await a definite expression of the Central Government’s policy before making official representations.
785
Sept. 4 (1745) To the Minister in China
Approval of plan to postpone representations regarding the tungsten monopoly pending clarification of the situation; observations and suggestions relative to further consideration of the Hunan Antimony Syndicate situation.
786
Oct. 25 (55) From the Ambassador in China
Unsuccessful efforts thus far of the Hunan Antimony Syndicate to obtain the support of American financial interests; evidence of a strengthened financial position, however, due to prevailing market conditions.
788
[Page LXXVII]Nov. 30 (111) From the Ambassador in China
Report from the Hankow Consulate General indicating that the Kiangsi Tungsten Mining Bureau has taken no action yet which constitutes monopolistic interference in normal commercial relations.
789

Reservation of American Rights Under the Treaties and the Customs Rules of 1868 With Respect to Enforcement by China of Customs Preventive Regulations

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Jan. 23 (33) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Opinion that the new customs preventive regulations are evident efforts of the Chinese Government to abrogate the rules of 1868 by unilateral action; intention of British and French Ministers to make formal reservations of rights, and request for authorization to take similar action.
(Footnote: Authorization granted January 24; note addressed to the Foreign Office by the Chargé on February 4.)
790
Mar. 8 (3417) From the Minister in China
Foreign Office note reiterating Chinese position, and Legation’s counter-reply affirming U. S. reservation of rights. Information, in connection with question of enforcement of the new regulations, concerning an agreement between the Municipal Council and the Maritime Customs authorities at Shanghai.
791
Sept. 7 (3779) From the Minister in China
Detailed account of recent difficulties between the Dollar Steamship Co. and the Chinese Maritime Customs at Shanghai.
(Footnote: Mutually satisfactory settlement of difficulties, reported on October 2.)
792

Attitude of the American Legation With Respect to the Position of Americans in the Chinese Maritime Customs Service

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Mar. 25 (1612) To the Minister in China
Request for views concerning the position of Americans in the Chinese Maritime Customs Service.
795
June 7 (3604) From the Minister in China
Opinion that at present any substantial change in the noninterference policy of the Department would be inopportune.
796

Reservation of American Rights in Proposed Changes for Control of Pilotage at Shanghai

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Mar. 7 (3421) From the Minister in China
Developments relative to the efforts of the Chinese Government to establish a new pilotage authority.
797
Apr. 12 (3505) From the Minister in China
Report on further developments, including arrangement for vacancies to be filled in accordance with the established practice until the regulations have been modified by mutual agreement.
799
[Page LXXVIII]

Interest of the United States in the Question of Chinese Disinclination To Grant Foreign Requests To Establish Civil Aviation or To Attain Landing Rights in China

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Apr. 29 (85) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Information that Chinese Government will not for the present grant landing rights to any foreign aviation concerns because of fear that concessions to western airline companies would make it impossible to refuse similar requests from the Japanese.
800
July 9 (58) To the Second Secretary of Legation in China at Nanking (tel.)
Refutation by Chinese Consulate General at New York of press item that a secret clause of the Tangku Truce granted Japan the right to establish civil aviation in China; instructions to report aviation developments in China with particular reference to possible effects on American business.
801
July 12 (206) From the Second Secretary of Legation in China (tel.)
Opinion regarding the rumored secret clauses in the Tangku Truce; Chinese postponement, for fear of Japanese objections, of a project to establish, with Italian assistance, an airplane factory at Nanchang.
801

Re-registration of Title Deeds to Real Property of Americans in China

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Jan. 18 (3282) From the Chargé in China
Discussion of the question of applicability to American nationals of the land rent tax at Nanking.
802
Jan. 31 (3318) From the Chargé in China
Authorization to the Consul General at Hankow to advise American property holders to comply voluntarily with the present procedure for re-registration, if assurances are received that no Chinese penalties will be imposed for the delay in registration.
804
Feb. 6 (3340) From the Chargé in China
Advice that the Consul General at Nanking has been instructed to file protest with the Municipal Government and reserve treaty rights for the American missions concerned, in case the new and revised land certificates should contain any restrictions inimical to existing property rights.
804
Feb. 6 (L. No. 35) From the Consul General at Hankow to the Chargé in China
Conversation with the Mayor of Hankow, who indicated willingness, upon receipt of a written request, to waive penalties for delay of American landholders who voluntarily apply for re-registration of their property.
805
Feb. 20 (3379) From the Minister in China
Report from Consul General at Hankow regarding assurances received from the Mayor, and requesting approval of proposed communication to American landholders.
806
Mar. 19 From the American Consul at Tsinan to the Mayor of Tsinan
Objections to request that the Shantung Mission of Seventh Day Adventists surrender land title deed.
806
Apr. 3 From the Mayor of Tsinan to the American Consul at Tsinan
Reiteration of position that the Seventh Day Adventists should promptly submit their deed for examination.
807
[Page LXXIX]Apr. 18 From the Minister in China to the Consul General at Canton
Advice that Legation perceives no objection to American property holders voluntarily registering title deeds, provided no restrictions are placed on certain property rights; request for copy of new deed form with comments thereon.
809
May 10 (3557) From the Minister in China
Detailed summary of unsatisfactory elements of the new lease agreement which the Nanking Municipality proposes to issue to foreign holders of perpetual leases; request for instructions.
809
May 20 From the American Consul General at Canton to the Mayor of Canton
Request for official assurances, relative to leases and deeds, that treaty rights of American citizens will not be restricted.
811
June 12 (3614) From the Minister in China
Receipt of information that the Mayor of Tsinan has decided to drop matter of the Seventh Day Adventist deed for the time being.
813
July 3 (334) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for authorization to instruct Canton that Americans may voluntarily accept temporary arrangement for stamping deeds.
(Footnote: Authorization granted July 6.)
814
Aug. 16 (3750) From the Minister in China
Transmittal of despatch from Canton enclosing satisfactory reply from the Mayor to the Consul General’s letter of May 20.
814

Attitude of the United States With Regard to Expropriation of Land and Registration of American Educational Institutions With the Chinese Authorities

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Apr. 11 From the Minister in China to the Second Secretary of Legation in China, at Nanking
Views concerning questions raised in a recent despatch from the Nanking office relative to expropriation of land and registration of American educational institutions with the Chinese authorities.
815
June 12 (1680) To the Minister in China
Approval of Legation’s instruction to Nanking of April 11.
816

Objection by China to Editorial Comments on Chinese Leaders by “Time” Magazine

Date and number Subject Page
1935 June 6 Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Chinese Minister, who objected to derogatory references by Time to Chinese leaders, and asked that they be stopped; explanation that Department has no legal authority to prevent publication of such comments, and expression of further views relative to the matter.
817
[Page LXXX]June 13 Memorandum by the Assistant to the Legal Adviser to the Assistant Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Concurrence in views expressed in memorandum of June 6.
819
(Note: Information of expression of similar views in reply to later Chinese representations.) 819

JAPAN

Political Developments in Japan and Efforts To Improve Relations With the United States

Date and number Subject Page
1934 Dec. 27 (1102) From the Ambassador in Japan
Detailed summary of the situation in the Far East, stressing the importance of American naval preparedness.
821
1935 Jan. 3 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Belief that in the field of foreign relations the most important problem confronting the United States is that of relations with Japan; detailed résumé regarding courses of action in coping with the Far Eastern situation in general.
829
Jan. 11 (7) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Receipt of information concerning a projected American economic mission to the Orient; recommendation that the mission so frame its plans and announcements as to avoid unnecessary provocation of anti-American sentiment and irritation in Japan.
838
Jan. 12 (6) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Details regarding the projected economic mission sponsored by the National Foreign Trade Council, and instructions for replying to any inquiries.
839
Jan. 15 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Account of conversation with Shigeru Yoshida, the Japanese “traveling” Ambassador, including the Secretary’s comments relative to the need everywhere for clearing the atmosphere of pointless talk and promoting desirable international policies.
840
Jan. 17 (7) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Further information regarding the economic mission which is to visit China, Japan, and the Philippines.
841
Jan. 21 To the Ambassador in Japan
Appreciation for the valuable summary of the Far Eastern situation in despatch No. 1102 of December 27, 1934, which has been called to the attention of the President, and will be used discreetly in discussions with administration leaders.
842
Jan. 22 To President Roosevelt
Transmittal of Ambassador Grew’s despatch No. 1102 of December 27, 1934, and the memorandum of January 3, 1935, by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs; indication of desire to discuss ways and means for bringing these matters to the attention of certain members of Congress.
842
[Page LXXXI]Feb. 6 (1156) From the Ambassador in Japan
Detailed analysis of the situation in Japan, visualizing the outlook as the Japanese see it, with emphasis on economic and social factors.
843
Feb. 27 (1188) From the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with Shigeru Yoshida, who indicated concurrence with the Secretary’s views expressed in interview in Washington January 15, his impression of general American distrust of Japan, and his plan to explain to the people of Japan the American point of view.
853
Mar. 13 To President Roosevelt
Transmittal of a copy of Ambassador Grew’s despatch No. 1156 of February 6, together with a digest thereof.
854
Mar. 27 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Analytical commentary relative to information from Tokyo that younger Japanese naval officers speak freely of eventual U. S.-Japanese war resulting from conflict over policies in China, with conclusion that the best chance for peace with Japan lies in U. S. defensive military strength.
855
May 31 (1332) From the Ambassador in Japan
Information relative to two new advisory bodies of the Japanese Government, both subsidiary to the Cabinet, designated as the Cabinet Deliberative Body and Cabinet Investigation Bureau.
(Footnote: Abolition of the Cabinet Deliberative Body reported by the Ambassador, May 11, 1936.)
858
June 27 (1373) From the Ambassador in Japan
Receipt of intimations that the real attitude of the Japanese naval authority is not sympathetic toward an early Naval Disarmament Conference; re-emphasis of opinions expressed in despatch No. 1102 of December 27, 1934, with reference to the importance of American naval preparedness.
862
Aug. 5 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who registered a complaint in behalf of his Government relative to two caricatures of the Emperor of Japan appearing in the August 1935 issue of Vanity Fair.
863
Aug. 6 (234) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Issuance of press statement (text printed) referring to denial by the Vanity Fair publishers of any intent to give offense to Japan, and expressing regret for any incident causing misunderstanding between this and another country; also, advice that any reports affirming an apology as coming from the Secretary are contrary to fact.
865
Aug. 7 (164) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information in regard to Japanese press treatment of the Vanity Fair matter, and observation that objection to the caricatures seems to have originated with the press.
866
[Page LXXXII]Aug. 8 (406) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, August 7: Personal and informal request from the Japanese Vice Consul for suggestions in regard to preventing the circulation in China of the August number of Vanity Fair; reply indicating necessity for protecting American interests.
867
Aug. 9 (408) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, August 8: Japanese Vice Consul’s suggestion that the police be requested to suppress delivered copies of Vanity Fair and prevent further sale; reply that this action would be counter to American interests.
867
Aug. 10 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Information given by the Counselor concerning an unfortunate street demonstration in Seattle, regarded as disrespectful to the Japanese Emperor; Dooman’s suggestion that Embassy’s statement to the press, if any, stress hope for a local settlement.
867
Aug. 10 (1429) From the Chargé in Japan
Japanese Government’s pronouncement, August 3 (text printed), regarding the Emperor’s position in the Japanese political system, released as result of the subversive political ideas of such constitutional commentators as Dr. Minobe.
869
Aug. 13 (167) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Cessation of newspaper comments regarding the Seattle incident, following report concerning the desirability of a local settlement.
871
Aug. 14 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador relative to his Government’s feelings in regard to the Seattle incident; reiteration of U. S. Government’s regret for all such incidents.
871
Oct. 19 (1518) From the Chargé in Japan
Developments in the controversy centering around the constitutional views of Dr. Minobe, resulting in the issuance of a second statement, October 15 (text printed), setting forth the position of the Emperor in the Japanese political system.
872
Dec. 24 (1612) From the Ambassador in Japan
Summary of the year’s developments in the nationalistic and expansionist urge in present-day Japan.
874
Dec. 28 (254) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Resignation of Count Makino, Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, due to ill health; appointment of Viscount Saito, formerly Prime Minister, indicating unlikelihood of new influences affecting the throne in the near future.
876
[Page LXXXIII]

Representations on Establishment of Oil Monopolies in Japan and Manchuria

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Jan. 4 (1) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Request from representatives of Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. for opinion as to whether the representatives of American and British oil interests should seek joint conferences with the Japanese authorities.
877
Jan. 4 (2) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Opinion that American and British oil interests should present a united front in negotiations with Japanese authorities, but emphasizing that any decision rests with the oil interests and not with the U. S. Government.
877
Jan. 10 (5) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Initial conversations, principally dealing with generalities, between the representatives of the American and British oil interests and the Japanese officials.
878
Jan. 31 (21) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the Japanese have promised a written reply next week to a memorandum of desiderata submitted by the foreign oil companies.
878
Jan. 31 (3320) From the Chargé in China
Advice of Legation’s instructions to the Consul General at Mukden for his guidance in replying to a letter from the Director of the Bureau of Commercial Affairs which announced a revised procedure for testing quality of oils imported into Manchuria.
878
Feb. 8 (27) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japanese Official’s statement to a member of the British Embassy that foreign oil companies should leave to the Government the legal aspects of the oil monopoly scheme and discuss only the commercial phase; British officer’s reply that the monopoly scheme, if carried out, would force the foreign oil companies to dispose of their investments in Manchuria.
879
Feb. 8 (28) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Apparent recognition by the Japanese of the necessity for altering oil regulations, but their intimation of desire to suspend conversations temporarily for political reasons.
880
Feb. 9 (29) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Request for authorization to submit to the Foreign Office concurrent representations with the British Embassy in regard to Manchurian discrimination in import tariff on kerosene.
880
Feb. 15 (31) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
British Ambassador’s suggestion that joint informal representations might be desirable in the kerosene tariff matter; request for instructions.
881
Feb. 15 (20) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Approval of joint informal oral representations in the kerosene tariff matter.
(Footnote: Ambassador’s report of the favorable reception of oral representations made on February 19.)
882
[Page LXXXIV]Feb. 21 (36) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
From the representatives of the Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. to Dundas, of the New York office: Request for confirmation of position taken in Tokyo opposing a Japanese offer of preferential rights for a limited quantity of gasoline and kerosene to be supplied to the monopoly.
882
Feb. 23 (23) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
For representative of American oil company from Dundas: Support of views outlined in No. 36 of February 21.
882
Mar. 2 (44) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information of temporary suspension of the conversations, with a discussion of the difficulties which have impeded agreement.
883
Mar. 2 (44) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Rejection by foreign oil representatives of a further Japanese proposal involving certain preferential rights.
884
Mar. 21 (59) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Telegram from Mukden, March 20 (text printed), summarizing press reports of petroleum enactments at Hsinking, including provision for enforcement of the petroleum monopoly law on April 10. Request for guidance in connection with possible questions from American oil interests.
884
Mar. 22 (44) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Opinions in reply to request for guidance in Ambassador’s No. 59, March 21; inquiry concerning opinion on advisability of any further approach to Japan at this time.
885
Mar. 25 (63) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice that the British Embassy has received a Foreign Office reply to its formal representations of November 24 on the oil monopoly in Manchuria, and that it is seemingly unconciliatory in tone.
886
Mar. 28 (66) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Digest of the Japanese aide-mémoire of March 25 in reply to the British representations of November 24.
886
Mar. 29 (69) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Opinion that although further representations would be futile, a final word should be put forth indicating that the Japanese have not altered U. S. views. British consideration of possible publication of correspondence with Japan relative to the oil matter.
887
Mar. 29 (74) From the Consul General at Mukden
Account of developments connected with the petroleum monopoly in “Manchoukuo”, with attention to its attempt to isolate foreign oil companies from their agents.
888
Mar. 30 (53) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Inclination to agree with views expressed in No. 69 of March 29; postponement of instructions, however, pending further report.
890
[Page LXXXV]Apr. 7 (75) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Reports from Mukden and Dairen of petroleum regulations to become effective April 10; opinion that they were issued to afford assistance to the monopoly without actually permitting the monopoly to operate within territory directly controlled by the Japanese Government.
890
Apr. 10 (77) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information of British intention to present a strongly phrased aide-mémoire in reply to Japanese aide-mémoire of March 25.
891
Apr. 10 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Discussion with the British Ambassador regarding the “Manchoukuo” oil monopoly.
892
Apr. 11 (81) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Receipt of Japanese aide-mémoire similar to the one of March 25 received by the British, summarized in telegram No. 66 of March 28; reaffirmation of suggestion of March 29; comment on intention of oil companies to claim damages.
892
Apr. 12 (61) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice of British Embassy’s request for Department’s news as to possible willingness of California oil companies, if given a hint by the U. S. Government, to unite with British companies in refusing crude oil supplies for the refinery of the Manchurian Oil Co.
893
Apr. 12 (62) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Opinion that the Japanese appear to be trying to separate American action from British action in the oil representations; instructions to endeavor to maintain a common front, and to synchronize action with that of the British Ambassador.
893
Apr. 12 (79) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China
Notice issued by the Dairen Customs regarding procedure to be followed for the import into or export from “Manchoukuo” of petroleum products.
894
Apr. 13 (82) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Termination of the oil conversations, with Japanese confidential promises of future fulfillment of practically all desiderata of the companies.
896
Undated [Rec’d May 4] Memorandum by the Foreign Oil Interests in Japan
Outline of a five-point understanding reached with Shokosho officials in connection with the future business of the Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. and the Rising Sun Petroleum Co. at a meeting held April 13.
896
Apr. 15 To the British Embassy
Advice that the U. S. Ambassador in Japan has been instructed to consult with his British colleague with a view to coordinating replies to the Japanese aide-mémoire on the oil matter.
897
Apr. 16 (87) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Account of conversation with the Foreign Minister at which oral representations were made (substance printed), and an aide-mémoire dated April 15 was delivered (text printed).
898
[Page LXXXVI]Apr. 16 To the British Ambassador
Memorandum of oral statement (text printed) setting forth U. S. views in reply to Embassy’s request summarized in telegram No. 61, April 2, to the Ambassador in Japan.
900
Apr. 18 Memorandum by Mr. Raymond C. Mackay of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With Mr. Kersey F. Coe of the Standard-Vacuum Oil Company, New York
Mr. Coe’s account of unsuccessful attempts of Standard-Vacuum to persuade California companies to refuse to make shipments of crude oil to Manchuria; his request that a message (text printed) be transmitted to the company’s Tokyo office, indicating minimum premium which should be quoted for such Manchurian trade.
903
Apr. 22 (89) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
For Dundas, Standard-Vacuum, New York: Necessity for quotations to Japan to be the same as those to Manchuria, since all principal Japanese refiners participate in ownership of Manchuria Oil Co.
904
Apr. 22 (90) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice that the Netherlands Legation has received, in reply to its representations of December 13, 1934, a Japanese aide-mémoire similar to those received by the U. S. and British Embassies, but containing several additional points.
904
Apr. 23 (91) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Views regarding questions which will be involved in Standard-Vacuum Co.’s damage claims for loss of business in Manchuria; request of Mr. Parker, Standard-Vacuum representative, for Department’s opinion on question of company’s possible offer to sell its property to the monopoly.
905
Apr. 24 (67) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Message from Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. to Parker (substance printed) indicating that the Department and the company are agreed that the oil interests should make the best settlement possible with local authorities and monopoly in Manchuria, leaving the question of possible claims and governmental action to the future.
906
Apr. 26 (93) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Outline of procedure decided upon by American and British company representatives; request for instructions.
907
Apr. 26 (68) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to make no commitment to any line of procedure other than that indicated in No. 67 of April 24, pending further discussion with Standard-Vacuum representatives, who will call at Department on April 29.
908
Apr. 30 (89) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China
Information of reports concerning preparations of the foreign oil companies to withdraw from Manchuria; reasons for believing that the companies should submit their applications for withdrawal as soon as possible.
908
[Page LXXXVII]May 1 (72) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
From the Standard-Vacuum Co. to its senior representative in Japan: Instructions to offer the company’s assets for sale to the monopoly, but not to file copy of the offer with the Japanese Government, which might prove disadvantageous in case it should become necessary later to file a claim.
909
May 1 (73) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Opinion that British oil interests will also wish to follow procedure outlined in No. 72 of May 1. Belief that any presentation of claims to the Japanese Government would be unwise at least until all possibilities of negotiation by the companies in Manchuria have been exhausted.
910
May 2 (102) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Résumé of Department’s position on the sale of oil interests in Manchuria, for oral transmittal to the Foreign Office, with expression of hope that the British views coincide.
911
May 3 (104) To the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Decision of Standard-Vacuum and Rising Sun to follow procedure outlined in telegram No. 67, April 24, to the Ambassador in Japan.
912
May 4 (204) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (tel.)
Observation of the Foreign Office that it sees no divergence of views between the U. S. and British Governments.
913
May 4 (75) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that Asiatic Petroleum Co. has been instructed from London to apply in the first place only to Manchuria, and not to approach Tokyo unless it becomes necessary later to make a claim.
913
May 4 (92) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China
Advice that the foreign oil companies have submitted requests to the Finance Ministry for permission to export all their stocks and to receive a refund of import duty thereon.
914
May 18 (99) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China
Refusal of Ministry of Finance to refund import duty on re-exports; oil company representatives’ acceptance of Ministry’s offer to discuss the situation.
915
May 23 (101) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China
Report on discussion between the oil company representatives and a Finance Ministry official, and certain proposals made by the latter.
916
June 8 (124) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice that the Netherlands Chargé has presented a note to the Foreign Office expressing inability to agree with views in the Japanese aide-mémoire of April 17 (summarized in telegram No. 90, April 22, from the Ambassador in Japan).
917
June 18 (1509) From the Ambassador in the United Kingdom
Indication from the Foreign Office that decision of British oil companies to withdraw from the “Manchoukuo” market does not necessarily mean they will also withdraw from Japan, where the situation is somewhat different.
917
[Page LXXXVIII]July 7 (343) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice of proposal by Katakura and Co., a Japanese silk firm, to take over Standard-Vacuum agency in “Manchoukuo”; apparent abandonment by the Texas Co. of policy of acting in concert with other companies.
919
July 11 (1388) From the Ambassador in Japan
Résumé of developments in the oil monopoly situation in Manchuria, particularly with reference to the proposal of Katakura and Co. to act as agent for the Standard-Vacuum Co.
920
July 17 (110) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Suggestion that the subject of oral assurances given Standard-Vacuum by the Japanese authorities in reference to petroleum regulations be mentioned to the Foreign Minister, since the Company is concerned about the carrying out of these assurances.
922
July 18 (152) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice of Cabinet discussions of petroleum regulations in Japan, and Foreign Minister’s hope for a satisfactory settlement before October 1.
922
July 19 (136) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China
Impasse in negotiations between foreign oil companies and the “Manchoukuo” authorities.
923
Aug. 23 (1444) From the Chargé in Japan
Chance that foreign oil companies will receive some compensation for loss of their business in Manchuria; companies’ disinclination to favor Katakura and Co.’s offer.
924
Sept. 28 (187) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.).
Meeting of oil representatives with the Vice Minister for Commerce and Industry, who explained present status of the oil problem, including the matter of oil storage for National Defense; opinion that American companies must withdraw or curtail operations unless action can be taken on treaty grounds.
926
Oct. 7 (160) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Department’s view that storage requirement constitutes a “military exaction” and hence is a violation of the U. S.-Japanese treaty of 1911; request for views and recommendations.
927
Oct. 15 (64) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Advice of instructions sent to the Consul General at Mukden for addressing oral and informal inquiries to Manchoukuo officials in compliance with the Standard-Vacuum Oil Co.’s request for Consular cooperation in obtaining evidence to support diplomatic claim for losses due to the operation of the Manchoukuo Oil Monopoly.
928
Oct. 17 (28) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Approval of instructions sent to Mukden, outlined in No. 64 of October 15; instructions to repeat telegram to Tokyo for views and recommendations; assumption that U. S. and British oil interests and consular authorities will act in concert.
928
[Page LXXXIX]Oct. 22 (196) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Belief that course of action should be at the discretion of the Consuls General, assuming that U. S. and British Consuls General will act in concert.
(Repeated to the Ambassador in China.)
929
Oct. 28 (42) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Concurrence in views expressed in No. 196 of October 22 from the Chargé in Japan.
930
Nov. 14 (176) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Inquiry as to results of a conference understood to have been scheduled for November 6 between Japanese officials and representatives of the foreign oil interests.
930
Nov. 15 (211) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Résumé of the conference held November 6; opinion that Japan now prefers to have the companies remain, provided they conform to present regulations. Advice of Japanese request for companies’ decision on storage requirements as soon as possible.
930
Nov. 27 (184) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
British suggestion that further U. S. and British representations to the Japanese Government might strengthen position of the oil companies in their negotiations. Request for views, after consultation with British colleague and Standard-Vacuum Oil representative.
931
Nov. 30 (224) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Advice that U. S. and British Embassies and oil representatives are agreed that the present is an appropriate time for further representations; suggestions for making the representations stronger than heretofore.
932
Dec. 6 (205) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Telegram from Mukden (text printed), summarizing informal and oral inquiries presented by the U. S. and British Consuls General to the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs of “Manchoukuo” pursuant to the Standard-Vacuum’s request for assistance in connection with “Manchoukuo’s” decision not to pay compensation for loss of business.
933
Dec. 11 (194) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Telephone conversation with the Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. pertaining to the latter’s plans for further discussions in Japan; instructions to participate where deemed appropriate, but to take no steps of approach to the Japanese Government without further instructions.
934
Dec. 12 (196) To Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Further conversation with Standard-Vacuum Co., and decision that if the oil companies wish to try to conclude a trade with the Japanese Government, the Department will take no official position either of approval or disapproval.
934
[Page XC]Dec. 13 (240) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Intention of companies to offer to trade on some terms the hydrogenation process for confirmation of the five-point memorandum (printed on page 896), and their desire for diplomatic support; indication of British Ambassador’s intended action, and request for authorization to make general representations.
935
Dec. 13 (199) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Authorization as requested, but instructions to guard against giving impression that U. S. Government is in any way associated with the oil companies’ contemplated proposal.
936
Dec. 16 (231) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Mukden, December 15: Communication from “Manchoukuo” Foreign Minister (text printed) indicating nonrecognition of principle of compensation for losses incurred by American companies, but willingness to purchase equipment at a reasonable price after investigation of value.
936
Dec. 19 (246) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report on various indications that Japanese Government is giving the oil matter serious attention; decision, therefore, not to seek a special interview for making representations at this juncture.
937
Dec. 21 (249) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Opinion of foreign oil representatives that in view of “Manchoukuo” Government’s nonrecognition of the principle of compensation, the oil companies should file claims, perhaps through diplomatic channels.
938
Dec. 26 (251) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Résumé of Japanese verbal reply to proposal of the foreign oil interests described in No. 240 of December 13; advice that the oil representatives will discuss the reply with Kurusu on December 27.
938
Dec. 28 (253) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation between oil representatives and Kurusu, who stated that he would attempt to overcome the impasse in connection with the oil storage obligations after the holidays.
939
Dec. 30 (204) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice that the New York office of the Standard-Vacuum Co. has been informed of Department’s readiness to consider a diplomatic claim against the Japanese Government, if the company desires.
939

Trade Relations Between the United States and Japan; Voluntary Restriction of Exports to the United States and the Philippine Islands by the Japanese

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Feb. 15 Memorandum by the Commercial Attaché in Japan of a Conversation With the Chief of the Commercial Bureau, Japanese Foreign Office
Kurusu’s interest in reconciling Japan’s unfavorable trade balance with the United States and favorable balance in Latin America by means of a trilateral trade agreement.
940
[Page XCI][Feb. 19] Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Explanation to the Japanese Ambassador that the memorandum which he presented (infra) is entirely in error in its implications as to possible U. S. intent to interfere with Japanese trade.
942
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 19] From the Japanese Embassy
Explanation of Japanese difficulties in trade with Latin America and the United States, with suggestion for coping with the situation on the principle of triangular trade.
945
Mar. 11 To the Japanese Embassy
Observations on U. S.-Japanese trade relations, with an explanation of U. S. trade policy and comments on the subject of triangular trade.
947
Mar. 20 (1206) From the Ambassador in Japan
Detailed observations in regard to the present prosperous economic situation in Japan, with attention to the profitable nature of her foreign trade.
949
Mar. 27 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State of a Conversation With the Japanese Ambassador
Ambassador’s representations concerning possible tariff barriers affecting Japanese cotton trade.
951
Apr. 11 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation between the Assistant Secretary of State and the Japanese Ambassador regarding problems created by competition offered by Japanese goods.
951
Apr. 12 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Further discussion of problems created by Japanese imports, with particular reference to the sudden influx of Japanese goods and the large differential in price between Japanese and American goods.
953
Apr. 18 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with officers of the Japanese Embassy, who advocated relaxation of restrictions governing Japanese imports of wood-cased lead pencils into the United States.
955
Apr. 19 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Commercial Secretary of the Japanese Embassy and a representative of Japanese match interests, during which the latter submitted a letter for consideration relative to voluntarily limiting their match exports to the United States.
957
Apr. 23 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador relative to the reciprocity and general economic program being promoted by the American Government.
957
[Page XCII]Apr. 25 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Discussion on regulating exports of Japanese cotton textiles to the Philippine Islands.
958
Apr. 30 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Indications of Japanese position regarding cotton textile exports to the Philippines, with suggested basis for discussion.
960
May 7 Memorandum of Suggested Terms of a Voluntary Arrangement Limiting Japanese Exports of Cotton Piece Goods to the Philippines
Itemized terms of arrangement, with provision for reconsideration if Philippine tariff rates should be raised.
(Footnote: Report adopted by the Inter-Departmental Committee on the Philippines.)
960
May 8 To the Chief of the Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department
Secretary’s desire to seek the opinion of Governor General Murphy as to advisability of consultation with Filipino leaders before entering conversations with Japan in connection with the proposed textile arrangement.
(Footnote: Murphy’s discussion with Quezon, who raised no objections.)
962
May 23 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation between the Assistant Secretary of State and the Japanese Ambassador reviewing commercial problems, particularly those relating to Japan’s trade with the Philippines and the actions of certain Latin American countries toward restricting imports of Japanese goods.
963
May 25 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Explanation to officers of the Japanese Embassy of U. S. inability to accept without modification the Japanese proposal for voluntary restriction of exports of cotton textiles to the Philippines; Japanese counter-suggestions.
966
May 31 Memorandum by Mr. Roy Veatch of the Office of the Economic Adviser
Recommendations by the Inter-Departmental Committee on the Philippines relative to the position to be taken in further discussions with Japanese representatives regarding the specific counter-suggestions made by the Japanese.
967
June 5 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with Mr. Kuroda, of the Japanese Embassy, and Mr. Waring of U. S. Tariff Commission concerning the revised proposal authorized by the Philippine Committee.
968
June 15 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Explanation of U. S. comprehensive economic program in reply to inquiry of Mr. Okada, a member of the Japanese lower house, who called with the Japanese Ambassador.
970
[Page XCIII]June 15 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Attaché of the Japanese Embassy
Attaché’s presentation of a new Japanese proposal, with indication of objections to the U. S. proposal set forth in the conversation of June 5.
971
June 19 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Explanation by Assistant Secretary Sayre to the Japanese Ambassador that United States desires an equitable and friendly solution of the Philippine textile situation and is carefully examining the most recent Japanese proposal, but that no agreement can be reached unless Japan gives evidence of a cooperative attitude.
972
June 26 To the Japanese Ambassador
Appreciative acknowledgment of the cooperative action of Japanese manufacturers and exporters of cotton rugs by extending their limitation of the export of cotton rugs for another year; hope that current survey of the American cotton rug industry will justify increased participation of Japanese exporters in the American market.
974
June 27 (1366) From the Ambassador in Japan
Apparent hope of Kurusu of the Foreign Office for an agreement providing for voluntary restrictions on exports of Japanese cotton piece goods to the United States, in return for which United States would be expected not to impose higher tariffs or restrictions on such goods.
975
July 11 Memorandum by Mr. Leo D. Sturgeon of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Third Secretary of the Japanese Embassy
Inquiry from Japanese Embassy regarding the significance of a press report that the Governor general of the Philippines had proposed to the Legislature a tariff on imports of cotton textiles.
976
July 13 Memorandum by Mr. Leo D. Sturgeon of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Third Secretary of the Japanese Embassy
Discussion of (1) the basis of estimated 1935 textile imports into the Philippines, (2) possible significance of the recent proposal of the Governor General of the Philippines, and (3) the situation in Japan.
976
July 16 Memorandum by Mr. Leo D. Sturgeon of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Discussion with Japanese Embassy officials and representatives of the Japanese Raw Silk Importers Association of New York relative to the proposed taxes on rayon and silk, now before the Senate Agriculture Committee.
979
July 16 (109) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Suggestion that the hope might be expressed to the Foreign Minister that present U. S.–Japanese negotiations on the Philippine textile trade may be brought to a mutually satisfactory conclusion.
981
[Page XCIV]July 17 Memorandum by Mr. Leo D. Sturgeon of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the First Secretary of the Japanese Embassy
Serious concern of the Japanese Government and people in regard to the proposed silk taxes.
981
July 17 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan of a Conversation With the Chief of the Commercial Affairs Bureau, Japanese Foreign Office
Discussion of various points bearing upon trade relations between the United States and Japan.
982
July 19 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Expression of appreciation from the Japanese Ambassador for the Department’s help in removing danger of a tax on rayon and silk.
984
Undated [Rec’d July 19] From the Japanese Embassy
Memorandum of proposals for an apportionment of imports of cotton textiles into the Philippines.
985
July 22 From the Chief of the Far Eastern Section, Division of Regional Information, Department of Commerce, to the Inter-Departmental Subcommittee on Japanese Competition
Observations relative to present conditons in Japanese industry as they affect the American people, and opinion that no immediate formal policy should be undertaken in meeting complaints against Japanese competition.
986
July 26 Memorandum by Mr. Leo D. Sturgeon of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Record of conversation in which Assistant Secretary Sayre made oral reply to the Japanese memorandum delivered July 19, and presented a memorandum of data on Philippine imports (infra); Sayre’s suggestion of a 50–50 basis for sharing the Philippine textile trade, urging speed in agreement to prevent possible Philippine tariff action.
987
July 24 To the Japanese Embassy
Memorandum of customs statistics of imports of cotton textiles into the Philippines for first two quarters of 1935, as best available basis for estimating future consumption in the Philippines.
990
Aug. 14 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Third Secretary of the Japanese Embassy
Details of Japanese unfavorable attitude toward most recent U. S. suggestions.
991
Aug. 16 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Third Secretary of the Japanese Embassy
Presentation of the Department’s regretful conclusion that a reconciliation of the U. S. and Japanese positions relative to the Philippine textile market appears to be impossible, but assurance that the U. S. proposal is left open for possible later acceptance.
993
[Page XCV]Sept. 20 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Assistant Secretary’s conversation with Japanese Ambassador and Counselor of Embassy in which Mr. Sayre requested that Japan take a definite stand on the textile matter, in view of significance of possible Philippine tariff legislation; request for Japanese approval of a draft statement (infra) which the Department would like to issue.
994
Undated Draft Statement Prepared by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Text handed to the Japanese Ambassador on September 20 for his Government’s approval
996
Sept. 23 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Discussion between the Assistant Secretary of State and the Japanese Counselor of Embassy regarding the Japanese addition of certain words in the draft statement which were unacceptable to the U. S. Government.
996
Sept. 23 (148) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Message for the Foreign Minister on the textile situation (text printed), with instructions to stress the urgency of the matter, and to indicate U. S. reluctance to believe the Japanese position of September 23 is final.
997
Sept. 26 (183) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Advice from the Foreign Minister that position of September 23 is not final and that further instructions will be sent to the Japanese Embassy in Washington.
998
Sept. 27 (154) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information from the Japanese Embassy that Japan is willing to urge assent of exporters to an annual figure of not more than 45,000,000 square meters provided Philippine tariff is not raised; Department’s plan to accord proposal favorable consideration after clarification of a few points.
998
Sept. 30 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene PL. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Discussion between the Assistant Secretary of State and officers of the Japanese Embassy in regard to the effective date for the proposed Philippine textile agreement.
999
Oct. 2 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Discussion of three points raised by Japan regarding the proposed gentlemen’s agreement on textile trade with the Philippines.
1001
Oct. 3 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation between the Assistant Secretary of State and the Japanese Counselor of Embassy clarifying the U. S. position relative to the three points raised on October 2.
1002
[Page XCVI]Oct. 11 To the Secretary of Commerce
Comments concerning desirability of seeking a friendly agreement with the Japanese for the voluntary regulation of the volume of cotton textile imports into the United States from Japan.
1004
Oct. 11 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Account of the initialing by the Assistant Secretary and the Japanese Ambassador of memorandum of conversation (infra) concluding the U. S.-Japanese negotiations regarding imports of Japanese cotton textiles into the Philippines.
1006
Oct. 11 Memorandum Initialed by the Assistant Secretary of State and the Japanese Ambassador
Conversation confirming the conditions governing voluntary limitation of Japanese imports of cotton piece goods into the Philippine Islands.
1007
Oct. 12 Press Release Issued by the Department of State on October 12, 1935
Statement regarding the voluntary limitation of imports of Japanese cotton piece goods into the Philippine Islands.
1008
Oct. 23 To the Secretary of Commerce
Advice that the Executive Committee on Commercial Policy has suggested that a letter be sent to the President by the Cabinet Committee on Textiles urging early initiation of conversations with the Japanese with regard to imports of textile products into the United States from Japan.
1011
Oct. 28 To the Japanese Embassy
Readiness to agree to substantial increases in Japanese imports of chenille and hit-and-miss rugs, due to recent favorable trends in the domestic cotton rug industry and the cotton rug market.
1012
Undated [Rec’d Oct. 28] From Messrs. Dorfman and Waring of the United States Tariff Commission
Inquiry as to whether the annual quota specified in the recent U. S.-Japanese arrangement was intended to include Japanese textiles transshipped to the Philippines through Hong Kong and other ports.
1012
Oct. 29 To the Appointed High Commissioner in the Philippines
Detailed observations with regard to the recently concluded agreement with the Japanese providing for voluntary restriction of importations of Japanese cotton piece goods into the Philippines.
1013
Oct. 30 To the Appointed High Commissioner in the Philippines
For Messrs. Dorfman and Waring: Information that the annual quota specified in the recent U. S.-Japanese agreements is meant to include textiles transshipped through Hong Kong and other ports.
1016
[Page XCVII]Oct. 31 To the Secretary of Commerce
Transmittal of confidential report by a Subcommittee of the Executive Committee on Commercial Policy regarding items to be included in contemplated discussions with the Japanese looking toward limitation of importations of textile products into the United States.
1017
Nov. 4 From the Secretary of Commerce
Copy of a letter sent to the President by the Cabinet Textile Committee, October 28 (text printed), recommending early action to regulate or restrict textile imports from Japan; advice of President’s approval.
1018
Nov. 27 Memorandum by Mr. Roy Veatch of the Office of the Economic Adviser
Discussion between Department officials and the Japanese Ambassador, who was handed a statement (infra) giving statistics on the recent imports of Japanese textiles into the Philippines.
1020
Nov. 27 To the Japanese Embassy
Report from the Philippine Customs Service showing excessive Japanese imports of cotton piece goods into the Philippines during the first 3 months of the agreement.
1022
Dec. 3 Memorandum by Mr. Roy Veatch of the Office of the Economic Adviser
Discussion between the Assistant Secretary of State and the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy concerning (1) discrepancy between Japanese statistics and those from the Philippine Customs Service; (2) Japan’s desire that Japanese goods reshipped from Hong Kong or other ports into the Philippines not be included in the statistics of imports from Japan, as the Japanese were unable to control this trade.
1023
Dec. 4 To the High Commissioner in the Philippines
Explanation of present U. S. position in regard to Philippine imports of Japanese goods in excess of quota set in agreement with Japan. Inquiry for Dorfman, Richards, and Waring (text printed) concerning statistics and actual situation at present.
1029
Dec. 10 Memorandum by Mr. Roy Veatch of the Office of the Economic Adviser of a Conversation With the Third Secretary of the Japanese Embassy
Japanese advice of a message received from the Japanese Consul General at Manila containing statistics secured from the Philippine collector of customs.
1031
Dec. 11 (620) From the High Commissioner in the Philippines to the Secretary of War
For the Assistant Secretary of State: Clarification of seeming variations in statistics covering imports into the Philippines.
1032
[Page XCVIII]Dec. 13 Memorandum by Mr. Roy Veatch of the Office of the Economic Adviser
Discussion between the Assistant Secretary of State and the Japanese Counselor of Embassy concerning a more by various textile groups to secure legislation against imports of Japanese textiles, and Japan’s failure to reply to U. S. suggestion for discussions looking toward import control.
1033
Dec. 14 Memorandum by Mr. Roy Veatch of the Office of the Economic Adviser
Discussion between the Assistant Secretary of State and the Japanese Ambassador relative to necessary adjustments of the statistical basis of the agreement governing imports into the Philippines.
1036
Dec. 21 Memorandum by Mr. Roy Veatch of the Office of the Economic Adviser
Call from the Japanese Ambassador, who delivered a statement (infra) to the Assistant Secretary, and explained that his government could not accept the U. S. suggestion looking toward control of exports to the United States; Assistant Secretary’s plans for a press statement.
(Footnote: Release of press statement December 22.)
1037
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 21] From the Japanese Embassy
Statement of Japanese reasons for nonacceptance of U. S. proposal.
1038
Dec. 21 Text of Statement Released to the Press by the Secretary of Finance of the Philippine Government
Explanation of reasons for difference in figures of amounts of Japanese cotton textiles shipped to the Philippines, and understanding that U. S. and Japanese Governments are conferring with respect to an adjustment of the basis of measurement of future imports.
1039
Dec. 24 To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
For Kobe: Memorandum handed to the Japanese Ambassador (substance printed) seeking cooperation in arriving at a basis of classification of rug exports to avoid discrepancies between Japanese and American figures; Japanese reply indicating readiness of Japanese exporters to cooperate. Instructions to confer with representatives of the exporters’ association relative to the problem, and to relay instruction to other Consulates.
1040
Dec. 26 Memorandum by Mr. Roy Veatch of the Office of the Economic Adviser of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Informal discussion of interpretation of the Philippine import agreement in an effort to readjust the terms on a mutually satisfactory basis.
1042
Dec. 27 Memorandum by Mr. Roy Veatch of the Office of the Economic Adviser
Further discussion between the Japanese Ambassador and the Assistant Secretary regarding the confusion as to interpretation of the agreement and possibilities for readjustment along certain lines.
1045
[Page XCIX]

Proposed Japanese Automobile Legislation Violative of the 1911 Treaty of Commerce and Navigation Between the United States and Japan

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Aug. 10 (165) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Provisions of a draft bill, approved by the Cabinet for submission to next session of the Diet, for the control of the automobile industry by means of a system of licenses favoring Japanese companies and subjects.
1048
Nov. 18 (882) To the Chargé in Japan
Authorization to discuss orally and informally with the Foreign Office the proposed legislation, conveying U. S. opinion that its enactment and enforcement would be in contravention of the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation of 1911.
1048
Dec. 19 (247) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information concerning negotiations, apparently in anticipation of the proposed automobile legislation, between General Motors and Japanese interests in regard to future manufacture in Japan. Suggestion that the matter first be discussed informally with Kurusu of the Commercial Affairs Bureau in an exploratory way.
1051
Dec. 24 (202) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Nonobjection to suggested exploratory conversations with Kurusu in regard to details of the draft legislation.
1051

Proposal of a Consular Convention Between the United States and Japan

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Jan. 28 (677) To the Ambassador in Japan
Transmittal of a preliminary draft of a proposed consular convention with Japan, with instructions to examine it, refer it to the Consul General, and submit suggestions or amendments.
1052
Apr. 25 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who stated that Japan is ready to negotiate a consular convention; Department’s agreement to designate a representative to confer with one of the officers of the Japanese Embassy.
1052
May 3 (1272) From the Ambassador in Japan
Suggestions as requested in Department’s No. 677 of January 28 relative to the preliminary draft of proposed consular convention.
1053
June 7 Memorandum by Mr. William T. Turner of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation between Department representatives and Mr. Kawahara of the Japanese Embassy, who presented a memorandum based on a study of the U. S.-German Consular convention; U. S. outline of suggestions (text printed) for Japanese consideration.
1054
June 26 Memorandum by Mr. William T. Turner of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Discussion with Mr. Kawahara of suggested amendments to the Department’s preliminary draft convention.
1056
[Page C]June 28 Memorandum by the Assistant to the Legal Adviser to Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Observations in regard to the several inquiries contained in the informal memorandum submitted by the Japanese Embassy on June 7 relative to certain provisions of the U. S.-German treaty.
1058
July 15 Memorandum by Mr. William T. Turner of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Third Secretary of the Japanese Embassy
Exchange of U. S. and Japanese views concerning the proposed consular convention.
1061
July 17 Memorandum by Mr. William T. Turner of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Third Secretary of the Japanese Embassy
Consultation regarding desirability of incorporating into the new convention all desirable portions of previous treaties affecting consular officers.
1063
July 23 Memorandum by the Consul General at Tokyo
Discussion with Mr. Matsudaira of the Treaty Division of the Foreign Office in regard to interpretation of the term “crimes other than misdemeanors”, as used in the U. S.-Polish Treaty, upon which Japan is evidently basing its draft of the proposed convention.
1064
July 25 Memorandum by the Consul General at Tokyo
Account of several conversations with Mr. Matsudaira in regard to proposed treaty provisions governing tax exemption and consular inspection of vessels for the issuance of bills of health.
1065
Oct. 28 (865) To the Chargé in Japan
Advice that there has been a suggestion for inclusion in proposed convention of a provision relative to visits of consuls to their nationals accused of crime and under confinement; request that a search be made of Embassy archives for a Japanese reply to an 1899 memorandum on the subject.
1066
Dec. 6 (1577) From the Chargé in Japan
Information that a thorough search of the Embassy archives indicates that no reply was received to the memorandum; opinion that Japan would be unlikely at the present time to take legislative action necessary to incorporate the provision under consideration in the convention.
(Footnote: Further inconclusive discussion of articles for a consular convention in 1936 and 1937.)
1067

Proposed Legislation in the State of Arizona Affecting Right of Japanese Nationals To Cultivate Agricultural Land

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Feb. 23 (25) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the Japanese Ambassador is concerned over a bill in the Arizona legislature denying Japanese the right to cultivate land; that the Department has doubts regarding constitutionality of the bill, and is making discreet efforts to prevent its passage.
1068
[Page CI]Feb. 28 (28) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Advice of assurance to the Japanese Ambassador of Department’s efforts in connection with the Arizona measure, with reasons why the matter is a delicate one and should be kept confidential; instructions to inform the Foreign Minister.
1069
Mar. 2 (42) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Compliance with instructions; Foreign Minister’s assurance of full understanding.
1070
Mar. 19 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Discussion of the pending legislation in Arizona, and Department’s reiteration of promise to do whatever is appropriately possible in the matter.
1070
Mar. 19 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Japanese Embassy’s request for any possible Department aid in preventing the passage of a bill reported to be pending in California which would make it more difficult for Japanese to work in that state.
1070
Mar. 22 (45) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
United Press report from Arizona that the State Legislature has adjourned and that the alien land bills died on the calendar.
1071
Mar. 27 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who brought a message from the Foreign Minister expressing Japan’s appreciation for the Department’s efforts in the Arizona matter.
1071

Disinclination of Japan To Negotiate a Convention With the United States Regulating Fisheries Off the Coast of Alaska

Date and number Subject Page
1934 Nov. 19 (639) To the Ambassador in Japan
Request for views regarding the timeliness and advisability of negotiating a treaty with Japan for the protection of Alaskan salmon fishing industry.
1072
1935 Jan. 19 From the Secretary of the Navy
Advice of certain considerations arising from the fact that many of the Japanese fishing vessels engaged in fishing on the U. S. coast are equipped with long-range radio.
1073
Jan. 26 To the Secretary of the Navy
Expectation of early presentation of the matter of the activity of Japanese fishing vessels to an interdepartmental committee.
1073
Mar. 8 (35) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Desire for views as soon as practicable on the matter of possible negotiation of a fisheries treaty.
(Footnote: Ambassador’s reply suggesting delay pending Russo-Japanese fisheries discussions.)
1074
[Page CII]Apr. 22 (748) To the Ambassador in Japan
Comments on Ambassador’s views, and instructions to follow the Soviet-Japanese negotiations and report as soon as it seems opportune to approach the Japanese Government.
1074
June 3 (118) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Suggestion that the Foreign Office be informally approached in regard to the Bering Sea activities of the Japanese fishing interests, in view of likelihood that the Soviet-Japanese negotiations will be protracted.
1075
Aug. 3 (119) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Authorization to approach the Foreign Office informally; advice that Department of Commerce is ready to send Ward T. Bower, fisheries expert, to Japan for technical discussions whenever considered desirable.
1076
Aug. 7 (163) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Informal discussion with the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs, who inquired whether United States would be prepared to make formal proposals in case Japan wishes to enter negotiations for a convention.
1077
Aug. 30 (132) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information for Foreign Office that U. S. Government is prepared to present specific proposals.
1077
Nov. 12 (208) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Account of Foreign Office reasons for not wishing to enter into negotiations at the present time.
1078
Nov. 29 (186) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Oral discussion of fisheries matter with the Japanese Ambassador, who will present the U. S. position to his Government; instructions to take no further action until receipt of reply from Japan.
1079
Dec. 30 Memorandum by Mr. Roy Veatch of the Office of the Economic Adviser
Conversation between the Assistant Secretary of State and the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy, who set forth Japan’s definite rejection of treaty negotiations, but intention to continue discouraging salmon fishing in the waters in question.
(Footnote: Instructions to Ambassador in Japan, January 11, 1936, to forward any suggestions or comments relative to the proposed agreement despite the present Japanese attitude.)
1079

Observations by the Japanese Government Regarding Restrictions Upon the Development and Exploitation of Natural Resources by Aliens in the Philippine Islands

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Mar. 4 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Call by the Japanese Ambassador, who left a memorandum (infra) relative to the desirability of deleting certain provisions from the draft constitution of the Philippines.
1080
[Page CIII]Undated [Rec’d Mar. 4] From the Japanese Embassy
Observations and suggestions concerning provisions in the Philippine draft constitution restricting the development and exploitation of natural resources by foreign nationals.
1081
Mar. 16 To the Secretary of War
Advice that the U. S. Embassy in Tokyo has been instructed to make available certain information bearing on the question whether the laws of Japan prohibit or restrict the development and exploitation by foreign nationals of the natural resources of Japan.
1082
Mar. 19 To the Japanese Embassy
Interpretation of the portion of the draft constitution of the Philippines which relates to conservation and utilization of natural resources, indicating no discrimination against the Japanese.
1082
Mar. 26 To the Secretary of War
Transmittal of copy of the memorandum of March 19, with suggestion that it may be desirable to inform the Governor General of the Philippines in regard to the question raised by the Japanese.
1084
Mar. 29 (68) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that despite the lack of Japanese legislation restricting exploitation by foreigners of natural resources other than mining, there are administrative policies which in practice would probably prevent such exploitation.
1085
Apr. 12 To the Secretary of War
Résumé of information received from the Embassy in Tokyo relative to Japanese laws and practices.
1085

Refusal of the United States To Accede to Demand of Japanese Consul at Chefoo for an official apology following conflict between American and Japanese Nationals

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Sept. 21 (7) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Chefoo, September 19: Report on an incident of September 3 involving a Japanese consular police officer and an American citizen and subsequent demands from Japanese Consul for apologies and guarantees; request for instructions.
To Chefoo, September 21: Instructions to follow procedure provided for under extraterritorial jurisdiction.
1087
Sept. 21 From the Consul at Chefoo (tel.)
Compliance with Embassy’s instructions of September 21.
1089
Sept. 23 (3) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Inquiry as to why no charge has been lodged against the Japanese policeman involved in the Chefoo incident.
1090
[Page CIV]Sept. 24 (9) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Advice that delay in charges against the Japanese policeman is due to attempt to learn actual facts in an involved situation of brawls and gang revenge.
1090
Sept. 26 (17) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Chefoo, September 25: Information that the Japanese Consulate has repeated its demands, and now desires a settlement through diplomatic negotiations.
To Chefoo, September 26: Instructions to withhold apology, but to cooperate with Japanese Consul in determining facts.
Information that the Japanese Embassy believes that settlement of the incident is not a matter for diplomatic negotiations, but is responsibility of the Consulates at Chefoo.
1091
Sept. 27 (7) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Instructions to repeat to Chefoo the Japanese Embassy’s position regarding a diplomatic settlement.
1092
Sept. 29 (20) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Extracts from telegrams exchanged with Chefoo relative to the repeated Japanese demands for an apology. Advice that situation at Chefoo grows more complicated, and suggestion that the Consul General at Mukden be ordered to Chefoo to investigate and make recommendations.
1093
Oct. 2 (21) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
From Chefoo, October 1: Advice of Japanese Consul’s current request that U. S. Consul recognize participation of U. S. Navy personnel in the incident and express regret; belief that Navy personnel actually was involved.
Instructions to Consul General at Mukden and Consul at Chefoo to proceed to Peiping for consultation.
1094
Oct. 2 (23) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
From Chefoo: Transmittal of Japanese Consul’s request reported earlier (text printed).
1094
Oct. 7 (34) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Instructions to Consul at Chefoo, in view of his statement that Navy was involved, to attempt settlement on basis of mutual oral assurances to prevent further disturbances, or on basis of mutual expressions of regret and assurances of investigation.
1095
Oct. 15 (61) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Chefoo, October 14: Japanese Consul’s rejection of proposed basis of settlement.
Intention to take no further action unless Japanese make new overtures.
1095
Oct. 24 (88) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Ambassador’s approval of a letter (text printed) to be sent by the Consul at Chefoo in reply to the Japanese Consul’s request, October 16, for an expression of personal regret in connection with the Chefoo incident.
1096
[Page CV]Dec. 17 (82) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Approval of a proposal by the Ambassador to make representations to the Japanese Ambassador in China concerning the character and tone of the letters from the Japanese Consul at Chefoo to the U. S. Consul there.
(Footnotes: Information of other incidents similar to the one of September 3, and of Japanese Embassy’s reply to representations.)
1097

Protection of Contract Rights of the Oriental Consolidated Mining Company, an American Firm Operating in Korea

Date and number Subject Page
1935 May 6 (755) To the Ambassador in Japan
Instructions to transmit a full report of the legal remedies available and resorted to by the Oriental Consolidated Mining Co. in an effort to secure redress for the Japanese denial of a permit to export gold.
(Footnote: Report from the Ambassador that the Company feels it has exhausted all legal remedies in the premises; opinion that the Japanese Government will refuse to admit damages at this time.)
1097
June 10 (1340) From the Ambassador in Japan
Refusal of company to allow examination of its books by government authorities for purposes of assessing income tax on company’s employees; request for authorization for the Consul at Seoul to suggest the keeping of a separate ledger for salaries to be shown to the authorities voluntarily.
(Footnote: Grant of authorization.)
1099

Attitude of the United States Regarding Corporation in “Manchoukuo” Organized Under American Law but Without American Financial Interest

Date and number Subject Page
1934 May 28 (155) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Detailed comments and instructions relative to rights of the Thrift and Investment, Finance and Trust Corporation, chartered under the laws of Nevada; request for complete report concerning its “precarious activities” referred to by the Consul at Harbin.
1100
1935 Oct. 6 (29) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Harbin: Information that the Thriftcor Bank has suspended activity, and inquiry whether U. S. Court for China should be requested to appoint a liquidator.
Opinion of the Judge of the U. S. Court for China that it has no jurisdiction over the bank’s liquidation, since no American interest is shown. Request for authorization to so instruct the Consul.
1101
Oct. 7 (15) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Authorization as requested, with comments on the situation.
1102
[Page CVI]Oct. 10 (42) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Harbin, October 9: Desire to issue a statement, in view of nonassumption of jurisdiction by the U. S. Court for China, to prevent impression that local authorities have assumed jurisdiction in derogation of U. S. extraterritorial rights.
1102
Oct. 10 (45) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Judge of the U. S. Court for China: Authorization for issuance of statement proposed by the Consul General at Harbin.
1103
Oct. 12 (54) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
From Harbin: Issuance of authorized statement and request that bank cease flying the U. S. flag. Press comment questioning status of other American enterprises following American disclaimer of jurisdiction.
1103
Nov. 21 (101) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information that the Japanese Consul General at Harbin will take measures to prevent publication in Japanese papers of the attacks connected with the Thriftcor Bank.
1104

SIAM

Proposed Revision of the Treaty of Friendship and Commerce Between the United States and Siam, Signed December 16, 1920

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Feb. 25 From the Siamese Legation
Advice of Slam’s acceptance of U. S. draft, presented in June, 1934, of a new article III for the treaty of 1920, and of Siam’s willingness that the agreement revising this article should be in the form of a supplementary treaty.
1105
Mar. 13 To the Siamese Legation
Suggestion that matter of revision of article III be left in abeyance in view of previous delays and of Siam’s intention to seek revision of a number of treaties in 1936.
1105
Mar. 16 (8) To the Minister in Siam (tel.)
Advice of Department’s suggestion that the revision of article III of the treaty of 1920 be held in abeyance; instructions to orally and guardedly reaffirm to the Foreign Office the Department’s regret.
1106
Nov. 22 Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State
Discussion with the Siamese Minister in regard to the elimination of article III relating to monopolies and the Department’s added suggestion concerning the extension to American nationals of most-favored-nation treatment with regard to land ownership in Siam.
1107
Dec. 2 Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State
Further discussion with the Siamese Minister of proposed revision of the treaty of 1920, and submission of draft of a note (infra) for the Siamese Government with regard to the land ownership matter.
1108
[Page CVII]Undated Draft of Note to the Siamese Minister
Statement of readiness to enter into negotiations for revision of article III, with observation that the United States would be highly gratified if Siam could extend to American nationals most-favored-nation treatment with regard to land ownership in Siam.
1109
Dec. 9 Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State
Delivery to the Siamese Minister of a suggested draft note (infra) to be submitted by his Government in reply to that of the United States.
1110
Undated Draft of Note From the Siamese Minister
Acknowledgment of U. S. Government’s readiness to enter into treaty negotiations, with an indication of compliance with U. S. wishes in respect to land ownership.
1111
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