List of Papers

(Unless otherwise specified, the correspondence is from or to officials in the Department of State.)

THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS: JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SHANHAIKWAN AND JEHOL AND WITHDRAWAL FROM LEAGUE OF NATIONS

Chapter I: January 1–31, 1933

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Jan. 2 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Report by Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang of clash between Chinese and Japanese troops at Shanhaikwan; instructions to Marshal Chang to investigate the matter.
1
Jan. 3 (4) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that the Japanese commandant at Tientsin is handling the situation at Shanhaikwan and has demanded that Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang accept responsibility for the clash.
2
Jan. 3 (5) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Receipt of Chinese statement (text printed) giving details of Shanhaikwan incident, indicating that Japanese began the attack.
2
Jan. 4 (8) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Marshal Chang’s reply to Japanese commandant that the Shanhaikwan affair is a national emergency and that communications on the subject should be addressed to the National Government at Nanking.
3
Jan. 4 (11) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Eyewitness account by Italian officer of events at Shanhaikwan.
4
Jan. 4 (2) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japanese War Office statement to Military Attaché (text printed) that Chinese opened fire at Shanhaikwan, but that no aggressive action will be taken by the Japanese Army unless forced to it by the Chinese.
5
Jan. 4 (4) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japanese General Staff statement to Military Attaché (excerpts printed) as to Japanese military strength at Shanhaikwan and intention to make no aggressive move unless provoked by Chinese action.
6
Jan. 4 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who said that the Japanese Cabinet had instructed that action in Shanhaikwan incident should be strictly localized.
6
[Page VI]Jan. 4 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Summary of events at Shanhaikwan.
7
Jan. 5 (15) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harbin, January 4: Occupation by Japanese troops of eastern line of Chinese Eastern Railway; Soviet nonobjection to Japanese occupation.
9
Jan. 5 (6) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that Japanese military authorities in Manchuria have been instructed to localize Shanhaikwan affair as far as possible.
9
Jan. 5 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Consensus of opinion among foreign observers as to Japanese responsibility for Shanhaikwan incident.
9
Jan. 5 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Protest to Japan against action at Shanhaikwan, demanding immediate withdrawal of Japanese troops from Shanhaikwan and reserving right to claim reparation for damages.
10
Jan. 5 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Evidence of premeditated nature of Japanese attack on Shanhaikwan; opinion as to necessity for immediate action by the League of Nations in view of threat to Tientsin, Peiping, and Jehol.
10
Jan. 5 (3223) From the Ambassador in France
French denial of rumored Franco-Japanese understanding; French public opinion regarding Far Eastern situation.
12
Jan. 6 (18) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, January 5: Information that Kwantung Army has taken charge of operations at Shanhaikwan and is anxious to secure local peaceful settlement
14
Jan. 6 (23) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report by U. S. Army officer on Chinese military position near Shanhaikwan.
15
Jan. 6 (7) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
British Ambassador’s suggestion to Foreign Minister for modification of instructions of Japanese delegate at League of Nations to promote conciliation proceedings, and unfavorable reply.
15
Jan. 6 (26) From the Minister in China (tel.)
British representations to both Chinese and Japanese respecting possible danger to British interests at Chinwangtao in event of military clash in that area.
16
Jan. 6 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Belgian Ambassador
Observations with respect to U. S. position in Far Eastern situation and possible action by League of Nations to strengthen world public opinion.
16
[Page VII]Jan. 6 From the Counselor of Embassy in Great Britain
Report on British attitude toward Shanhaikwan incident; divergent public opinion respecting League’s handling of Sino-Japanese controversy.
18
Jan. 6 (3231) From the Ambassador in France
Information that questions involved in proposed Japanese loan to “Manchoukuo” have not as yet arisen.
19
Jan. 6 (2529) From the Consul General at Harbin to the Minister in China
Account of Japanese campaign in eastern North Manchuria against Chinese insurgents, resulting in Japanese occupation of eastern line of Chinese Eastern Railway; Soviet-Japanese understanding with regard to campaign.
20
Jan. 7 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who stressed local nature of Shanhaikwan affair and said that the Japanese Cabinet has pledged that there will be no further hostilities on Japanese initiative.
21
Jan. 7 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Chinese Chargé
Chargé’s denial of rumors that China intends withdrawing from the League of Nations or breaking off diplomatic relations with Japan.
23
Jan. 7 (31) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Suggestion that offer of good offices be made to Chinese and Japanese Governments for mediation of Shanhaikwan situation; information that British, French, and Italian colleagues are making similar suggestions to their Governments.
23
Jan. 7 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Opinion of Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang that Shanhaikwan occurrence was part of preconceived plan of Japanese military aggression and therefore impossible to settle locally; Chinese determination to resist further Japanese aggression.
24
Jan. 8 (32) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Gluckman, language officer at Chinwangtao: Visit to headquarters of General Ho Chu-kuo, who said that he had been approached by the Japanese for negotiations on board a British warship and had referred the request to Peiping.
25
Jan. 9 (36) From the Minister in China (tel.)
View of Minister and colleagues that no action can be taken in mediation question until it is brought up officially by the Chinese; possibility that Chinese may raise question of responsibility of the powers party to Boxer protocol in view of Japanese abuse of rights under that protocol.
25
Jan. 9 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Chinese Appointed Minister
Information that French Vice Foreign Minister, in a confidential conversation with Dr. Wellington Koo, advised that France was willing to resort to paragraph 4 of article 15 of the League Covenant since conciliation proceedings appear to have been unsuccessful.
27
[Page VIII]Jan. 9 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Chinese Appointed Minister
Willingness of Mr. Hornbeck to submit to the Secretary of State a message (infra) from Dr. Yen, Chinese delegate at the League of Nations.
27
[Jan. 9] Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Message from Dr. Yen, Chinese delegate at League of Nations (text printed), requesting reaffirmation of American position regarding Manchuria and suggesting participation of the President-elect in this action.
28
Jan. 9 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State of a Conversation With the Second Secretary of the French Embassy
Discussion of possible action by international troops stationed in Tientsin-Peiping area under terms of the Boxer protocol in event of interference with railroad operations between Tientsin and Peiping.
29
Jan. 9 (6) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Department’s views as to British responsibility for leadership in any conciliation efforts undertaken by the powers in Shanhaikwan situation; instructions to inform British colleague of Department’s attitude.
30
Jan. 9 Memorandum by Mr. William R. Langdon
Report on alleged use of American naval forces in connection with anti-American boycott in China in 1905–06.
31
Jan. 9 (D–417) From the Consul General at Nanking
Memorandum (text printed) of conversation of Lt. Boatner, of Military Attaché’s office, with Dr. Yu, Secretary General of Chinese General Staff, who made suggestions concerning possibility of furnishing of technical, material, and financial assistance by the American Government to the Chinese Government in its present military resistance to Japan.
39
Jan. 9 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang’s declaration (text printed) to the press that international peace efforts appear to have failed and that he sees no way to maintain peace and protect China except by sacrificing Chinese lives and blood.
42
Jan. 10 From the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs to the Under Secretary of State and the Secretary of State
Opinion that peace in the Far East has been completely disrupted and that there is little chance of preventing increased hostilities except by threat of avowed intervention of the powers.
43
Jan. 10 From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Information that “Manchoukuo” government has established a central mission for Europe in Paris for purposes of obtaining diplomatic recognition and financial assistance.
43
[Page IX]Jan. 10 (5) From the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)
Memorandum from Chinese Government (text printed) calling attention to Japanese abuse of special privileges under the Boxer protocol, to which the United States is a signatory party; informal suggestion that powers make representations to Japan to dissuade it from abusing these privileges.
44
Jan. 10 (6) From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.)
Foreign Office memorandum (excerpt printed) indicating British Government’s intention to take no action at present in regard to question of mediation in Shanhaikwan situation.
44
Jan. 10 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who maintained that Japan could not recede from its position on “Manchoukuo”, and inquired as to American attitude in Far Eastern situation, with particular reference to the nonrecogrnition doctrine.
45
Jan. 10 (2) From the Ambassador in Belgium (tel.)
Discussion with Belgian Foreign Minister as to possible developments and courses of action in forthcoming meeting of League Committee of Nineteen.
(Sent also to the Minister in Switzerland.)
48
Jan. 10 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Report from Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang concerning various English and Japanese suggestions for local settlement of Shanhaikwan affair; Foreign Office reply that Shanhaikwan affair cannot be settled locally.
49
Jan. 10 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Denial of Tokyo report of opening of negotiations for settlement of Shanhaikwan affair.
50
Jan. 11 (38) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, January 10: Information that Japanese planes bombarded Chinese troops concentrated near Suichung.
50
Jan. 12 (41) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harbin, January 11: Information concerning continued Japanese operations against leaders of Chinese insurgents in Kirin province.
51
Jan. 12 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Report from Tokyo of an interview made public by the Japanese War Department indicating designs upon Jehol.
51
Jan. 13 (45) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Chinese Government’s request for statement by U. S. Government reaffirming its views on Manchurian situation.
51
Jan. 13 (46) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Minister and diplomatic colleagues are awaiting instructions of their respective Governments in regard to Chinese note of January 10 relating to Boxer protocol.
52
[Page X]Jan. 13 (47) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of continued Chinese troop movements in Tientsin-Tangshan-Chinwangtao area, which remains otherwise quiet.
52
Jan. 13 Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Telephone Conversation With the Governor of New York at 9:15 am
Governor Roosevelt’s acquiescence in Secretary’s proposal to assure Sir John Simon of unchanging American policy on Manchuria.
53
Undated Memorandum of Trans-Atlantic Telephone Conversation
Between the Secretary of State and the Chargé in Great Britain, January 13: Secretary’s instructions to confer with Sir John Simon with regard to U. S.-British cooperation at coming meeting of League Committee of Nineteen, assuring him of unchanging American policy on Manchuria; also to seek an exchange of views with regard to events in Shanhaikwan and Jehol.
54
Jan. 13 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Chinese Appointed Minister
Chinese inquiry as to developments in regard to their request of January 9 for American declaration of attitude on Manchurian situation; reply that no conclusive decision has yet been made.
57
Undated From the French Embassy
Inquiry as to American attitude toward representations to Japan by powers signatory to the Boxer protocol; also with reference to proposal for neutralization of Peiping or Peiping Legation Quarter.
58
Jan. 13 (11) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions for oral reply to Chinese Government’s request reported in telegram No. 45, January 13.
59
Jan. 13 (10) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Instructions to seek confidential and informal exchange of views with French Foreign Office on Sino-Japanese dispute, emphasizing unchanged American position and willingness to support League of Nations decisions and actions in accordance with this position.
59
Jan. 13 (13) To the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.)
Information that Minister in China has been informed of substance of British memorandum on Shanhaikwan mediation question reported in Chargé’s telegram No. 6, January 10; opinion that no reply is necessary to British memorandum, although an oral statement of Department’s views in the matter might be made.
61
Jan. 13 (1) To the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
U. S. attitude as to necessity for strong stand by League of Nations in defense of principles; authorization to inform Hymans (president of League Assembly) of U. S. inability to dictate League action but readiness to support its decisions taken in accordance with well-known American policy.
61
[Page XI]Jan. 13 (13) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for information as to any existing agreement between Boxer protocol powers with reference to occupation of sectors of North China listed in article 9 of the protocol.
64
Jan. 13 (8) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Informal comments by Sir John Simon on memorandum of trans-Atlantic telephone conversation January 13; his intention to submit memorandum in reply for transmission to Secretary Stimson.
64
Jan. 13 (251) From the Ambassador in Japan
Reports from various sources of a movement to establish a Manchurian-Mongol Empire with Henry Pu-yi as Emperor.
65
Jan. 13 (256) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report on strained Japanese-Soviet relations.
68
Jan. 13 (313) From the Consul General at Tientsin to the Minister in China
Report on Shanhaikwan incident and subsequent military developments; summary of immediate results of Japanese occupation of Shanhaikwan.
70
Jan. 14 (11) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japanese newspaper stories that the United States is giving economic and military assistance to China for warlike preparations against Japan; inquiry as to whether to take notice of such reports.
81
Jan, 14 (2) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that Department has issued orally to the press a denial of alleged U. S. understanding with China with regard to furnishing of arms and munitions.
81
Jan. 14 (15) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Account of views expressed by Sir John Simon on Shanhaikwan situation with respect to questions of mediation and patrol by foreign troops; information that Department’s views are similar.
82
Jan. 14 (16) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Statement of American policy with respect to the Boxer protocol.
82
Jan. 15 (51) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harbin, January 13: Report of continued Japanese military operations against Chinese forces near Kirin-Russian frontier; information that entire Chinese Eastern Railway system is now open to traffic.
86
Jan. 15 (20) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Information that Under Secretary of Foreign Affairs was informed of views contained in Department’s telegram No. 10 of January 13, which he said were in accord with French position.
86
[Page XII]Jan. 15 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Statement that rumor of Chinese and Japanese officers having begun negotiations for settlement of Shanhaikwan affair is Japanese propaganda and that, as announced previously by the Chinese Government, the affair cannot be settled locally.
87
Jan. 16 (52) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, January 15: Indications of Japanese preparations for drive on Jehol.
88
Jan. 16 (10) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Memorandum from Sir John Simon (text printed) expressing his views on Manchurian situation and events at Shanhaikwan in reply to a memorandum based on trans-Atlantic telephone conversation of January 13.
88
Jan. 16 (53) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Shanghai, January 15 (text printed), concerning issuance of a Communist manifesto declaring willingness of Chinese Red armies to fight with Government troops against Japan provided certain conditions are met.
90
Jan. 16 (54) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Vice Foreign Minister’s account of Japanese assurances not to aggravate situation at Shanhaikwan and their hope that China will refrain from moving troops in that direction; and of Chinese reply, expressing hope that Japanese will withdraw voluntarily from Shanhaikwan.
90
Jan. 16 (14) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Information that in reply to inquiry by Sir John Simon, the Japanese Ambassador advised that his Government would not accept the proposed League of Nations Conciliation Committee, even though Soviet and U. S. representatives were not included.
91
Undated Statement Made by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs to the Chinese Appointed Minister on January 16, 1933
Statement, with reference to Chinese memorandum and informal suggestion of January 10, of Department’s attitude with respect to application of Boxer protocol to Shanhaikwan incident.
92
Jan. 16 (78) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Information that a draft resolution and statement of reasons has been submitted by the Japanese delegate to his Government for approval.
92
Jan. 16 (56) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information in reply to Department’s No. 13, January 13, as to existing agreements among foreign governments for occupation of sectors of North China.
93
[Page XIII]Jan. 16 (13) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Request for facts in matter of Japanese Foreign Office statement that American Army has loaned men to China to take part in the hostilities against Japan.
94
Jan. 16 (79) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Resumption of sessions of Committee of Nineteen; text of communiqué to be issued expressing Committee’s intention, if conciliation negotiations are unsuccessful, to prepare report provided for in article 15, paragraph 4, of the League Covenant.
95
Jan. 17 (14) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Publication of a Japanese War Office statement that the United States is supplying automobiles and airplanes to China through merchants at Shanghai and that Germany is supplying munitions through merchants at Tientsin.
97
Undated To the French Embassy
Reply to the inquiry of the French Government of January 13, giving U. S. views on questions of Boxer protocol and Shanhaikwan incident.
98
Jan. 17 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Reports of Japanese military activities In Jehol and Pei-ping-Tientsin area.
99
Jan. 18 (59) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Statement by Chinese Foreign Minister (text printed) reiterating that China will not accept any resolutions by the League of Nations contrary to principles previously expressed by Chinese Government.
100
Jan. 18 (60) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Telegram (text printed) sent by the Southwest Political Council to the Chinese National Government and Kuomintang urging armed resistance to Japanese.
101
Jan. 18 (17) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Belief that War Office announcement reported in telegram No. 14, January 17, was for purpose of influencing public sentiment in Japan in favor of large Army budgetary allotment.
102
Jan. 18 (19) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Statement by President-elect Roosevelt, January 17 (text printed), that American foreign policy must uphold sanctity of international treaties.
102
Jan. 18 (18) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
German denial of reports that Germany is supplying arms and munitions to China, and that 27 German military officers are employed by China.
103
[Page XIV]Jan. 18 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Belgian Ambassador, who was informed of unchanged American policy in regard to the Far Eastern situation and expectation that this policy will be continued by the next administration.
103
Jan. 18 (6) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Denial of Japanese statement that American Army officers are being employed by Chinese Government, and explanation of status of 13 American civilians employed in an aviation school at Hangchow.
104
Jan. 18 (20) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Explanation, in view of recent misleading press reports of American approaches to foreign governments in regard to the Manchurian situation, concerning the nature and substance of the communications in question.
105
Jan. 18 (12) From the Ambassador in Mexico (tel.)
Interview with Foreign Minister, who gave information concerning Mexican position at League of Nations in regard to Far Eastern situation.
106
Jan. 18 (80) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Japanese draft declaration and resolutions (texts printed), and statement of readiness to accept texts with one modification, i.e., the elimination of the provision for the inclusion of nonmember states on the conciliation commission.
107
Jan. 18 (81) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Communiqué issued by the Committee of Nineteen (text printed) concerning its decision to ascertain whether Japan would accept the Committee’s original draft resolution of last December, provided Japanese objection to participation of nonmember states could be settled.
109
Jan. 18 (82) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Résumé of discussions of Japanese amendments by Committee of Nineteen and conclusions as to failure of conciliation and the importance of showing clearly that disagreement was on matter of substance and not of form.
110
Jan. 18 (1925) From the Minister in China
Transmittal of memoranda of conversations with diplomatic colleagues and others on the question of the situation in the Peiping-Tientsin area.
112
Jan. 18 From the Counselor of Legation in China to the Minister in China
Discussion with Vice Foreign Minister of Department’s attitude regarding the relation between the Japanese military activities at Shanhaikwan and the Boxer protocol.
113
Jan. 19 (62) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harbin, January 18: Report that Barga area is now under Japanese domination.
114
[Page XV]Jan. 19 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Report of Japanese preparations for the invasion of Jehol.
114
Jan. 20 (68) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, January 19: Intimation by Foreign Minister of possibility of Chinese withdrawal from the League of Nations; feeling that Minister may be desirous of conveying this information indirectly to the British.
To Nanking: Caution against becoming a channel for such communications.
115
Jan. 20 (70) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, January 20: Foreign Minister’s authorization to inform British diplomatic representative of Chinese attitude toward the League of Nations, but without quoting his name.
116
Jan. 20 (22) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of warning to Nanking against acting as channel for Chinese unofficial communications.
116
Jan. 20 (83) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Summary of meeting of Committee of Nineteen at which further discussion was postponed, pending receipt of Japanese Government’s reply as to whether it will accept Committee’s original proposal provided invitation to nonmember states is omitted.
117
Jan. 21 (12) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Summary of principal points of a statement issued by Chinese delegation.
117
Jan. 21 (84) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Communiqué issued by the Committee of Nineteen (text printed) stating that in view of Japanese Government’s non-acceptance of its proposals, it had decided to begin preparation of draft report provided for by article 15, paragraph 4, of the League Covenant.
118
Jan. 22 (71) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Departure from Tientsin for the South of China, of Marshal Tuan Chi-jui, former Chief Executive of the old Peking Government, to allay rumors that he was secretly negotiating with the Japanese.
120
Jan. 22 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Foreign Minister’s statement (text printed), with reference to speech by Japanese Foreign Minister on Far Eastern situation, reaffirming China’s position that “Manchoukuo” must be abolished and Chinese sovereignty over the Three Eastern Provinces be reestablished.
120
Jan. 23 (78) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Rumor that visit of Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang to Nanking is connected with presence there of Tuan Chi-jui.
121
[Page XVI]Jan. 23 (85) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Discussion by Committee of Nineteen of form of draft report under article 15, paragraph 4.
121
Jan. 23 From the British Embassy
Proposal that powers signatory to the Boxer protocol make friendly representations to the Japanese Government expressing concern over alleged abuses of special privileges enjoyed under Boxer protocol; request for U. S. views.
122
Jan. 24 To the British Embassy
Reply to British aide-mémoire of January 23 requesting specific information as to alleged abuses by the Japanese and other information regarding proposed representations to Japan.
123
Jan. 24 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Rejection of offers for local settlement of Shanhaikwan incident under good offices of the English since Chinese Government considers question is related to Manchurian situation in general and cannot be settled locally.
123
Jan. 24 (80) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Rumors of probability of direct negotiations between China and Japan.
124
Jan. 24 (21) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Department’s views as to inadvisability of representations either to China or Japan by powers signatory to the Boxer protocol; instructions to discuss matter with Foreign Office.
124
Jan. 24 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Reply sent by Foreign Minister, January 22 (text printed), to a note from the Japanese Minister to China of January 11, pointing out Japanese responsibility for Shanhaikwan incident and protesting against violation of international law and treaties.
125
Jan. 25 (85) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Observations as to probability that Japan is endeavoring, through Tuan Chi-jui, to secure direct negotiations with China, using relinquishment of their intended invasion of Jehol as an inducement.
127
Jan. 25 (86) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, January 24: Notification given British representative by Chinese Vice Foreign Minister concerning possible withdrawal of China from the League of Nations if League action does not support Chinese position.
128
Jan. 25 From the Chinese Legation
Denial of rumors that Chinese Government is contemplating entering direct negotiations with Japan.
129
[Page XVII]Jan. 25 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Announcement by Mr. Tuan Chi-jui of his support of Chinese Government’s policies toward Japan.
129
Jan. 26 (186) To the Ambassador in Japan
U. S. position in regard to loan negotiated by “Manchoukuo” regime with Japanese banking syndicate; attitude on proposed opium monopoly in Manchuria.
129
Jan. 26 (92) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, January 25: Information that preparations for Japanese drive on Jehol have not been completed and that February or early March is regarded as best time for the drive.
133
Jan. 26 (94) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report concerning conference at Nanking between Chiang Kai-shek, Chang Hsueh-liang, and Tuan Chi-jui, at which the latter presented Japanese peace proposals; Foreign Office denial that direct peace negotiations were under consideration. Opinion that Chinese would accept mediation of a third power, such as the United States or Soviet Russia.
134
Jan. 26 (18) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Informal discussion with Foreign Office official of Department’s position on proposed representations to Japan by powers signatory to the Boxer protocol.
135
Jan. 28 From the British Embassy
Explanations of British Government in reply to inquiries in Department’s aide-mémoire of January 24 concerning proposed representations to the Japanese Government under the Boxer protocol.
136
Jan. 29 (97) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report of interview with Marshal Tuan Chi-jui, who said that his visit to Nanking had no political significance.
136
Jan. 30 (98) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, January 28: Information that adherence of Chinese Chairman of Jehol Provincial Government to the new regime has been secured, that little resistance to the occupation of Jehol is expected, and that it is planned to announce the installment of “Manchoukuo” administration in Jehol on March 1.
187
Jan. 30 (29) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Discussions in drafting committee of the Committee of Nineteen concerning character of the report to be made under article 15, paragraph 4, of the League Covenant; British opposition to inclusion of statement of nonrecognition of “Manchoukuo.”
187
[Page XVIII]Jan. 30 (100) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, January 29: Foreign Minister’s declaration that newspaper reports that either Tuan Chi-jui or Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang has suggested opening negotiations with Japan were unfounded and Japanese-inspired; and that the Chinese Government and people are determined to resist Japan.
139
Jan. 31 (103) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Canton, January 30: Conclusion of military conference at Canton at which plans for resisting Japanese invasion were drawn up, to be submitted for approval of Nanking Government.
140
[Jan. 31] To the British Embassy
Appreciation of British views conveyed in aide-mémoire of January 28; opinion that U. S. participation in any representations to Japan under the Boxer protocol at the present time would be unwise.
140

Chapter II: February 1–March 19, 1933

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Feb. 1 (24) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Repetition of substance of aide-mémoire of January 31 to the British Embassy, and information that in presenting document the opinion was expressed that in view of Japanese attitude toward the United States, any British effort would be more successful without U. S. participation.
141
Feb. 2 (105) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, February 1: Indications that drive on Jehol will begin within a few days.
142
Feb. 2 (8) From the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)
Foreign Office press release, February 1 (text printed), expressing Chinese position concerning responsibility of League of Nations to make a declaration of nonrecognition of Manchurian regime.
143
Feb. 3 (34) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Intimation by Japanese General Staff officers to Military Attaché that Japanese Army hopes to negotiate an arrangement regarding Jehol.
144
Feb. 3 (35) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Military Attachés estimate of the number of Japanese troops now on the Asiatic mainland.
144
Feb. 3 (92) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Japanese desire for continuation of conciliation negotiations on the basis of the proposals of December 15, but with certain modifications.
144
[Page XIX]Feb. 3 (14) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information concerning exchange of views with Great Britain in the matter of representations to Japan with regard to alleged abuse of privileges under the Boxer protocol.
(Footnote: Information from Ambassador in Japan, February 24, that British Ambassador has been instructed to drop matter of representations.)
145
Feb. 4 (93) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Communiqué issued by Committee of Nineteen (text printed) giving Committee’s conclusions that new Japanese proposals did not afford a satisfactory basis for conciliation negotiations.
146
Feb. 4 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Denial of reports that British Government had made proposals to the Chinese Government for a round-table conference at Nanking or Shanghai for settlement of the Sino-Japanese dispute.
148
Feb. 6 (95) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Discussion by Committee of Nineteen of recommendations to accompany report to include nonrecognition of and non-cooperation with “Manchoukuo”, with question of coercive measures to be considered later.
149
Feb. 7 (96) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Discussion with British and French members of Committee of Nineteen of U. S. attitude toward policy of nonrecognition of and noncooperation with “Manchoukuo” and toward application of sanctions.
152
Feb. 7 (65) To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)
Approval of League policy of nonrecognition of and non-cooperation with “Manchoukuo”, but opposition to use of military or economic sanctions.
152
Feb. 7 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Report of Japanese seizures of Hulutao on grounds that it is the only military harbor of “Manchoukuo”; resistance to Japanese aggression in Jehol.
154
Feb. 7 (W.D. 1180) Report by the Special Assistant of the Embassy in France
Confidential and unofficial information from reliable sources regarding Japan’s ultimate aims and warlike policy in the Pacific.
155
Feb. 8 (98) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Information that meeting of drafting committee of Committee of Nineteen was postponed from February 7 to February 8 owing to receipt of revised instructions by the Japanese delegation.
157
[Page XX]Feb. 8 (99) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
New Japanese proposals for amending draft resolutions and statement of reasons.
158
Feb. 8 From Dr. Syngman Bhee
Transmittal of copy of a communication to the League of Nations urging importance of solution of Korean problem as part of any solution of the Manchurian problem.
159
Feb. 9 (100) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Confidential information that new Japanese proposals have not been approved by Japanese Government but were submitted by Japanese delegation in hope of maintaining cooperation with the League, although Army element desires a break with the League.
160
Feb. 9 (101) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Decision of Committee of Nineteen to send formal letter to Japanese delegation requesting information as to its position on point 7 of chapter 9 of the Lytton Report involving Chinese sovereignty in Manchuria, and to inform them orally of Committee’s view that reported military operations in Jehol would endanger efforts for conciliation.
161
Feb. 9 (507 Pol.) From the Consul at Geneva
Information concerning efforts of Dr. Syngman Rhee to place the case of Korea before the League of Nations.
164
Feb. 10 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Account of recent clashes between the Chinese and Japanese in Jehol.
165
Feb. 10 (543) From the Consul General at Mukden
Report on developments in “Manchoukuo’s” economic relations with Japan and the effect on American and other foreign trade.
166
Feb. 11 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
To the Legation: Report on Japanese troop movements in Tientsin-Shanhaikwan area.
168
Feb. 11 (102) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Consideration by drafting committee of Committee of Nineteen of question of constitution and powers of an executory committee to secure carrying out of recommendations.
168
Feb. 12 (103) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Unofficial summary of draft recommendations to be presented by drafting committee to the Committee of Nineteen.
169
Feb. 13 (137) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report on Chinese political situation and the position of the National Government.
170
Feb. 13 (105) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Japanese representative’s reply to verbal representations regarding Jehol to the effect that Jehol was a separate question and had no connection with conciliation problem.
174
[Page XXI]Feb. 13 (106) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Letter from Secretary General of the League to the Japanese delegation, February 9 (text printed), expressing desire of Committee of Nineteen to be informed of the attitude of the Japanese Government toward acceptance of point 7 of chapter 9 of the Lytton Report.
176
Feb. 13 (723) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China
Additional information concerning Fushun massacre.
176
Feb. 14 (107) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Japanese reply, February 14 (text printed), to Secretary General’s letter of February 9, setting forth Japanese Government’s position with regard to acceptance of chapter 9 of the Lytton Report; communication from Secretary General to the Japanese delegate, February 14 (text printed), stating that after consideration of Japanese position, the Committee of Nineteen has concluded that the Japanese proposals of February 8 do not afford an acceptable basis for conciliation.
177
Feb. 14 (108) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Adoption by the Committee of Nineteen of report and recommendations prepared by drafting committee.
179
Feb. 14 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Report of battle between Chinese and Japanese troops at Kailu, Jehol Province, on February 6.
181
Feb. 15 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who defended proposed Japanese occupation of Jehol.
181
Feb. 16 Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the Danish Minister
Discussion of Far Eastern situation with reference to non-recognition doctrine.
184
Feb. 17 (197) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reports of Japanese plans to begin drive against Jehol about February 21.
184
Feb. 17 (41) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Informal discussion between Vice Foreign Minister and member of Embassy staff as to Japan’s probable action at League of Nations.
185
Feb. 18 (160) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, February 17: Inquiry by Japanese official as to whether China intends to withdraw the Chinese Minister to Japan, and Chinese reply that this would depend upon actions of Japan; Chinese inquiry as to whether Japan will invade Jehol, and Japanese affirmative reply.
186
[Page XXII]Feb. 18 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Assurance, in reply to British Chargés inquiries, of continued American cooperation with the League of Nations in the Sino-Japanese situation, but observation as to inadvisability of a public statement of approval of the report of the Committee of Nineteen before the Assembly acts.
186
Feb. 18 Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the Canadian Minister
Canadian inquiry as to U. S. attitude toward serving on proposed committee to be set up by the League Assembly to negotiate a settlement between China and Japan.
187
Feb. 19 (164) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Decision by “Manchoukuo” authorities to relieve General Tang Yu-lin of governorship of Jehol and to appoint General Chang Hai-peng as Acting Governor.
188
Feb. 19 (165) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Jehol, February 18, of the arrival of Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang, T. V. Soong, and Marshal Chang Tso-hsiang for purpose of completing Chinese plans for defense of the Province.
188
Feb. 21 (170) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, February 20: Indications that major operations in Jehol will begin soon; probability that Peiping-Tientsin district may be involved.
189
Feb. 21 (54) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Adoption by special Assembly of a proposal to begin discussion of draft report of Committee of Nineteen on February 24.
189
Feb. 21 (44) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Delay in Japanese Army’s plans to start the offensive into Jehol on February 22 or 23.
190
Feb. 21 (118) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Intention of Japanese delegation to leave Geneva upon adoption of report by Assembly.
190
Feb. 21 (120) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Report at meeting of Committee of Nineteen of acceptance or nonacceptance by various states of invitation to be represented on Committee of Negotiations to be constituted under terms of report.
191
Feb. 21 (121) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Discussion by Committee of Nineteen of following questions: (1) issuance to certain countries of invitations to be represented on Committee of Negotiations; (2) the continuation of the Committee of Nineteen after the Assembly’s vote; (3) the problem of Jehol.
192
Feb. 22 (174) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, February 21: Report that Japanese troops have crossed Jehol border.
193
[Page XXIII]Feb. 22 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Telegram from General Tang Yu-lin reporting severe fighting between Chinese and Japanese troops in Jehol and pledging himself to the defense of Jehol; two telegrams (excerpts printed) from National Defense organizations of Jehol and Chahar sent to all public bodies and organizations throughout China urging support of the Government and Army in defense of Jehol.
194
Feb. 23 (175) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report, February 22: Statement by Foreign Office spokesman that arms embargo should be applied against Japan only, as the aggressor.
195
Feb. 23 (45) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Views regarding decision of Japanese Cabinet to withdraw from the League of Nations, and the possible effects of withdrawal on the Far Eastern situation.
195
Feb. 23 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with British Ambassador, in which the Secretary expressed gratification at action taken by the League of Nations.
197
[Feb. 23] (268) From the Military Attaché in Japan to the Adjutant General of the Army
Information that General Liu Kuei-tang and volunteers near Kailu have ceased opposition and pledged allegiance to “Manchoukuo”; information that Japan has begun military preparations in Bonin and Mandate Islands.
197
Feb. 23 Memorandum by Mr. Joseph C. Green, of the Division of Western European Affairs, of a Conversation With the Chinese Minister
Inquiry by Chinese Minister as to status of arms embargo resolution now pending in Congress.
197
Feb. 23 (123) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Discussion in Committee of Nineteen of procedure for Assembly meeting on February 24 to consider report; question as to whether Committee of Nineteen will continue or will be replaced by a new committee.
198
Feb. 23 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Japanese memorandum (text printed) warning that China is responsible for any situation that may arise as result of rejection of demands for withdrawal of Chiang Hseuh-liang’s forces from Jehol.
201
Feb. 23 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Reply (text printed) to the Japanese memorandum, expressing Chinese position with regard to Japanese aggression in Manchuria and China’s sovereign right to dispatch troops to Jehol.
202
[Page XXIV]Feb. 24 (178) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, February 23: Report by Japanese military that Liu Kuei-tang and volunteer forces have surrendered and joined “Manchoukuo” army.
203
Feb. 24 (180) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of American Military Attaché at Chengteh, February 23, on Japanese military strength being employed in attack against Jehol.
203
Feb. 24 (75) To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)
Arrangements for making public an exchange of letters between the Secretary General of the League and the United States concerning U. S. endorsement of report and recommendations of Committee of Nineteen.
204
Feb. 24 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
British Ambassador’s inquiry as to possibilities of U. S.-British cooperation on a munitions embargo, and explanation of U. S. position.
204
Feb. 24 (58) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Consideration by special Assembly of report of Committee of Nineteen.
(Footnote: Information that report was adopted.)
205
Feb. 24 (59) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Addendum (text printed) by special Assembly to report of Committee of Nineteen.
208
Feb. 24 (60) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Resolution (text printed) adopted by the Assembly to appoint an Advisory Committee to follow and report on the Sino-Japanese situation, and to invite the Governments of the United States and the Soviet Union to cooperate in its work.
208
Feb. 24 From President Hoover
Opposition to the imposition of either military or economic sanctions in the Sino-Japanese dispute.
209
Feb. 25 (129) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Meeting of new Advisory Committee at which it was decided to invite the United States and the Soviet Union to cooperate in its work.
210
Feb. 26 (131) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Observations concerning certain obligations which may be entailed, for consideration in connection with U. S. reply to League’s invitation to cooperate with Advisory Committee.
210
Feb. 27 (186) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, February 25: Japanese advance into Jehol and warning by General Muto that if Chang Hsueh-liang attempts serious resistance, North China may become involved.
February 26: Text of General Muto’s statement, and information that “Manchoukuo” Foreign Minister sent a similar warning to Nanking and Chang Hsueh-liang. Further information concerning Japanese movements.
211
[Page XXV]Feb. 27 (36) From the Chargé in Mexico (tel.)
Explanation by Foreign Minister, February 24 (text printed), of statement February 9 by Mexican representative at League of Nations defining Mexican attitude in Sino-Japanese dispute.
212
Feb. 27 (188) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Receipt of information, given unofficially and personally, that Chinese defense works at Peitaiho will necessitate use of land belonging to American Methodist Mission, which will be restored after conclusion of military operations.
213
Feb. 27 (189) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Chinese belief that Japanese are preparing a thrust into the Lwan River triangle south of the Great Wall.
213
Feb. 27 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Inquiry by Belgian Ambassador, and Secretary’s reply, concerning U. S. attitude toward an arms embargo in the Far Eastern situation.
214
Feb. 28 (191) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Military Attaché’s report on Chinese plan of resistance in Jehol.
215
Feb. 28 (82) To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)
Instructions to inform the Secretary General of the League, informally and orally, that in view of the imminent change in administration it seems inadvisable at present to make a formal reply to the invitation to cooperate with the Advisory Committee, but to give assurance of continued cooperation in exchange of views and information.
215
Feb. 28 (50) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information concerning Japanese military operations in Jehol; opinion that Japanese military authorities wish to avoid carrying operations south of the Wall if possible.
216
Feb. 28 From the British Embassy
Information that in view of lack of unanimity with which the proposal was received, the British Government does not intend to pursue the suggested representations to Japan by the powers signatory to the Boxer protocol.
216
Feb. 28 (697) From the Ambassador in Great Britain
British Government’s announcement on February 27 of a British arms embargo against China and Japan, pending international consultation and decision; Ambassador’s observations.
217
Mar. 1 (196) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Nanking, February 28, of Chinese attitude toward British arms embargo.
219
[Page XXVI]Mar. 1 (134) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Delivery of Department’s message contained in telegram No. 82 of February 28 to the Secretary General of the League; his reluctance to convene the Advisory Committee until the attitude of the United States toward the invitation has been made clear.
219
Mar. 1 Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affair
Explanation to Chinese Minister of U. S. attitude toward invitation to cooperate with League’s Advisory Committee.
220
Mar. 1 Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Chinese Minister’s denial of report that Chinese Minister to Japan had been recalled.
221
Mar. 1 Memorandum by Mr. Joseph C. Green, of the Division of Western European Affairs, of a Conversation With the Chinese Minister
Chinese Minister’s inquiry as to the present status of the arms embargo resolution, and comment on recent British embargo.
221
Mar. 1 (20) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Department’s attitude toward proposed visit to the United States of Japanese delegate at League Assembly.
222
Mar. 3 (204) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of Japanese gains in Jehol and doubt as to loyalty of Tang Yu-lin’s troops.
222
Mar. 5 (213) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Tientsin, March 4: Three protests made by the Japanese Consul General to the Provincial Chairman, against Chinese military activities in the vicinity of Tientsin; referral of third protest to Nanking.
223
Mar. 5 (214) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Announcement of occupation of Chengteh, capital of Jehol Province, by Japanese.
223
Mar. 6 (215) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, March 5: Statement by Japanese Army spokesman concerning occupation of Jehol (Chengteh) and report that foreigners at Lingyuan are safe, including one American.
224
Mar. 6 (216) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Japanese rapid advance in Jehol was aided by lack of cooperation between Tang Yu-lin’s forces and other Chinese forces in Jehol.
224
Mar. 6 (55) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
British Ambassador’s warning to his Government of danger of movement to restrict the arms embargo to Japan alone, which might lead to Japanese blockade of Chinese ports and risk of a general war.
225
[Page XXVII]Mar. 7 (221) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Tientsin, March 6: Chinese reply, under instructions from Nanking, to Japanese protests against Chinese military activities in area.
225
Mar. 7 From the British Embassy
Information that British Government cannot continue its arms embargo in view of lack of universal agreement and that question will be taken up at the League of Nations.
225
Mar. 8 (225) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Plans for conference of Chiang Kai-shek, Chang Hsueh-liang, and T. V. Soong to meet dilemma of Jehol crisis.
226
Mar. 9 (226) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report that General Tang Yu-lin has been deprived of his civil and military posts by both the Chinese Government and the “Manchoukuo” authorities, and that Chinese Government has ordered his arrest and punishment for desertion.
226
Mar. 9 (76) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Chief points of Soviet communication to the League of Nations declining invitation to be represented on Advisory Committee.
227
Mar. 9 (230) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking: Foreign Minister’s statement that he had refused urging of Japanese official that he consent to a settlement with Japan, on the ground that no permanent settlement could be made while Japan still occupied Chinese territory.
228
Mar. 9 (316) From the Ambassador in Japan
Summary of report received from reliable source concerning Japanese relations with Soviet Russia and with United States.
228
Mar. 10 (57) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Press reports of Japanese proposal to Chang Hsueh-liang that he either withdraw his forces from vicinity of Kupeikow or create a neutral zone south of the Wall, or else Japanese will invade North China.
230
Mar. 10 (237) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Resignation of Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang.
230
Mar. 11 (239) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Official Japanese announcement of occupation of Hsifeng-kow and Kupeikow passes on March 9 and 10.
231
Undated To the British Embassy
Explanation of U. S. position on arms embargo question.
231
Mar. 11 (145) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Inquiry of Sir John Simon with regard to U. S. views on arms embargo, and opinion that British arms embargo will be lifted in view of indefinite delay in securing common action with other states.
232
[Page XXVIII]Mar. 11 (85) To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)
Information as to U. S. attitude and policy on arms embargo question; suggestions to be made to Sir John Simon as on Minister’s own initiative as to probability that an arms embargo against Japan alone might result in prevention of any arms from reaching China.
233
Mar. 12 (146) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Information that letter for Secretary General of the League of Nations (i.e., Department’s reply to invitation to cooperate with the Advisory Committee) is in preparation; request for information as to date and hour of release so that Secretary General may arrange for simultaneous release.
234
Mar. 14 (246) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s statement to British, French, and American Ministers concerning China’s determination to stand by the League of Nations and United States and not to institute direct negotiations with Japan.
234
Mar. 14 (249) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from Tientsin of further Japanese protest that Chinese military operations in that area are violating Boxer protocol.
235
Mar. 14 (149) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Sir John Simon’s agreement as to dangers inherent in an arms embargo against Japan alone.
235
Mar. 15 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Chinese conviction that it is only a matter of time before Tientsin and Peiping areas will become involved in hostilities, but determination to continue resistance to Japan.
236
Mar. 15 (254) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Summary of chief points of protest by Japanese Consul General to Provincial Chairman at Tientsin on March 14 concerning Chinese actions violating Boxer protocol.
236
Mar. 15 (150) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Acknowledgment by Secretary General of the League (text printed) of U. S. acceptance of invitation to cooperate with Advisory Committee; participation of U. S. representative in deliberations of Committee; Committee’s decision to appoint subcommittees on questions of arms embargo and nonrecognition of “Manchoukuo.”
238
Mar. 16 (89) To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)
Instructions not to participate in discussions in connection with arms embargo question other than to present the attitude of the United States in the matter.
239
Mar. 16 (744) From the Ambassador in Great Britain
British announcement on March 13 of lifting of arms embargo.
239
[Page XXIX]Mar. 17 (151) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Intention to be guided by Department’s instructions in matter of participation in discussions of subcommittee on arms embargo question.
240
Mar. 17 (3421) From the Chargé in France
Information from confidential source on views of French General Staff as to unlimited objectives of Japanese military aggression.
241
Mar. 19 (263) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Nanking, March 18: Foreign Minister’s declaration of policy of no negotiations or compromise with Japan.
Reuter report from Tokyo, March 18: Speech by Japanese Foreign Minister declaring that departure from Peiping of Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang will facilitate solution of Sino-Japanese problems.
242

Chapter III: March 20–May 31, 1933

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Mar. 20 (265) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Observation that situation in North China is at a stalemate.
242
Mar. 20 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Rumor that General Han Fu-chu may assume command of Chiang’s forces in North China.
243
Mar. 20 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Chinese Minister
Chinese Government’s request for specific actions by the United States against Japan.
243
Mar. 21 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Report from an American missionary at Taitowying that Japanese troops have occupied American mission property at Mutowteng and Shwangshantze; information that matter is being brought to the attention of Japanese Consul General at Tientsin.
244
Mar. 21 (269) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Message from Vice Foreign Minister that Japanese warships were concentrating at Taku and that Japanese Commander had threatened action against Tientsin and Peiping unless China ceased dispatching troops toward Jehol; Chinese hope for intercession of interested governments to dissuade Japan from action liable to endanger the interests of friendly powers.
245
[Page XXX]Mar. 22 (273) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Vice Foreign Minister’s explanation of circumstances in which Japanese threat was made, and information that reference was to Tientsin-Taku area rather than to Tientsin-Peiping area. Observations on military situation.
245
Mar. 22 (92) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization to take up with Japanese Legation matter of Japanese occupation of American mission property at Mutowteng and Shwangshantze, or to telegraph facts to Tokyo for action by American Embassy there.
246
Mar. 23 (94) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request that Minister continue to keep Department informed of his own and his colleagues’ views in North China situation.
246
Mar. 24 (341) From the Ambassador in Japan
Indications of the connection of the South Manchuria Railway with Japanese military occupation of Manchuria, and of probable implication of Count Uchida.
247
Mar. 25 (67) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Belief of Military Attaché that limited operations south of the Great Wall will soon be authorized by the Japanese Government.
251
Mar. 25 (277) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Instruction to Consul General at Shanghai (text printed) in response to inquiry as to attitude to be taken should Japanese Consul General raise question of violation of Shanghai agreement of May 5, 1932, by Chinese troop movements in the area; information that British and French Ministers have sent similar instructions to their Consulates General.
251
Mar. 25 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State of a Conversation With the Japanese Ambassador
Ambassador’s announcement of Japanese intention to withdraw from the League of Nations.
253
Mar. 27 (278) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Indications that Chinese leaders are cooperating for purpose of resisting the Japanese.
254
Mar. 27 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
American missionary’s report of bombing of Taitowying by two Japanese planes, one bomb damaging wall of missionary compound, which was plainly displaying an American flag. Suggestion that representations in the matter be made by the Legation or the Department, rather than to the Japanese Consul General at Tientsin.
255
Mar. 27 (280) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Shanghai that Eugene Chen, former Foreign Minister, has issued a statement concerning American rights and obligations in the Sino-Japanese conflict.
256
[Page XXXI]Mar. 28 (282) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, March 27: Report of conference of National Defense Council to consider military and political problems.
256
Mar. 28 (284) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that matter of Japanese bombing of American missionary property at Taitowying has been referred to the American Embassy in Tokyo and also taken up with the Japanese Legation in China.
256
Mar. 28 (100) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of action reported in telegram No. 284 of March 28, and information that Japanese Ambassador has been given an account of the situation.
257
Mar. 28 (158) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Meeting of Advisory Committee at which questions of Japanese withdrawal from the League of Nations, non-recognition of “Manchoukuo”, and arms embargo were discussed.
257
Mar. 28 From the Chinese Legation
Text of statement by the Foreign Minister concerning Japan’s announcement of withdrawal from the League of Nations.
258
Mar. 29 (159) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Opinion that other states on Advisory Committee will base their attitude on arms embargo question on that of the United States.
260
Mar. 29 (2031) From the Minister in China
Transmittal of memoranda of conversations with various Chinese leaders on Sino-Japanese question.
261
Mar. 30 (291) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, March 29: Information that Wang Ching-wei has resumed office as President of Executive Yuan, and that all military forces of the country are being united under control of the National Government.
262
Mar. 30 (2578) From the Consul General at Harbin to the Minister in China
Protest by “Manchoukuo” government (substance printed) against Soviet Government’s action in aiding the return to China of several thousand Chinese soldiers formerly under General Su Ping-wen.
262
Mar. 31 (295) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, March 30: Confidential information that new secret treaty has been concluded between Japan and “Manchoukuo”; also that there is grave danger that North China will be invaded.
263
Mar. 81 (296) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Japanese Legation’s reply in matter of Japanese bombing of American property at Taitowying.
264
[Page XXXII]Mar. 31 Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With Mr. Yosuke Matsuoka
Courtesy visit of Mr. Matsuoka, who expressed his regret that his country had been obliged to leave the League of Nations.
264
Mar. 31 (92) To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)
Instructions to avoid discussion of U. S. attitude on arms embargo question until League has made an independent decision in the matter.
265
Apr. 1 (160) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Agreement with views expressed in Department’s telegram No. 92, March 31.
265
Apr. 1 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Information that Japanese are reported to have occupied Hsimenchai, inside the Wall, and that situation in Shanhaikwan region is becoming more tense.
265
Apr. 1 (299) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, March 31: Information that secret Japan-”Manchoukuo” treaty provides for Japanese control of “Man-choukuo” telephone, telegraph, and wireless systems.
266
Apr. 1 (300) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, March 31: Information that Foreign Minister Lo Wen-kan is firmly opposed to negotiations with Japan, but that Chiang Kai-shek and Wang Ching-wei are reported to be willing to negotiate.
266
Apr. 3 (239) To the Ambassador in Japan
Instructions to mention informally to the appropriate Japanese authorities the harmful effects to both U. S. and Japese interests of false press reports such as recent Universal Service report from Tokyo (excerpt printed).
267
Apr. 4 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Evidence that Japanese bombing of Taitowying was directed at Chinese troops quartered there; report that American mission property at Shwangshantze and Mutowteng has now been vacated by Japanese soldiers.
267
Apr. 5 (308) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that local situation is unchanged but that Chiang Kai-shek has been forced to proceed to Kiangsi by developments there.
268
Apr. 6 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Chinese Minister, who said that the Chinese people were demanding resistance to the Japanese which the Chinese Government was not in a position to make.
269
Apr. 7 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Report of fighting north of Chinwangtao between Chinese forces and “Manchoukuo” troops.
269
[Page XXXIII]Apr. 7 (312) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Toyko, April 6: Information concerning Vice Foreign Minister’s reply to representations with regard to protection of American lives and property in China from Japanese military activities.
Information that First Secretary of Japanese Legation in China expressed regret for bombing incident at Taitowying.
270
Apr. 7 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Official account of the Japanese Government concerning bombing incident at Taitowying.
271
Apr. 7 From the Consul General at Shanghai
Communication from Mayor of Shanghai (text printed) giving Foreign Ministry’s opinion, as well as his own, in the matter of the Chinese Government’s responsibility for losses suffered by Socony-Vacuum Corporation during the Shanghai incident.
272
Apr. 11 (75) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that limited-objectives attack south of Great Wall was approved and was launched April 10; also that somewhat tense situation exists on Manchurian-Soviet border, occasioned by dispute over Chinese Eastern Railway rolling stock.
273
Apr. 12 (321) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, April 11: Opening of Japanese attack along the Wall to suppress Chinese counterattacks.
274
Apr. 14 (330) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Observations concerning recent visit to China of Kenklchi Yoshizawa, member of Japanese House of Peers.
274
Apr. 15 (80) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Views concerning Japanese political situation and hopes of the moderates for a more conciliatory policy.
275
Apr. 15 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Information that Japanese movement south of the Wall to drive the Chinese to the west bank of the Lwan appears to be succeeding.
276
Apr. 15 (332) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, April 13: Outbreak of anti-Japanese incidents.
276
Apr. 17 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Evacuation of Chinwangtao area by Chinese forces; report that Japanese have again bombed Taitowying with damage to American mission property.
277
Apr. 17 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Information that area between Lwan River and Great Wall is believed to be free of Chinese troops and that Japanese have intimated that present movement will not extend westward of Lwan River.
277
[Page XXXIV]Apr. 17 (335) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, April 14: Japanese Army spokesman’s announcement that object of the present campaign is the destruction of Chinese counterattack bases.
April 17: Announcement on progress of campaign.
278
Apr. 18 (81) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Expectation that reported efforts of Japanese to secure allegiance to “Manchoukuo” of Mongols in Chahar eventually will result in taking over of the entire Province.
278
Apr. 18 (336) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information concerning Japanese suggestion to United Press correspondent that a foreign military officer might act as intermediary in arranging a meeting between Chinese and Japanese for armistice negotiations. Opinion as to inadvisability of making such a proposal to the Chinese and intention to be guided accordingly should such a suggestion be received.
279
Apr. 18 (122) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of attitude reported in telegram No. 336, April 18.
279
Apr. 18 (123) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Japanese Ambassador is being informed of report from Tientsin of second bombing of American property at Taitowying, and suggestion that Japanese Legation be similarly informed.
280
Apr. 19 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Belief that a new army composed of “Manchoukuo” forces and rebels from Chinese regular troops in the area, with Japanese air assistance, has been responsible for recent campaign and that it is now preparing to extend operations to west of Lwan River.
280
Apr. 19 (343) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Discussion with British and French colleagues of unofficial Chinese proposal made to Spanish Minister for guarding of Lwan River railroad bridge by troops of protocol powers.
281
Apr. 19 (344) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Substance of propaganda leaflets being dropped by Japanese planes; evidence that Japanese are undertaking a plan to assist forces hostile to the National Government.
281
Apr. 19 (83) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Indications that Japanese operations in North China will not extend far south of the Great Wall. Information that Japanese will attempt to secure local settlement of Soviet-”Manchoukuo” difficulties over the Chinese Eastern Railway.
282
Apr. 19 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Japanese Ambassador
Ambassador’s expression of concern over reports of fighting south of the Great Wall of China.
283
[Page XXXV]Apr. 21 (347) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information received from Harbin concerning Soviet-”Man-choukuo” controversy over Chinese Eastern Railway rolling stock.
283
Apr. 21 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Japanese Ambassador
Ambassador’s view that Japanese Army does not intend to go to Peiping and Tientsin and that situation in Lwan River area will soon be quiet.
284
Apr. 22 (352) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harbin, April 18: Information that Soviet Government has agreed to demand of “Manchoukuo” Foreign Office for withdrawal of Soviet customs offices at Manchuli and Suifenho.
284
Apr. 22 (85) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Newspaper reports of recent alleged decisions of Japanese Government on future policy toward China, indicating readiness to support local leaders friendly to Japan, and separatist movement in North China.
285
Apr. 22 (76) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
To the Legation: Reliable information that Chinese have purchased 50 Italian planes with Italian Boxer Indemnity funds; rumors that American instructors at Central Aviation School at Hangchow may be replaced by Italian instructors.
285
Apr. 22 (184) From the Chargé in France (tel.)
From Norman Davis: Discussion of Far Eastern situation with French representatives at the League of Nations, who said that France would act with Great Britain and the United States in cooperation with the League, in any agreed course of action.
286
Apr. 22 (357) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Japanese and Chinese have each made suggestion to British Minister for arrangements for an armistice.
287
Apr. 23 (358) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that British Minister has received written request from Foreign Minister for his assistance in arranging an armistice.
288
Apr. 24 (365) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Chinese hope for an informal armistice arrangement between Chinese and Japanese military officers and for warning by friendly powers to Japan that an advance into the Peiping-Tientsin area would involve international complications.
289
Apr. 25 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Report on situation in area east of Lwan River.
289
Apr. 25 (133) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Department’s attitude toward Minister’s participation in arranging an armistice or agreement between Chinese and Japanese,
290
[Page XXXVI]Apr. 25 (369) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Appeal by Foreign Office officials for assistance of friendly powers in dealing with Japan.
291
Apr. 26 (375) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Statement by Wang Ching-wei, April 15 (summary printed), of Chinese policy of resistance to Japan, accompanied by diplomatic efforts to secure some action by League members.
292
Apr. 26 (134) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Transmittal of information that France is willing to join with United States and Great Britain, in cooperation with the League of Nations, in action in Far Eastern crisis.
292
Apr. 26 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Information that withdrawal of “Manchoukuo” forces is proceeding and that Chinese are not attacking.
292
Apr. 26 (377) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion, concurred in by British Minister, as to lack of agreement between Chinese leaders concerning armistice negotiations; decision to do nothing further in the matter.
293
Apr. 26 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Discussion with Chinese Minister concerning difficulties involved in recent suggestions for mediation of foreign powers in arranging for Sino-Japanese armistice negotiations.
293
Apr. 28 (384) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harbin, April 27: Information that Japanese-”Manchoukuo” faction Is threatening drastic action in controversy with Soviet over Chinese Eastern Railway rolling stock.
295
Apr. 28 (387) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Further discussion between British, French, and American Ministers and Chinese leaders as to negotiations for cessation of hostilities.
295
Apr. 28 (388) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Nanking that Wang Ching-wei has issued statement refuting criticism of Government’s policy toward Japan.
296
Apr. 30 (392) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harbin, April 29: Soviet protest to President of Chinese Eastern Railway concerning “Manchoukuo” actions.
296
May 1 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Information that railway traffic is being restored gradually in Lwanchow area.
297
May 1 (1072) To the Minister in China
Explanation of U. S. Government’s attitude and policy with regard to the use of American armed forces at Shanghai.
297
[Page XXXVII]May 1 (83) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Suggestion that Department take up with Minister Soong, while he is in Washington, the question of Chinese aviation policy which will give Americans an equal opportunity with Italians and British.
(Footnote: Information that matter was discussed with Minister Soong.)
300
May 2 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the French Embassy
American attitude toward mediation between Chinese and Japanese.
301
May 4 (403) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Japanese willingness to reimburse American Methodist Mission at Miyun for damages suffered from Japanese airplane bombing on April 18.
302
May 4 (99) From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.)
Information that British representative has been instructed to bring before League of Nations Advisory Committee question of recognition of import licenses for opium issued by the “Manchoukuo” Government.
303
May 5 (405) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Changchun, May 4, of statement by “Manchoukuo” authorities indicating possibility of preferential tariffs for countries granting recognition.
304
May 6 (408) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harbin, May 3: Reduction in operations on west section of Chinese Eastern Railway: expectation that Japanese military forces at Hailar and Manchouli will be greatly increased.
304
May 6 (93) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information concerning Soviet and Japanese attitudes as to possible serious outcome of dispute over Chinese Eastern Railway.
304
May 8 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
New operations in Lwan River area; report that General Ho Chu-kuo agreed to meet Japanese to discuss situation but that Japanese refused to confer.
305
May 8 (98) To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)
Department’s views and instructions concerning proposed consideration by League Advisory Committee of question of recognition of import licenses for opium issued by the “Manchoukuo” Government.
306
May 8 (383) From the Ambassador in Japan
Discussion with Vice Foreign Minister of anti-American propaganda in Japan, and U. S. hope that efforts will be made to control it.
306
[Page XXXVIII]May 9 (96) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Observations as to possible objectives of Japanese offensive in North China.
307
May 9 From the Chinese Legation
Statement by Foreign Ministry (text printed) expressing attitude of Chinese Government toward proposed sale of Chinese Eastern Railway to Japan by Soviet Russia. Information that a similar memorandum was presented to the Soviet Government.
308
May 10 (115) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
From Fuller: Observations in regard to proposed recognition of “Manchoukuo” opium import certificates as to effect on control of drug traffic and nonrecognition question; inquiry as to position to be taken should question arise in League of Nations Opium Advisory Committee.
309
May 10 (417) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Observations concerning possible motives for renewed Japanese offensive in Lwan River area.
310
May 10 (177) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Meeting of subcommittee of Sino-Japanese Advisory Committee to consider question of nonrecognition of “Manchoukuo”; desire of subcommittee for information on status of consular officers in “Manchoukuo”; information that in regard to question of recognition of “Manchoukuo” opium import licenses, the Secretariat was requested to consult with the opium section and make a report.
311
May 10 Memorandum by the Consul at Mukden of a Conversation With the “Manchoukuo Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs
Observations by Vice Foreign Minister concerning Japan-“Manchoukuo” relations, nonrecognition by other governments, and “open-doqr” policy in “Manchoukuo”.
312
May 11 (33) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Interview with Mussolini, who referred to dangerous state of affairs in the Far East.
314
May 11 (420) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Japanese propaganda leaflets (excerpts printed) attacking Chiang Kai-shek and urging soldiers to revolt from the Army were dropped from an airplane over Peiping.
315
May 11 (50) To the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
For Fuller: Authorization to oppose recognition of “Manchoukuo” opium import certificates.
316
May 12 (423) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harbin, May 9: Recent developments in Soviet-“Manchoukuo” dispute over Chinese Eastern Railway.
316
May 12 (424) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that an airplane again flew over Peiping dropping papers believed to be propaganda handbills.
317
[Page XXXIX]May 12 (428) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Moscow: Soviet position that China cannot legally restrict the right of the Soviet Union to sell the Chinese Eastern Railway.
317
May 12 (429) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Admonition to Foreign Office official that Chinese must not expect active intervention by the United States in event of Japanese invasion of Peiping-Tientsin area.
318
May 12 (101) To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)
Department’s attitude as to delicacy of question of status of consuls in Manchuria; nonobjection, under certain conditions, to submission of more detailed information, as requested in telegram No. 177 of May 10.
319
May 12 (2390) From the Chargé in Germany
Report that General von Seeckt, retired Commander of the German Army, has arrived in Shanghai, presumably to assist in the training of the Chinese Army.
320
May 13 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Announcement by Japanese military spokesman that Japanese troops will occupy Tungchow and “Manchoukuo” troops will occupy Kalgan; report of other Japanese activities indicating possible extension of bombing activities.
320
May 13 (181) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Points with regard to the status of consuls in Manchuria concerning which League of Nations requests information.
321
May 15 (438) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to Tientsin (text printed) concerning protection of American lives and property in Tungchow area.
321
May 15 (439) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of Japanese advance, which they have advised will stop at Tungchow. Understanding that Huang Fu is coming to Peiping to attempt to arrange an armistice for cessation of hostilities.
322
May 16 (576) From the Consul General at Mukden
Report on developments in the establishment of an opium monopoly by the “Manchoukuo” Government.
323
May 16 (441) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reply to Department’s inquiry that Minister has no information as to action of other governments in protection of life and property at Tungchow.
325
May 16 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Chinese Minister of Finance and the Chinese Minister
Reference to situation in North China and discussion as to possible steps by the powers to ameliorate situation. Chinese suggestion for pronouncement by present Administration to indicate its interest in the Far Eastern crisis.
325
[Page XL]May 16 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Views concerning a suggestion for cooperative action by major powers in the Far Eastern crisis.
327
May 16 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Chinese Legation
Information concerning note of protest to Soviet Government, May 15 (excerpts printed), concerning proposed sale of Chinese Eastern Railway.
329
May 17 (442) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Nanking, May 16: Inclusion in draft text of proposed Si no-Russian Pact of Nonaggression of an article which, if signed, would prevent sale of Chinese Eastern Railway and maintenance of official Soviet relations with “Manchoukuo”.
331
May 17 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Japanese occupation of Tangshan; hope that arrival of General Huang Fu may result in an understanding with the Japanese.
331
May 18 (446) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Shanghai, May 17: Statement by Japanese Legation spokesman that Japanese operations south of the Great Wall would cease if responsible Chinese leader could guarantee cessation of hostilities by Chinese troops.
332
May 18 (447) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Canton: Opposition of Southwest Political Council to proposed sale of Chinese Eastern Railway; Council’s desire for dispatch of a large army to safeguard Tientsin and Peiping against Japanese invasion.
332
May 18 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Bombing of railway bridge near Tientsin just before arrival of Huang Fu’s special train.
332
May 18 (103) To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)
Information, as requested, concerning procedure in assignment of American consular officers to posts in China.
333
May 19 (452) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harbin, May 16: Confirmation of reported shooting at Chinese Eastern Railway train. Publication of Japanese-inspired articles alleging desire of Halha Mongols to unite with “Manchoukuo”.
333
May 19 (455) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report that an airplane believed to be a Japanese bomber flew over Peiping.
334
[Page XLI]May 19 From the Standing Committee of the Southwest Political Council at Canton (tel.)
Communication addressed to the League of Nations, the signatories of the Nine-Power Treaty, and the Soviet Union opposing negotiations now being conducted between representatives for settlement of the dispute on terms inconsistent with resolutions of the League of Nations, treaty provisions, and vital interests of China.
(Footnote: Information that communication was filed without acknowledgment.)
334
May 20 (104) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japanese General Staff statement that Japanese troops are within 25 miles of Peiping and have practically accomplished their purpose in North China; that General Liu Kuei-tang has declared independence of Chahar and that separatist movement is gaining ground in Tientsin area.
336
May 20 (171) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Joint statement by President Roosevelt and Chinese Finance Minister, T. V. Soong, May 19 (text printed), at conclusion of conversations.
336
May 20 (460) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Flight of 11 Japanese bombing planes over Peiping; observation that present orderly withdrawal of Chinese troops toward Peiping would appear to confirm reported understanding between Chinese and Japanese.
337
May 20 (174) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization, if question is raised by any of diplomatic colleagues, to join in protest against flights of Japanese planes over Peiping.
338
May 20 (175) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for estimate of present situation, particularly as to threat to American lives and likelihood of American marine guard becoming involved in event of Japanese occupation of Peiping.
338
May 21 (465) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reply of Central Executive Committee to Southwest leaders denying alleged terms of an armistice.
339
May 22 (470) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Changchun, May 21: Interview with General Koiso, Chief of Staff to Marshal Muto, who said that halt in Japanese advance line at Miyun and Tangshan marked end of Japanese campaign against Chinese bases of attack and intimated an early peace based on creation of a neutral zone.
339
May 22 (469) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Continuation of Chinese orderly retirement and Japanese advance; information that neither Minister nor colleagues consider situation at Peiping dangerous; opinion that there appears to be no reason for American Legation guard to become involved in hostilities except to maintain neutrality of Legation Quarter.
340
[Page XLII]May 22 (474) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that upon Chinese suggestion British Minister is arranging to sound out Japanese attitude with a view to acting as mediator in North China situation.
341
May 22 Memorandum by the Vice Consul at Mukden
Confidential information from a Japanese official concerning independent actions of Kwantung Army in inaugurating military campaign in Manchuria.
342
May 23 (477) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, May 22: Information that Wang Ching-wei in an address denied Chinese approaches to Japan and averred Government’s policy of watchful waiting.
343
May 23 (105) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information from reliable source that Japanese troops have been instructed not to enter Peiping.
343
May 24 (480) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, May 23: Information from Foreign Minister that further resistance to Japan is impossible because of lack of troops and money.
344
May 24 (482) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that a preliminary arrangement for cessation of hostilities has been reached between Chinese and Japanese military, to be followed by discussions for final arrangements.
344
May 24 (410) From the Ambassador in Japan
Representations to the Foreign Office concerning anti-American remarks in press reports of speech by War Minister Araki, and subsequent explanation by Foreign Office.
344
May 25 Memorandum by the Minister in China of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Soviet Embassy in China
Soviet Counselor’s remarks concerning Soviet attitude on relations with Japan in Manchuria, particularly with reference to the sale of the Chinese Eastern Railway.
346
May 26 (484) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that strict secrecy is being maintained concerning truce arrangements; belief that real crisis will come when negotiations between Chinese and Japanese delegates are begun.
347
May 27 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Withdrawal of “Manchoukuo” troops from Lutai-Tangku area and of Japanese troops from Tungchow area; prospect of restoration of rail traffic in area if truce proves effective.
348
May 29 (485) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Canton, May 28: Telegram from Southwest Political Council accusing Military Council of compromising with Japan and inquiring whether activities had approval of Central Executive Committee.
348
[Page XLIII]May 30 From the Consul General at Canton (tel.)
Political tension arising from efforts of certain civilian leaders to launch a new anti-Chiang Kai-shek movement.
348
May 31 (487) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Names of Chinese and Japanese delegates understood to be participating in truce negotiations.
349
May 31 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Substance of truce agreement between Chinese and Japanese military authorities signed at Tangku whereby the Chinese agree to withdraw to a specified line and the Japanese to withdraw to the Great Wall.
349

Chapter IV: June 1–September 30, 1933

Date and number Subject Page
1933 June 1 (195) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Information that Secretariat’s report in connection with question of recognition of “Manchoukuo” opium import licenses has been circulated; intention not to participate in discussion of report at subcommittee meeting on June 2.
350
June 2 (496) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harbin, June 1: Suspension by “Manchoukuo” authorities of through freight traffic between Chinese Eastern Railway and Ussuri Railway pending settlement of Soviet-”Manchoukuo” controversy.
351
June 2 (197) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Discussion by subcommittee of draft circular to League members on questions involved in nonrecognition of “Manchoukuo”, and concerning methods of procedure in question of opium import and export licenses for “Manchoukuo”.
351
June 2 (497) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Possibility of further trouble from “independent” troops in area between truce agreement line and Great Wall; information that South Manchuria Railway has taken over Peiping-Mukden line between Shanhaikwan and Lutai; expectation that Japanese will now endeaver to open negotiations at Nanking on questions outstanding between China and Japan.
352
June 2 Text of a Statement Issued by Mr. Wang Ching-wei, President of the Executive Yuan, dated Nanking, June 2
Comment on agreement for cessation of hostilities in Hopei Province and events preceding signing of agreement.
353
June 3 (499) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Discussion with Huang Fu, who said that an immediate problem was the reestablishment of Chinese authority in the evacuated area; expectation that Chinese would take over Peiping-Mukden railway line after certain financial arrangements have been made.
354
[Page XLIV]June 5 (115) To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)
Department’s opinion as to inadvisability of suggested procedure for dealing with “Manchoukuo” opium export licenses; instructions, however, to make such views known as on own responsibility and only if approached on the subject.
355
June 7 (201) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Adoption by Advisory Committee of draft circular regarding nonrecognition of “Manchoukuo”; understanding that circular will be transmitted to the Department with covering letter expressing hope for affirmative reply.
356
June 9 (507) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information concerning certain oral agreements said to have been made by Chinese and Japanese representatives at time of signing of truce agreement.
357
June 9 (426) From the Ambassador in Japan
Comments on Japanese public opinion concerning military truce in North China and on Japanese objectives in that area.
357
June 9 From the Counselor of Legation in China to the Minister in China
Transmittal of a newspaper report containing observations by Dr. Sun Fo, President of the Legislative Yuan, on recent Sino-Japanese military truce.
359
June 12 (2147) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Observations concerning effect of Japanese expansionist policy in the Far East on policies and interests of other powers, particularly the United States and Soviet Russia.
360
June 13 From the Consul General at Canton (tel.)
Receipt of a communication from the Southwest Political Council addressed to the League of Nations and to the signatories of the Nine-Power Treaty declaring its nonrecognition of the armistice agreement of May 31 and threatening civil war should it be carried out.
362
June 20 (542) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuter report from Canton: Decision of Southwest Executive and Political Committees to ban entry of goods from “Manchoukuo” into South China.
363
June 24 (554) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Difficulties facing the Chinese in carrying out truce provisions for maintenance of peace and order in evacuated area owing to presence of Li Chi-Chun’s troops.
363
June 29 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Information that negotiations are in progress for disposal of Li Chi-chun’s troops in Tangshan area and resumption of police control by Chinese authorities.
364
June 29 From the Counselor of Legation in China to the Minister in China
Explanation by Foreign Minister of his change of attitude on policy of resistance toward Japan, and observations as to possible developments in Sino-Japanese relations.
365
[Page XLV]June 30 (455) From the Ambassador in Japan
Observations concerning the opening on June 27 of negotiations at Tokyo for the sale of the Chinese Eastern Railway by the Soviet Government to “Manchoukuo”, with Japan acting in an advisory capacity.
367
July 1 [3?] From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Information that an offer was made by Japanese commandant to American, British, and French officials to share in an attempt to send a special train armed with Japanese soldiers and Chinese railway police to open railway to Shanhaikwan, and that offer was declined.
369
July 5 Memorandum by the Minister in China of a Conversation With the British Minister in China
Discussion of conditions in area to be mutually evacuated by Chinese and Japanese under terms of truce agreement of May 31; attitude against sending of British and American troops into area to open up railway communications.
370
July 15 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Italy
Conversation with T. V. Soong, who related views expressed to him by Italian, French, and British Governments concerning Japan’s aggressive policies.
371
July 18 (127) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Indications that present strained situation between Japan and Soviet Russia may become serious.
(Footnote: Comment in despatch of July 28 that tension appears to be relaxing.)
372
July 18 (601) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that American Legation Guard provided for Russian Legation wall is being withdrawn in view of re-occupation of the property by the Soviet Embassy.
373
July 18 Memorandum by the Consul General at Shanghai
Conversation with the Japanese Consul General concerning the Japanese Government’s policy toward payment of claims for losses by American citizens during Sino-Japanese conflict.
374
July 19 (119) To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)
Receipt of Sir Eric Drummond’s letter of June 12 enclosing copy of Advisory Committee’s circular on measures involved in nonrecognition of “Manchoukuo”, and of League’s circular letter of June 14 to governments represented on the Advisory Committee; doubt as to what affirmative action the U. S. Government should take in the circumstances; instructions to ascertain discreetly whether any governments have replied adversely to the Advisory Committee’s circular.
375
July 20 Memorandum by the Minister in China
Conversation with the Soviet Ambassador, who said that negotiations for the sale of the Chinese Eastern Railway were still proceeding.
376
[Page XLVI]July 20 Memorandum by the Minister in China
Opinion of the Soviet Ambassador on the Far Eastern situation, particularly as to the effect of the absence of friendly relations between the United States and the Soviet Union.
377
July 22 (203) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Assumption, with reference to Department’s telegram No. 119, of July 19, that circular letter of June 14 was sent for information only and that it is Department’s reply to Drummond’s letter of June 12 which should be held in abeyance.
378
July 24 (205) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Confirmation by League official that circular letter was sent for information only; information that no adverse replies have yet been received from other governments.
379
July 26 (624) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that situation in Chahar remains indefinite, that former volunteer and bandit forces pushed out of Manchuria and Jehol by Japanese are filling region north of Kalgan, and that Chinese Government troops are moving northward toward Nankou.
379
July 27 (320) To the Ambassador in Japan
Department’s opinion as to inadvisability of taking any action in the matter of an inquiry made to a member of the Embassy staff by the “Manchoukuo” Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs regarding possible interest of an American firm in building of water works in Harbin.
380
July 28 (484) From the Ambassador in Japan
Concern of both the Chinese and the Japanese Governments over activities of Marshal Feng Yu-hsiang in Chahar Province.
380
July 29 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Information that, except for one incident, Chinese resumption of control in Luantung zone is proceeding smoothly, but that Tangshan-Shanhaikwan section of the railway is still being operated by the Japanese.
382
Aug. 7 (1) From Lieut. H. L. Boatner to the Military Attaché in China
Report on information and impressions gained during recent trip in Manchuria, covering troops, bandit operations, economic developments, and Soviet-Japanese relations.
382
Aug. 14 (495) From the Ambassador in Japan
Summary of various anti-American press reports appearing in Japanese newspapers during the past half-year or more; opinion that these reports are inspired by military propaganda, and intention to continue policy of making official representations in acute cases only.
388
Aug. 15 (687) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Marshal Feng Yu-hsiang has left Chahar; comment that his elimination should facilitate restoration of normal conditions in North China.
392
[Page XLVII]Aug. 17 (9069) From the Consul General at Shanghai
Summary of Japanese aggressive actions in Shanghai.
392
Aug. 21 (185) From the Ambassador in France
Account of a conversation of the Commercial Attaché with the President of the Association Nationale pour l’Expansion Economique concerning reports of the formation of a Tokyo Franco-Japanese Association to make investments in “Manchoukuo.”
400
Sept. 8 (77) Te the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Apprehension lest arrangements in connection with contemplated visit of Congressman Tinkham to Manchuria and Jehol create an opportunity for supposition that a change in U. S. nonrecognition policy is contemplated.
401
Sept. 18 (143) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that in conversations with Representative Tinkham concerning his trip to Manchuria he said that he is traveling in a private capacity and will endeavor to avoid creating any false impressions.
402
Sept. 18 (320) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions for information and guidance, and for that of Consuls General at Mukden and Harbin, concerning visit of Representative Tinkham.
402
Sept. 21 (106) To the Chargé in France
Request for further investigations in connection with a Reuter report of an understanding between French group of manufacturers and “Manchoukuo” authorities for the investment of French capital in “Manchoukuo”; instructions, If report appears true, to inquire as to the attitude of the French Government in the matter.
403
Sept. 22 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Report from American missionary at Changli of invasion of Funinghsien by bandit forces from north.
404
Sept. 22 (L–16 Diplo.) From the Counselor of Legation in China to the Minister in China
Observations concerning deviation of the National Government from its previous policy of refraining from negotiations with Japan on any subject, and alleged political controversy resulting therefrom.
404
Sept. 23 (764) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that handbills were dropped from Japanese airplanes on Peiping which warned that unless the forces of General Fang Chen-wu evacuated the demilitarized zone by September 26, the Kwantung Army would commence military operations against them.
405
[Page XLVIII]Sept. 26 (37) From the Chargé in Latvia (tel.)
Information that Izvestia has published text of a Soviet protest to Japan against proposed changes by Manchurian authorities in management of Chinese Eastern Railway, warning that Japan and not “Manchoukuo” will be held responsible.
406
Sept. 26 (771) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Distribution by Japanese planes of additional handbills threatening military action against Pang Chen-wu; Fang’s announcement of his intention to take Peiping and drive Chiang Kai-shek from power.
From Nanking: Confidential information that the Japanese tried to prevent T. V. Soong from resuming office and are now pressing him for a commercial treaty or revised tariff.
406
Sept. 26 To the Secretary of the Treasury
Information and request for cooperation concerning recommendations of League Advisory Committee relating to “Manchoukuo” currency, in which U. S. Government has concurred; information that a similar letter is being sent to the Federal Reserve Board.
(Footnote: Receipt of assurances in reply to both letters.)
407
Sept. 26 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With Mr. George Bronson Rea
Mr. Rea’s explanation of his position as a counselor of the “Manchoukuo” government, and statement with regard to the position and program of that government.
408
Sept. 27 (148) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Statement by the Secretary to the Minister of War to the Acting Military Attaché, September 26 (text printed), on the situation in Manchuria and North China, referring to the ultimatum given Generals Fang and Chi to withdraw from the neutral zone before midnight September 26.
411
Sept. 28 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who referred to negotiations with Soviet Russia over the sale of the Chinese Eastern Railway.
411
Sept. 29 (206) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Points of Chinese policy brought out by Wellington Koo in an address to the League Assembly on the Sino-Japanese conflict.
412
Sept. 29 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Report of dispatch of 1,500 Chinese soldiers in police uniforms to Changli to engage in bandit suppression work.
412
Sept. 29 (536) From the Ambassador in Japan
Discussion of possibility of eventual war between Japan and Soviet Russia.
412
[Page XLIX]Sept. 30 From the Consul General at Tientsin (tel.)
Information that the three trains of armed police were turned back at Lwanchow by the Japanese military; also that Reverend Kautto and wife, American missionaries, arrived from Taitowying, reporting that it had been thoroughly looted by bandits.
416
Sept. 30 (332) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for further information from the Consul General at Shanghai with regard to Japanese activities at Shanghai, and for views of Minister and those of British colleague.
417

Chapter V: October 1, 1933–January 5, 1934

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Oct. 3 (2703) From the Consul General at Harbin to the Minister in China
Summary of Soviet-Japanese controversy over “Manchoukuo’s” violation of Soviet rights on Chinese Eastern Railway, concluding with Soviet note of September 28 which states that Japanese action may be considered as a rupture of the negotiations for the sale of the railway.
418
Oct. 3 Memorandum by the Counselor of Legation in China of a Conversation With the Chinese Minister of Finance
Mr. Soong’s opinions on policy of National Government in Sino-Japanese relations and on the probability of a split in the Government over this policy.
419
Oct. 6 (338) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of suggested procedure to be followed by Consuls General at Mukden and Harbin in addressing local authorities with regard to claims of American citizens arising in Manchuria.
421
Oct. 6 From the Ambassador in Japan
Estimates as to probability of a Japanese-Soviet conflict, and conclusion that while not imminent, a clash may occur in 1935.
421
Oct. 6 From the Assistant Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs to the Chief of the Division
Observations on present Soviet-Japanese relations and estimate of possibility of armed conflict between the two countries.
424
Oct. 7 (90) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Department’s views on the opening of discussions with the new Foreign Minister concerning renewal of discriminations against U. S. trade in “Manchoukuo”.
428
Oct. 10 (92) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Request for opinion as to the significance of reported statement of War Office spokesman concerning possible Japanese demand on Soviet Russia for “amends, retraction, and guarantee of future good faith.”
428
[Page L]Oct. 11 (157) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that statement of War Office spokesman refers to action to be taken in the matter of publication by the Soviet Union of documents concerning Japan’s alleged plans for seizure of Chinese Eastern Railway.
428
Oct. 13 (213) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Suggestion that to avoid publicity an oral statement be made to League Secretary General rather than transmittal of Department’s note of September 20, indicating U. S. Government’s substantial accord with recommendations of Advisory Committee.
429
Oct. 13 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador concerning reported Japanese desire to send a good will mission to the United States, and attitude of U. S. Government toward a possible arbitration treaty with Japan.
429
Oct. 13 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Japanese Ambassador
Discussion of Soviet-Japanese situation, which the Japanese Ambassador said had been aggravated by recent Soviet publication of alleged Japanese documents.
433
Oct. 14 (96) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that Japanese Ambassador shares Department’s view as to inadvisability of proposed Japanese good will mission.
433
Oct. 17 (800) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information and views concerning alleged encroachment on jurisdictional rights of Shanghai Municipal Council.
434
Oct 20 (560) From the Ambassador in Japan
Discussion of recent developments in Soviet-Japanese relations and possibility of eventual hostilities.
434
Oct. 21 (338) From the Chargé in France
Results of investigation indicating that there is no foundation for reported understanding for the investment of French capital in “Manchoukuo”, and that there is no likelihood of a French banking loan to “Manchoukuo.”
438
Oct 23 (215) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Draft minute of U. S. position (text printed) which it is proposed to include in a League circular giving brief summaries of replies received to proposal of Advisory Committee.
439
Oct. 23 (164) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Favorable political outlook for present government in view of compromise between military and moderate factions in Cabinet.
440
Oct 25 (127) To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)
Approval of procedure, and suggested amendment (text printed) of proposed minute to be included in League circular.
441
[Page LI]Oct 25 Memorandum by Mr. Eugene H. Dooman of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Comments on factors affecting possibility of war between Japan and Soviet Russia.
441
Oct 27 (168) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japanese issuance of a press ban on comments on current negotiations between “Manchoukuo” and North China.
442
Oct. 27 (170) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Informal conversation with Foreign Minister Hirota, who again requested suggestions for improving U. S.-Japanese relations.
443
Oct. 28 (818) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Japanese Minister’s expectation that conversations which he is having with Generals Huang Fu and Ho Ying-chin will lead to an amicable settlement in North China.
443
Oct 29 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Resignation of T. V. Soong as Minister of Finance and appointment of H. H. Kung as his successor.
444
Oct. 31 (825) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Observations on probable causes of Soong’s resignation and its effect on Chinese policy.
444
Oct. 31 To the Ambassador in Japan
Acknowledgment of Ambassador’s letter of October 6 on the Soviet-Japanese situation and accord with estimate given therein.
445
Nov. 4 (836) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Statement by a Japanese Legation Secretary concerning developments in retrocession of North China area.
445
Nov. 6 Memorandum by the Counselor of Legation in China of a Conversation With the Chinese Administrative Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs
Discussion of resignation of Soong as Minister of Finance, rumored Sino-Japanese negotiations at Peiping, and China’s general position with relation to Japan.
446
Nov. 7 (172) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Expressions of satisfaction by the Japanese press over transfer of U. S. Fleet to the Atlantic.
449
Nov. 8 (841) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, November 7: Report of abandonment of anti-Communist campaign in Kiangsi.
450
Nov. 9 (844) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
From Nanking, November 8: Passage of a resolution by the Central Political Council for suspension of Sino-Japanese conversations at Peiping; possibility of resignation of Wang Ching-wei because of his alleged pro-Japanese policy.
450
[Page LII]Nov. 9 Memorandum bp the Minister in China of a Conversation With the President of the Chinese Executive Yuan and Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs
Assurance by Wang Ching-wei that rumors of China’s intention to adopt a pro-Japanese policy are groundless, that China will continue to follow policy outlined in League of Nations.
450
Nov. 11 (847) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
From Nanking, November 10: Information that Central Political Council became alarmed over rumored settlements arrived at in Peiping and forced Government’s reaffirmation of policy of nonprovocation of Japan but avoidance of settlements contrary to China’s interests.
451
Nov. 11 (174) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japanese issuance of a press ban forbidding comment on the reports of the establishment of a monarchy in “Manchoukuo”.
452
Nov. 14 Memorandum by the Counselor of Legation in China of a Conversation Between the American Minister in China and the Chinese Administrative Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs
Discussion of Chinese policy in Sino-Japanese controversy.
452
Nov. 14 (D–574) From the Consul General at Nanking
Account of first official review of Chinese air force, the success of which undoubtedly increased prestige of American airships and American aviation instructors; conversation with Col. Jouett, who reported Chiang Kai-shek’s assurance that Italian instructors would not be substituted for American at Hangchow aviation school.
455
Nov. 15 (854) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, November 14: Report of conference of Chinese generals in Foochow to determine policy of Nineteenth Route Army toward General Chiang Kai-shek; reported understanding between Nineteenth Route Army and Kiangsi Communists based on their opposition to Chiang’s policy toward Japan.
456
Nov. 15 (858) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, November 15: Report that Nineteenth Route Army may join with Communist forces in attack on Nanking Government.
457
Nov. 17 (861) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Sino-Japanese negotiations at Peiping apparently have ceased owing to instructions sent General Huang Fu to refrain from making agreements with regard to customs, postal facilities, and through railway traffic.
457
Nov. 18 (593) From the Ambassador in Japan
Account of recent events indicating renewed tension in Soviet-Japanese relations, which appear to be inspired by Soviet intransigeance.
458
[Page LIII]Nov. 20 (178) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Press despatches reporting alleged U. S. proposal to China, in connection with the recognition of Soviet Russia by the United States, for the formation of a three-power bloc against Japan.
463
Nov. 20 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State of a Conversation With the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs
Discussion of Soviet relations with Japan; Litvinov’s suggestion for a U. S.-Soviet nonaggression pact coincident with certain other pacts covering the Far East.
463
Nov. 20 (132) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Establishment of official relations with the Soviet Ambassador and report of conversation in which he mentioned more conciliatory attitude of Japan.
465
Nov. 21 (864) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reports of organization and activities of an independent regime at Foochow, and National Government’s decision to take punitive measures; report that the American pilot of General Chiang’s plane is being detained at Foochow.
(Footnote: Receipt of a message from the Vice Consul at. Foochow that no American is being held there.)
466
Nov. 22 (865) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Further reports from Vice Consul at Foochow of a mass meeting and other indications of establishment of an independent government
466
Nov. 22 (180) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Special interest of Japan in autonomy move in Fukien Province, and probability that Japan will take action if any indication of anti-Japanese activities appears.
467
Nov. 22 (2392) From the Minister in China
Transmittal of a memorandum of conversation between a Legation staff member and the First Secretary of the Japanese Legation concerning cessation of Sino-Japanese negotiations at Peiping, separatist movement in Fukien, and rumored American assistance to China.
468
Nov. 23 (870) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, November 22: Report of formal establishment and details of organization of new government in Fukien.
468
Nov. 27 Memorandum by the Minister in China
Discussion with Canton leaders concerning political situation, including Fukien separatist movement; evidence of Fukienese intrigue with the Japanese.
469
Nov. 27 Memorandum by the Minister in China
Discussion with Canton leaders on the policy of the United States in regard to Manchuria.
470
Nov 28 From the Consul General at Canton (tel.)
Information that an invitation for Canton to join in Fukien movement was refused on ground that Fukien leaders were cooperating with Communists and Japanese.
473
[Page LIV]Nov. 28 (879) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, November 27: Reports of disagreement between the Nineteenth Route Army leaders and Communist element over the repudiation of the Kuomintang; report that movement is strictly anti-Chiang Kai-shek and that anti-Japanese phase is for propaganda purposes.
473
Nov. 29 From the Counselor of Legation in China
Conversation with H. H. Kung, Minister of Finance, concerning question of probable attitude of Canton, Kwangsi, and Hunan with regard to Foochow independence movement.
474
Dec. 1 (600) From the Ambassador in Japan
Account of the reception in Japan of the news of U. S. recognition of the Soviet Union.
475
Dec. 6 From the Counselor of Legation in China
Transmittal of a memorandum of conversation between Wang Ching-wei, President of the Executive Yuan and Acting Foreign Minister, with Maxwell M. Hamilton, an official of the Department of State, concerning political situation in China.
476
Dec. 6 (867) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China
Transmittal of a copy of a letter from the American Claims Representative reporting final settlement of all American claims arising from Japanese occupation in Manchuria which had been investigated and approved by the Commission for the Liquidation of Claims.
477
Dec. 7 (902) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that all Americans at Yenping have reached Foochow; confidential reports obtained from them concerning developments in Nineteenth Route Army-Communist separatist movement; report of existence of anti-foreign feeling.
477
Undated To the British Embassy
Reply to British Embassy’s informal and confidential inquiry of December 7 concerning attitude of U. S. Government with regard to League Advisory Committee’s recommendations concerning nonrecognition of “Manchoukuo”.
478
Dec. 12 (608) From the Ambassador in Japan
Likelihood of Japanese crisis in 1935; possibility of radical action by Japanese Navy at that time.
479
Dec. 14 (610) From the Ambassador in Japan
Soviet Ambassador’s view that a Japanese attack against Soviet Russia is more likely in the spring of 1934 than at a later date, and his assertion of complete preparedness to meet any such Japanese offensive.
483
Dec. 16 (870) From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China
Views concerning question of recognizing “Manchoukuo” and related masters.
485
[Page LV]Dec. 19 (917) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report that Ta Ching dynasty will be restored in Manchuria with coronation of Pu-yi, January 1.
(Footnote: Report of postponement of coronation to March 1.)
487
Dec. 20 (920) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Further developments in Fukien situation.
487
Dec. 29 From the Counselor of Legation in China
Chinese belief that Japan seeks to retard the political stabilization of China and to keep China weak, with a view to strengthening Japan’s power in the country, as exemplified by the friendly attitude of Japanese military authorities toward Fukien rebel faction.
488
1934 Jan. 5 (11) From the Minister in China (tel.)
List of outstanding events and estimate of general situation in China for the past year.
491

CHINA

Proposed International Collaboration fob the Economic Reconstruction of China

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Mar. 30 (294) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from French Minister that T. V. Soong, Chinese Finance Minister, had requested the League of Nations to assign Ludwig W. Rajchman (Polish Director, Health Section, League of Nations) to study conditions in China with a view to international cooperation for the economic reconstruction of China.
494
July 14 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Chinese Ambassador to the Soviet Union, who discussed plans for the economic development of China and transmitted a communication from T. V. Soong (infra).
(Footnote: Information that the Secretary of State was in London at the Monetary and Economic Conference from May 31 to August 5.)
494
[July 141] From the Chinese Ambassador in the Soviet Union, Temporarily in London
Transmittal of a communication from Soong, proposing the formation of a consultative committee of Chinese and foreign members to advise the Chinese Government in its program for economic development, and enclosing a draft letter of invitation to the United States (text printed) to join the committee.
495
[Page LVI]July 14 From the Secretary General of the League of Nations
Announcement of the first meeting, at Paris, of the League Special Committee on Technical Collaboration with China, and invitation to the United States to be represented.
497
July 15 (138) From the Secretary of State to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
For Phillips and Hornbeck: Request for suggestions as to action to be taken on League invitation for an American representative to be present at meeting of Special Committee on China.
498
July 16 (145) From the Acting Secretary of State to the Secretary of State in London (tel.)
Suggestion that an officer of the Paris Embassy staff attend the meeting of the League’s Special Committee on China as an unofficial observer.
499
July 18 (329) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Report of U. S. unofficial observer on first meeting of the League’s Special Committee, at which Ludwig Rajchman was appointed as technical liaison officer.
500
July 20 From the Secretary of State to the Acting Secretary of State
Transmittal of Soong’s communication and draft invitation received July 14 from the Chinese Ambassador to the Soviet Union (ante, page 495).
501
July 24 (618) From the Minister of China (tel.)
Opinion that Rajchman’s connection with the League plan will arouse the suspicion and opposition of the Japanese.
502
July 25 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Explanation, in reply to Japanese inquiry, concerning American representation at Paris meeting of League Special Committee and plans for future cooperation; discussion of Japanese objections to foreign aid for China.
502
July 31 From Mr. D. Nohara, Representative of the Japanese Group in the China Consortium, to Sir Charles Addis, Representative of the British Group
Japanese Group’s unfavorable attitude toward Soong’s proposed consultative committee; fear that difficulties might arise between the committee and the Consortium.
505
Aug. 8 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the First Secretary of the French Embassy
Information, in reply to French inquiry, that recent visit of Mr. Soong to President Roosevelt was in the nature of a courtesy call. Inquiry as to whether the French Government had received a protest from the Japanese Government against League assistance to China.
(Footnote: Information that a negative reply was received from the French Embassy by telephone on August 12.)
506
[Page LVII]Aug. 10 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, who indicated Japanese opposition to League of Nations and other foreign aid to China.
508
Aug. 18 (502) From the Ambassador in Japan
Report on official and press resentment against foreign loans to China as encouraging anti-Japanese campaign.
508
Aug. 25 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Informal discussion of Japanese Government’s attitude on proposed aid to China and exchange of views concerning Japan’s policy in China.
512
Sept. 7 Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the Japanese Ambassador
Ambassador’s inquiry concerning attitude of the U. S. Government and of President Roosevelt toward the consultative committee.
515
Sept. 12 (672 Pol.) From the Consul at Geneva
Observations concerning proposed nomination by the League of Nations of an American expert on hog-breeding and poultry-raising to serve in China.
515
Sept. 16 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Chinese Legation
Chinese inquiry concerning reported Japanese representations to certain governments objecting to the League’s program of assistance to China.
517
Sept. 26 (682 Pol.) From the Consul at Geneva
Transmittal of two reports adopted by the League of Nations Council with reference to the work of the Special Committee on China.
518
Oct. 4 (L–31 Diplo.) From the Counselor of Legation in China to the Minister in China
Visit with T. V. Soong, who announced that Dr. Rajchman had arrived in Nanking and wished to meet the Counselors of the American and British Legations. Information that the National Economic Council has been constituted the Chinese agency of cooperation with the League committee.
518
Oct. 31 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with Jean Monnet, French banker enroute to China, concerning problem of China’s debts and credit.
520
Dec. 18 From the Counselor of Legation in China
Conversation with Dr. Rajchman, who described status of League’s collaboration activities in China.
521
[Page LVIII]

Measures Taken by the United States for the Protection of American Lives and Property in China

Bate and number Subject Page
1933 Jan. 12 (43) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Nanking: Instructions for further representations to Foreign Office in the Ekvall murder case.
525
Mar. 2 (202) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of trial and execution of one murderer In Ekvall case; intention to insist upon punishment of remaining murderers and payment of indemnity by the Chinese Government.
525
Mar. 3 (73) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Desirability of refraining at present from emphatic representations in regard to indemnity until further opportunity is given to authorities to comply with all demands.
526
Apr. 6 (113) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Inquiry as to whether more emphatic representations to the Chinese Government might be helpful in securing a solution of the kidnapping and reported murder of Rev. Bert N. Nelson.
526
Apr. 13 (325) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow: Report that Consulate General is making private inquiries in the Nelson case with a view to obtaining specific information in order to force either the National or Provincial authorities to take effective action.
527
May 19 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Chinese Minister and T. V. Soong, at which the latter requested that a list of questions of special concern in U. S.-Chinese relations be given him for consideration.
527
May 19 Memorandum Listing Certain Problems of Current Concern in Relations Between China and the United States
Text of list drawn up by the Division of Far Eastern Affairs and handed to T. V. Soong.
528
Aug. 26 (708) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, August 25: Report of action taken by Consulate to secure safety of American citizens in Yenping and vicinity in face of Communist advance.
529
Aug. 29 (713) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, August 28: Reported Communist seizure of Yenping; information that all Americans from Yenping have arrived in Foochow and that several others are enroute from danger zone; recommendation for dispatch of American naval vessel to Foochow in event evacuation becomes necessary.
Information that Commander in Chief of Asiatic Fleet has been requested to send a vessel to Foochow.
529
Aug. 30 (720) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, August 29: Information that no word has been received from three American missionaries enroute to Foochow.
To Foochow, August 30: Information that a gunboat is enroute to Foochow.
530
[Page LIX]Aug. 31 (723) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, August 30: Information that the three American missionaries have returned to Kienningfu and that General Liu has been requested to afford them protection.
530
Sept. 7 (734) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, September 6: Report of uncertain situation in up-river districts.
531
Sept. 12 (741) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, September 11: Report that the three American missionaries have left Kienningfu for Shanghai.
531
Sept. 18 (753) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, September 15: Report of arrival of the American missionaries in Pucheng.
531
Sept. 20 (756) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, September 18: Opinion that presence of U. S. naval vessel at Foochow is no longer necessary.
532
Sept. 26 (770) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, September 25: Safe arrival of the three American missionaries at Hangchow.
532
Oct. 18 (660) From the American Minister in China to the Chinese Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs
Representations to secure immediate action by Kansu authorities for trial and punishment of murderers of Mr. William E. Simpson.
532
Oct. 24 (809) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow: Chinese request for emergency transportation of Chinese troops on foreign vessels from Chungking to Wanhsien in view of threat of Communist attack on Wanhsien; information that British ships have agreed to carry troops, and request for Legation’s approval of proposal.
To Hankow: Unwillingness to approve proposal as contrary to American policy. Information that British Minister has not been approached in the matter but agrees with U. S. position.
534
Oct. 26 (812) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, October 25: Arrival at Wanhsien of seven missionaries from the interior. Report that British are holding up river ships pending decision as to Chinese troop transportation.
From Shanghai, October 25: Admiral Upham’s views regarding troop transportation in American vessels, and request for Consul’s opinion; concurrence in Admiral’s attitude.
534
Oct. 26 (815) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that British Legation regards present situation as an emergency and will not oppose compliance by British firms with Chinese request for transportation of troops. Opposition to any alteration of American policy, but opinion that British action may make advisable exceptional treatment.
535
[Page LX]Oct. 27 (358) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions for American officials, in discussing subject both with officials of other governments and with American nationals, to advise against employment of foreign vessels for Chinese troop transportation.
537
Oct. 28 (819) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, October 27: Report of boycott of Yangtze Rapid Steamship Company vessels at Chungking because of refusal to carry Chinese troops.
537
Oct. 28 (359) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice that in Department’s telegram No. 358, October 27, the phrase “officials of other governments” should be read to include Chinese officials. Instructions to endeavor to persuade British officials to take position similar to that of United States.
538
Oct. 30 (822) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From the Commander in Chief, U. S. Asiatic Fleet: Report of British reversal of decision concerning unloading of steamer Kiawo; dispatch of a letter to General Liu Hsiang requesting that boycott against Yangtze Rapid Steamship Company be lifted; report from U. S. S. Tutuila (text printed) of newspaper article concerning boycott.
To Commander in Chief; Request for further information.
538
Nov. 1 (828) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From the Commander in Chief, U. S. Asiatic Fleet: Information on reversal of decision concerning steamer Kiawo; comments on situation at Chungking.
539
Nov. 4 (833) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, November 3; Report from U. S. S. Tutuila at Chungking that General Liu Hsiang has promised to end strike against Yangtze Rapid Steamship Company, and that emergency is apparently over.
540
Nov. 7 (839) From the Minister in China (tel.)
(From the Counselor of Legation.)
Repetition to the Legation by the Commander in Chief of U. S. Asiatic Fleet of a communication from U. S. S. Tutuila to Commander Yangtze Patrol (text printed), recommending further consideration of question of transportation of Chinese troops in case of future emergency, with especial reference to Yangtze Rapid Steamship Company.
Repetition of message to the Minister at Nanking.
540
Nov. 11 (848) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
From the Minister: Opposition to idea of official authorization for American merchant ships to carry Chinese troops in any emergency; recognition, however, that companies may act on their own responsibility, thereby forfeiting naval protection. British concurrence with American position.
Repetition to Hankow and Commander in Chief.
(Footnote: Department’s concurrence in Minister’s views.)
541
[Page LXI]Nov. 11 Memorandum by the American Minister in China of a Conversation With the Chinese Political Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs
Further representations for action by Kansu authorities in Simpson murder case.
(Footnote: Foreign Office announcement, May 26, 1934, of the execution of one of the murderers and sentences of life imprisonment for the other two.)
541
Nov. 11 Memorandum by the American Minister in China of a Conversation With the Chinese Political Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs
Representations concerning dilatory action of Shensi Provincial authorities in attempts to apprehend murderers of Henry Ekvall and failure of Chinese Government to pay indemnity demanded. Hsu’s promise to make Inquiries and report developments.
543
Nov. 15 (856) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Inquiry by Commander in Chief of Asiatic Fleet as to Minister’s reaction to report that British ships accompanied by British armed guards are transporting Chinese troops; reply (text printed) that American position is unchanged.
543
Nov. 17 (377) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Department’s concurrence in Minister’s views as reported in telegram No. 856, November 15; instructions to continue efforts to persuade British authorities to take a similar stand.
544
Nov. 24 (877) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from Foreign Office concerning proposed measures for suppression of rebellion in Fukien; arrangements for protection of American citizens in that area, and consultations with British colleagues.
544
Nov. 29 (882) From the Minister in China (tel.)
(From the Counselor of Legation.)
From Nanking, November 27: Repetition to the Legation and to the Minister at Canton of Foreign Office note (text printed), advising of Chinese intention to search merchant vessels of all nationalities passing the coast of Fukien.
Exchange of telegrams with the Minister, November 27 and 28 (texts printed), as to action to be taken by Legation in regard to search of vessels; Minister’s opinion that standing instructions are sufficient in the present circumstances.
Information concerning British policy; request for Department’s instructions.
546
Dec. 3 (894) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from Japanese Legation that Japan has made a reservation of rights in regard to search of Japanese vessels.
547
Dec. 6 (898) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report from Consul at Foochow of nonenforcement of blockade.
547
[Page LXII]Dec. 6 (899) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, December 5: British intention to present a note to the Chinese Government advising that, while the British Government cannot consent to the search of British ships on the high seas, it will permit search of British ships by unarmed Chinese officers acting in cooperation with British naval authorities.
547
Dec. 6 (389) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions for guidance in the event that a reply is necessary to Chinese note concerning search of American merchant vessels.
548
Dec. 12 (906) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Intention to inform Foreign Office orally of Department’s views; inquiry as to whether Department would agree to use of British method of permitting search in presence of British naval officers.
548
Dec. 14 (394) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice that Legation should continue to be guided by Department’s instructions in telegram No. 389 of December 6.
549
Dec. 12 [16?] (913) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that an aide-mémoire is being submitted to the Foreign Office, in acknowledgment of Chinese note of November 25, referring to U. S. position as previously set forth.
549
Dec. 20 (923) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information concerning Chinese policy toward shipment of kerosene and gasoline into Fukien ports, obtained on behalf of Texas Company, which desires to send shipment to Foochow; observations on question of the exercise by the Chinese Navy of the belligerent right of visit and search.
549
Dec. 21 (925) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Radiogram from Consul General at Hong Kong to the Consul at Foochow (excerpts printed) advising that a British steamer chartered by the Texas Company has sailed for Foochow with a cargo of kerosene and gasoline, and is under instruction to submit to search on demand of Chinese Navy.
551
Dec. 23 (927) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report on measures being adopted by new Fukien regime restricting or abolishing civil rights of foreigners.
551
Dec. 23 (928) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Amoy, December 22: Report of bombing of Chang-chow.
Repetition of message to Counselor of Legation at Nanking with instructions to make representations to the Foreign Office, pointing out responsibility of the Chinese Government for death or injury of American citizens and damage to their property resulting from such air bombardments.
552
Dec. 24 (929) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, December 23: Report of bombing of Foochow by National Government plane.
Information that Counselor of Legation has been instructed to bring the matter to the attention of the Foreign Office.
553
[Page LXIII]Dec. 26 (931) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report that Foochow was bombed again on December 24 and property of American Board Mission damaged; further bombing on December 25.
553
Dec. 26 (934) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Nonacquiescence of Foreign Office in positions taken by U. S. and British Governments on question of right of search.
554
Dec. 27 (936) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Efforts of Consular Body at Foochow to obtain assurance from National Government that there will be no bombing of Nantai Island, principal place of residence of foreigners in Foochow.
To Nanking, December 27: Instructions for representations to Foreign Office concerning safety of American lives and property at Foochow.
554
Dec. 29 From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
Foreign Office note, December 28 (text printed), giving assurance that due precaution will be taken to avoid unnecessary injury or damage to foreign lives and property in event of further aerial operations against rebels at Foochow.
555
Dec. 30 (940) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report from Foochow that there have been no further air raids; British refusal to permit search of British merchant vessel by Nineteenth Route Army.
556
Dec. 30 (941) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking: Foreign Office note, December 29 (text printed), requesting that Americans in Amoy area be instructed to move to Kulangsu and those in Foochow area to Nantai in view of military measures being taken by Chinese Government against insurrectionists.
556
Dec. 31 (942) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Amoy, December 30: Information that as a precautionary measure all Americans in Changchow and Slokhe have come to Amoy.
556
Dec. 31 (943) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Nanking: Instructions to inform Foreign Office that Consuls at Amoy and Foochow have been advised of contents of Chinese note of December 29, reported in telegram No. 941, December 30, but that Chinese Government is nevertheless responsible for the safety of Americans and their property, not only at Kulangsu and Nantai, but in entire Fukien Province.
557
1934 Jan. 1 (3) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow: Information concerning arrangements for safety of Americans in Foochow and vicinity; recommendation that Americans in certain other districts where protection cannot be afforded be advised to withdraw.
To Foochow: Concurrence in safety arrangements and suggested withdrawal of Americans from unprotected places.
557
[Page LXIV]1934 Jan. 18 From the Minister in China to the Consul General at Hankow
Approval of refusal to issue a death report in the case of the Rev. Bert Nelson until receipt of definite information as to his death. Nonobjection to the making of personal inquiries by Dr. Skinsnes to Mr. Eugene Chen in the matter.
558

Attitude of the Department of State on the Export to China of Arms or Munitions, Including Military Aircraft

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Jan. 16 (974) To the Minister in China
Clarification of U. S. policy regarding export of arms or munitions of war to China; desire that all consular offices in China and the Consulate General at Hong Kong be advised of policy by circular instruction, and that a copy be sent to the Embassy in Japan.
559
Feb. 4 To the Consul at Saigon (tel.)
Instructions to endeavor to obtain authoritative information on certain points with regard to the entry into and transit through Indo-China of American commercial and military aircraft and accessories.
562
May 29 From the Consul at Saigon (tel.)
Statement of Governor General of Indo-China that all aircraft is considered war material and that transit permits must be obtained from the French Government; information concerning taxes and duties.
562
June 30 Statement by the Department of State
Announcement concerning certain minor changes in the regulations pertaining to the export of arms and munitions to China.
563
July 13 (1123) To the Minister in China
Explanation of Department’s statement of June 30 (supra), and desire that all consular offices in China and the Consulate General at Hong Kong be informed accordingly by circular instruction, and that copy be sent to the Embassy in Japan.
564
Nov. 24 (1244) To the Minister in China
Approval of Minister’s proposed action with regard to Foreign Office request for information concerning importation of supplies for, and numbers of American troops and war vessels in China.
565
Nov. 27 From the Chinese Legation
Request that governments and nationals of foreign powers refrain from sending material aid or lending vessels to insurgents in Fukien Province.
566
[Page LXV]

Proposal of the Chinese Government That a New Treaty With the United States Be Negotiated To Replace the Commercial Treaty of October 8, 1903

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Dec. 25 (930) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, December 24: Receipt of Foreign Office note of December 23 expressing a desire for the negotiation of a new commercial treaty to replace the treaty of October 8, 1903.
567
Dec. 26 (935) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Translation of Foreign Office note of December 23 (text printed).
567
Dec. 27 (937) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that in 1931 the British had received a similar request for negotiation of a new commercial treaty. Minister’s intention to acknowledge note, advising that Department has been informed and instructions requested.
568
Dec. 29 (405) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization to make proposed acknowledgment of Foreign Office note of December 23, but to omit reference to request for instructions.
569

Representations Against Restrictions Imposed by the Cantonese Authorities Upon the Sale of Liquid Fuel by Foreign Companies

Date and number Subject Page
1933 July 12 (591) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, July 8: Imposition by Cantonese authorities of restrictions on the importation of liquid fuel, and promulgation of regulations requiring registration of all factories, directed at preventing competition from foreign refining companies; failure of joint U. S.-British representations to secure delay in enforcement of regulations pending reference of question to U. S. and British Governments, but promise of Mayor to take up with Southwest Political Council question of whether the regulations violate article 3 of Sino-American commercial treaty of 1903.
To Canton: Instructions as to interpretation to be followed concerning contravention of treaties by restrictions of Canton authorities.
Information that British Legation has sent similar reply to British Consul General.
569
July 13 (249) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of instruction to Canton. Desire that the Minister and the Consul General at Canton continue to press matter and to report developments.
570
July 18 (600) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, July 17: Report of further U. S. and British representations, both oral and written; suggestion for request to the Chinese Government that restrictions on kerosene produced by American concerns be discontinued.
Information that Legation has given instructions for suggested action.
570
[Page LXVI]July 21 (610) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, July 18: Correspondence between British and American Consuls and Mayor concerning failure of foreign companies to comply with registration requirements, and British and American insistence that the registration provisions are in contravention of treaties. Information from Mayor that matter has been submitted to Southwest Political Council; reiteration of request that application of the regulations be held in abeyance until a final decision is reached.
571
July 22 (617) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, July 20: Request for authorization to seek an interview with Marshal Chen and the Chairman of the Provincial Council in order to present views directly.
Information that Legation granted the requested authorization and that British Legation has taken similar action.
572
July 22 (257) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Protest from Standard Oil Company regarding restrictions imposed by Canton authorities upon the importation of liquid fuel. Instructions to continue to press matter with national and local authorities.
573
July 24 (619) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, July 22: Joint British and American representations to Foreign Office official concerning Canton regulations; his promise to instruct Inspector General of Foreign Affairs at Canton to investigate and take appropriate action.
Repetition of Department’s telegram No. 257, July 22, to Consulates General at Canton and Nanking.
573
July 27 (628) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, July 26: Impression, after joint British-American interview with Marshal Chen and Chairman Lin, that situation is not hopeful; official information from Commissioner of Customs that import restrictions are to be reimposed; refusal of import permit to Socony-Vacuum Company.
Issuance of instructions for renewed representations to national and local officials.
574
July 28 (264) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to take into consideration the applicability of article 15 of Sino-American Treaty of 1858 in connection with representations to Chinese authorities.
575
Aug. 3 (650) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, August 2: Information from Marshal Chen’s representative on Foreign Trade Committee concerning status of British-American protest on kerosene restrictions; submission of formal protest referring to 1858 treaty provisions in the matter of the sealing-up of stocks of Socony-Vacuum Corporation.
575
[Page LXVII]Aug. 9 (665) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, August 8: Joint British-American representations at Foreign Office, expressing disappointment at failure of Inspector General at Canton to receive promised instructions; Foreign Office reply that instructions would be sent upon receipt of a report which had been requested in the matter. Information that upon insistence of British and American representatives, a telegram was dispatched to Canton reporting British and American protests against treaty violations.
576
Aug. 11 (673) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, August 10: Assertion by the Inspector General of Foreign Affairs that Central Government would probably take no action until it had received and studied his report on the oil situation, now in preparation. Suggestion for representations to Central Government requesting that restrictions be held in abeyance pending decision on treaty interpretation.
Information that Counselor of Legation at Nanking has been instructed to make suggested representations, provided he believes it will be helpful.
576
Aug. 12 (283) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of conversation of Department official with T. V. Soong, Chinese Minister of Finance, during which protest was made against action of Cantonese authorities, and Soong expressed disapproval of action and promised to attempt to correct the situation.
577
Undated To the Chinese Legation
Expectation that immediate and effective attention will be given by Chinese Government and authorities at Canton to American representations in regard to restrictions on importation and sale of kerosene, in violation of treaty provisions.
577
Aug. 15 (686) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Canton, August 15: Instruction to Consul General to use his own discretion and to consult with British colleague as to pressure to be brought in Canton.
From Nanking, August 12: Information from Foreign Office that Canton authorities have been requested to delay enforcement of oil regulations, pending decision on treaty interpretation.
578
Aug. 18 (692) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, August 17: Information from Foreign Office representative that Central Government’s instructions concerning delay in enforcement of oil regulations have been transmitted to agencies concerned. Receipt of instructions by British Consul General to emphasize gravity of situation to Chairman Lin and Marshal Chen.
579
Aug. 21 (697) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, August 18: Announcement by Southwest Political Council concerning nonapplicability of certain registration requirements to firms with entirely foreign capital; information that foreign companies are applying for registration accordingly and that American firms have been advised concerning possible loss of extraterritorial rights.
579
[Page LXVIII]Aug. 23 (701) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, August 21: Information that British and American Consuls General are awaiting outcome of application for registration by their respective firms.
Opinion that there appears to be no objectionable control by Chinese over foreign firms under the regulations in question.
580
Aug. 31 (722) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, August 29: Joint British and American protests to Foreign Office representative against actions of authorities which are preventing foreign oil companies from competing on equal terms with Chinese companies; advice to foreign companies not to register in view of requirements involving loss of extraterritorial rights; request by British and American Consuls General for another interview with Chairman Lin and Marshal Chen.
Minister’s opinion that a satisfactory solution may yet be obtained by continued representations at Canton.
580
Sept. 9 (737) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, September 7: Receipt of unsatisfactory communications from Inspector General of Foreign Affairs; consultations with British Consul General in regard to a suitable reply to first communication, but doubt that a satisfactory solution can be achieved by continuing the correspondence.
To Nanking, September 8: Instructions for emphatic representations at Foreign Office for discontinuance of discriminatory actions.
581
Sept. 11 (314) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of action taken by the Minister and the Consul General at Canton. Belief that matter should now be brought to the attention of T. V. Soong, Minister of Finance.
583
Sept. 13 (744) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, September 11: Suggestion that future protests regarding application form emphasize fact that wording could be interpreted as a renunciation of treaty rights, and request for permission to attempt to secure revision of the form.
Information that Counselor at Nanking has been instructed to see Soong; also that suggestion of Consul General at Canton has been approved.
583
Sept. 25 (768) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, September 20: Joint British and American proposal to Inspector General for modification of registration form; Inspector’s suggestion for exchange of notes embodying certain understandings instead of revision of the form.
584
Sept. 27 (772) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, September 25: Suggestion that Central Government be requested to instruct Canton authorities not to apply the registration form to foreign oil companies; also, that Central Government might be willing to reduce duty on kerosene temporarily.
584
[Page LXIX]Sept. 27 (330) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Inquiry as to what action Legation has taken on suggestions of Consul General at Canton, reported in telegram No. 772, September 27; opinion as to inadvisability of acting on second suggestion for reduction on kerosene duty.
585
Sept. 28 (775) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Dispatch of instructions to the Counselor of Legation to make representations to the Central Government in the matter of the application of the registration form to foreign oil companies, and to seek an interview with Soong.
585
Oct. 2 (782) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, September 30: Joint British and American protest to Foreign Office official concerning registration requirements; his promise to inform Inspector General at Canton of protest and of possible British-American consent to registration if form were revised suitably.
586
Oct. 3 Memorandum by the Counselor of Legation in China of a Conversation With the Chinese Minister of Finance
Discussion of restrictions by Canton authorities on sale of oil by American and other foreign firms. Mr. Soong’s observations as to inability of National Government to control action of Canton regime in the matter.
586
Oct. 4 (790) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, October 3: Inspector General’s receipt of instructions from the Central Government to urge local authorities to try to effect a settlement; observation that in making protest U. S. and British representatives at Nanking did not mention reservation exempting oil companies from conforming to any Chinese regulations incompatible with treaty rights.
To Nanking, October 4: Instructions for inclusion in any final revision of application form of reservation protecting treaty rights.
587
Oct. 17 (799) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, October 14: Report of joint British and American interview with Provincial Finance Commissioner at which protest was made concerning application of proposed business tax to imported kerosene; suggestion for possible representations by Legation to Central Government.
Legation’s decision to make no representations until informed that tax has actually been instituted.
588
Oct. 27 (816) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, October 24; Receipt of letter from the Inspector General advising of authorities’ refusal to accede to proposals for revision of registration application and stating intention not to impose taxes upon foreign oil companies, but upon retailers only. Suggestion to Inspector General that situation might be met by an exchange of notes embodying Chinese willingness to refrain from enforcing laws against American firms incompatible with treaty rights, and including a reservation of right to make representations concerning proposed retailers’ tax as a separate issue.
To Canton, October 27: Approval of proposal for exchange of notes.
589
[Page LXX]Nov, 4 (366) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions for further representations at Canton, and desire that Consul General at Canton make a study of export-import trends between the United States and Canton area with a view to possibility of retaliatory measures.
590
Nov. 7 (840) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, November 4: Discussion between American and British Consuls General and Chinese representative of wording of proposed reply of Bureau of Reconstruction concerning intention of Chinese authorities not to enforce against foreign oil companies any regulations in contravention of treaty rights; proposed British and American note to Inspector General (excerpt printed). Intention, on receipt of Chinese reply, to advise oil companies to proceed with registration.
591
Nov. 8 (842) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, November 7: Receipt of note from Inspector General, confirming American understanding that foreign oil companies will not prejudice their treaty rights by registering. Request for instructions in regard to advising American companies to apply for registration.
592
Nov. 11 (840) From the Counselor of Legation in China (tel.)
From the Minister: Proposal to instruct Consul General at Canton to advise oil companies to register.
Information that British Consul General at Canton has been instructed to take action similar to that of American colleague.
(Footnote: Department’s concurrence in Minister’s proposal.)
592
1934 Jan. 3 (5) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, December 29: Information that registration of foreign oil companies was effected December 19, and importations of liquid fuel are being made without restrictions. Foreign companies’ fear of possible discrimination in favor of native companies in enforcement of tax regulations and plan to institute test cases.
593

Representations Against a Wolfram Monopoly in South China

Date and number Subject Page
1933 July 21 (253) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Suggestion, if investigation shows that Chinese Government has granted a wolfram monopoly to a British firm, as reported from Canton, for protest to local authorities, with reference to appropriate treaty provisions, and if that proves ineffectual, for formal protest to Central Government.
593
July 26 (623) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Canton: Intention, if Foreign Office confirms report of granting of an export monopoly for wolfram ore, to make formal protest on grounds of treaty violation; instructions to make protest to local authorities on similar grounds if local export situation justifies such action.
594
[Page LXXI]July 28 (265) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Report from Hankow of British company’s confirmation of monopoly grant approved by the Executive Yuan July 15. Instructions to lodge formal protest, based upon treaty provisions.
594
Aug. 12 (281) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of conversation of Department official with T. V. Soong, in which Department’s disapproval of wolfram monopoly was expressed, and Soong agreed to do what he could to correct situation.
595
Aug. 30 (717) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton: Information that Commissioner of Customs is passing, provisionally, wolfram ore; report of shipment of 800 tons to Hong Kong without permits from Nanking.
595
Oct. 2 (789) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Foreign Office reply to Legation’s protest of July 31, implying that export monopoly to British firm is not in violation of treaties, as it is technically vested in a Ministry of Industries official sales bureau rather than in foreign firms. Information concerning proposed reply, with request for instructions.
596
Oct. 6 (336) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of Legation’s proposed reply, with certain suggested amendments.
597
Nov. 16 (2381) From the Minister in China
Information from the Foreign Ministry of cancellation of export agreement between the Ministry of Industry and British firm. Advice that Consuls General at Canton, Hankow, Nanking, and Shanghai have been informed and requested to report to Legation any indication of revival of monopoly.
597

Efforts of the United States To Meet Situation Created by Imposition in China of Taxes Considered Unfair to American Trade

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Jan. 24 (81) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai: Demand of Land Bureau of Shanghai Municipality for payment of foreshore fees by American firms before January 20. Information that in accordance with Department’s instructions, companies have been advised not to comply.
Intention of Legation to take no action pending actual attempts to enforce payment.
598
Jan. 31 (34) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to address note to Foreign Ministry stating that, in accordance with previously outlined position of U. S. Government, American firms have been advised not to comply with demand for payment of foreshore fees.
599
[Page LXXII]Apr. 20 (2065) From the Minister in China
Transmittal of copies of Legation’s formal note of February 2 to Foreign Office, and Foreign Office reply of March 31, quoting communication from Shanghai Municipal Government which asserted that Revised Foreshore Regulations do not infringe on the control exercised by the Whangpoo Conservancy Commission, and further advising that certain American and other foreign firms have already paid the required fees. Dispatch of an instruction to the Consul General at Shanghai requesting information concerning statements made by Shanghai Municipal Government.
599
June 24 (2165) From the Minister in China
Summary of correspondence with the Consul General at Shanghai concerning foreshore regulations and their effect upon the independence of the Conservancy Board; intention not to reply to Foreign Office note of March 31 unless pressed by Ministry to do so, or unless further efforts are made to enforce the regulations.
600
Oct. 12 (656) From the American Minister in China to the Chinese Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs
Representations concerning efforts of Fukien Provincial authorities to collect a “business tax” upon products of American oil companies, in violation of laws and rulings of the Chinese Government, and request for measures to relieve the situation.
(Footnote: Foreign Office reply, November 14, indicating that Fukien authorities had been instructed to cease collection of these taxes.)
602

Informal Good Offices of the Department of State on Behalf of the Pan American Airways in Establishing Shanghai-Canton Line

Date and number Subject Page
1933 July 13 (247) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Failure of attempt of Pan American Airways to inaugurate an air line service between Shanghai and Canton, due to certain unreasonable demands of the Minister of Communications. Inquiry as to whether local representative of Pan American Airways has approached the Legation in the matter; also as to advisability of making formal or informal representations to the Chinese Government in the matter.
603
July 27 (627) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report from Counselor of Legation at Nanking, July 26 (text printed), expressing opinion that Legation should extend informal good offices on behalf of Pan American Airways.
603
July 31 (270) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization for extension of good offices.
604
[Page LXXIII]Oct. 24 Press Interview Given by the Chinese Minister on Occasion of the Inauguration of Air Service Between Shanghai and Canton, October 24, 1933
Comments on the opening of the new service by the Chinese National Aviation Corporation, which is associated with the Pan American Airways System.
604

Nonadmittance of Chinese Students to Courses in Military Aviation in Schools Conducted by the United States Government

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Oct. 19 (346) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions for information of Vice Consul at Yunnanfu, in replying to request of authorities to send flyers to United States for observation and courses in military training, setting forth U. S. policy of nonadmittance of foreign students to U. S. Government schools, and suggesting other means for securing the desired instruction.
605

Applicability of Chinese Jurisdiction to American Schools in China

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Apr. 13 (1055) To the Minister in China
Transmittal of a copy of an instruction to the Consul General at Shanghai (text printed) in regard to the Department’s attitude on the question of the status, under the treaties, of schools of American missionary organizations. Desire that this instruction be circularized among consular officers in China.
607
Sept. 2 To the Consul General at Shanghai
Reaffirmation, in answer to a direct appeal to the President by Mr. Charles W. Rankin, President of the University of China, of Department’s ruling that U. S. treaties with China, do not confer on schools established by American missionary organizations the right of freedom from Chinese regulations.
609

American Interest in Problems Affecting the International Settlement at Shanghai

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Apr. 1 (104) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Department’s previous authorization to continue efforts for the conclusion of a local agreement regarding extra-Settlement roads is still adequate; request, if further instructions are desired, that Minister discuss situation with colleagues and inform Department of views of other interested powers.
610
[Page LXXIV]Apr. 7 From the American Minister in China to the Brazilian Minister in China
Outline of present status of negotiations for extra-Settlement roads agreement; unacceptability of Japanese conditions, such as employment of Japanese police officers; information that Shanghai Municipal Council now has under consideration a plan for signature of the agreement by the Chairman of the Council and the Mayor of Shanghai, and for indirect ratification by ratepayers of the foreign settlements through adoption of the budget.
611
Oct. 25 (811) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Consul General at Shanghai has been instructed to accompany British colleague, as requested, to see Mayor of Shanghai for the purpose of presenting British proposal on policing of extra-Settlement roads, keeping in mind, however, Department’s views that matter should be settled by local agreement.
(Footnote: Department’s approval of instruction to Shanghai.)
612
Nov. 27 (7742) From the Consul General at Shanghai to the Minister in China
Comments on Japanese and Chinese policy with regard to policing of extra-Settlement roads, and dangers of dual control.
613
Dec. 5 Memorandum by the Consul at Shanghai of a Conversation With the Chinese Commissioner of Finance, Municipality of Greater Shanghai
Chinese objections to recent British proposal.
615

Agreement Extending Duration of the Agreement and Attached Notes of February 17, 1930, Regarding Chinese Courts in the International Settlement at Shanghai

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Jan. 24 (83) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for authorization to join with interested colleagues in exchange of identic notes with Foreign Minister for extension of agreement of February 17, 1930, concerning Chinese courts in the International Settlement at Shanghai; information that exchange will be accompanied by memoranda concerning points of reform in the administration of the courts.
616
Jan. 27 (30) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization to join in proposed arrangements for extension of agreement concerning Chinese courts; desire that the unilateral declaration of the foreign signatories of February 17, 1930, be renewed also.
617
Feb. 4 (119) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Texts of notes to be exchanged and of accompanying memorandum; intention to authorize Consul General at Shanghai to sign on behalf of the Minister.
617
[Page LXXV]Feb. 4 (38) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of arrangements for signature of notes; further reference to desire for renewal of unilateral declaration of February 17, 1930.
619
Feb. 6 (123) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Replacement of paragraph of joint note by a new paragraph (text printed); information that a joint note from foreign representatives is being addressed to Chinese Minister renewing unilateral declaration of February 17, 1930.
619
Feb. 17 From the Counselor of Legation in China to the Minister in China
Information that the Secretary of the Japanese Legation called and presented copy of a Note Verbale to the Chinese Foreign Office, setting forth Japanese attitude concerning the recent exchange of notes extending the agreement governing Chinese courts in the Shanghai International Settlement, of which Japan is not a signatory.
620

Questions Involving Jurisdiction With Respect to Extraterritorial Rights of American Citizens in China

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Mar. 23 (93) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of attitude of Consul General at Shanghai with regard to the question of the inspection of American factories in Chinese-controlled territory at Shanghai, provided it is made clear to Chinese authorities that penal provisions of Chinese Factory Law are not enforcible against American factory owners.
621
June 21 (543) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Senior Consul at Shanghai is requesting support of Diplomatic Body in protest to Commissioner of Customs against enforcement of measures under Customs Notification of April 24, 1933, in cases of firms enjoying extraterritorial status; doubt that protest on extraterritorial basis is well founded in view of treaty provisions, and request for instructions.
622
June 26 (221) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion that Consular Body protest is warranted with respect to American nationals, and authorization to join with Diplomatic Body in support of protest if such action is considered necessary.
622
July 29 (629) From the American Minister in China to the Chinese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Representations with respect to the proposed enforcement of provisional regulations for the control of interprovincial motor vehicle traffic in certain provinces and municipalities in the case of American citizens.
623
[Page LXXVI]Aug. 16 (2252) From the Minister in China
Refusal of Foreign Minister to comply with Legation’s request that provincial and municipal authorities be instructed to consider existing treaty provisions when enforcing new traffic regulations against American citizens; Legation’s reply, pending Department’s instructions, reserving the right of protest against any infringement of American treaty rights in enforcement of traffic regulations.
625
Nov. 3 (1226) To the Minister in China
Opinion that recent protests of Legation and position taken by Consul General at Shanghai in the matter of the Chinese interprovincial traffic regulations constitute a clear declaration to the Chinese authorities of opposition to the assumption of jurisdiction over American nationals in contravention of treaty provisions, and that it is now advisable to refrain from further action and await developments.
625

Denial to American Firms of Right to Formal Hearing Under the Chinese Customs Rules of 1868

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Nov. 11 Memorandum by the Minister in China of a Conversation With the Chinese Political Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs
Presentation of cases of American firms accused of violation of Customs rules and denied right of formal hearing as provided under the Rules of 1868. Chinese position that the Rules of 1868 were abolished by the Sino-American Tariff Treaty of 1928; Hsu’s willingness, however, to investigate the matter and discuss with Customs administration its methods of handling such cases.
626

Efforts for the Consideration of American Claims Outstanding Against China

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Jan. 11 (8) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions for oral and written representations to the Chinese Government to secure constructive action for the settlement of outstanding American claims against China, and suggesting adoption of draft convention providing for the adjudication of Chinese claims against the U. S. Government as well as American claims against the Chinese Government.
628
Jan. 31 (102) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that, in accordance with Department’s instructions of January 11, the Counselor of Legation at Nanking, on January 30, presented a formal note and draft proposal to the Foreign Minister, who gave assurances of prompt consideration.
629
[Page LXXVII]Feb. 2 (107) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information concerning reported loan agreement between Bank of Indo-China and Inspector General of the Chinese Maritime Customs, terms of which give loan a prior lien on customs over all others, including the Boxer Indemnity. French Minister’s desire to ascertain whether the U. S. Government would make a formal protest if notified officially of the loan.
629
Feb. 3 (37) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Department is studying the matter set forth in telegram No. 107, February 2, and desires Legation’s views and recommendations.
630
Feb. 4 (116) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Views and information concerning Chinese customs loan agreement with Bank of Indo-China; intention to ascertain whether loan was offered to National City Bank, as reported.
630
Feb. 8 (128) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of conversation of Counselor of Legation at Nanking with the Foreign Minister at time of presentation of note on January 30, reported in telegram No. 102 of January 31.
631
Feb. 9 (132) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that National City Bank of New York was offered the Chinese customs loan on a competitive bid basis.
632
Feb. 13 (139) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Recommendation that no action be taken on Chinese customs loan other than to ask for a copy of the agreement in view of its possible bearing upon Boxer Indemnity payments.
632
Feb. 16 (53) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Department’s willingness, under certain conditions, to accept Minister’s suggestion made in telegram No. 139 of February 13.
632
Feb. 27 (184) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking: Information that Soong has indicated his approval of the plan for a debt commission, but has some slight changes to suggest.
633
Mar. 25 (97) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to continue to press for the establishment of a Sino-American claims commission, and, if any misunderstanding has arisen, to inform the Chinese Government that it is not intended that the scope of the proposed commission be limited to the adjudication of contractual obligations alone.
633
Mar. 28 (285) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Intention to make sure of clear understanding with regard to scope of claims commission; information from Foreign Office that plan has been referred to the Executive Yuan for approval.
634
[Page LXXVIII]Apr. 13 (118) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Desire for continued pressure for action by Chinese Government on proposed claims commission.
634
Apr. 19 (340) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Counselor of Legation at Nanking was unable to see Soong before his departure for Washington, but has reported that Wang Ching-wei has approved claims commission.
635
Apr. 19 (124) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions as to presentation of claims for losses arising from looting or banditry.
635
May 20 (459) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Dissatisfaction with attitude of high Government officials toward proposed claims commission, and with discriminatory actions of various Ministries toward American creditors; suggestion that situation be discussed with T. V. Soong before his departure from United States.
636
May 31 (181) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Efforts of Andersen, Meyer and Company to conclude agreement similar to one recently concluded between the Ministry of Railways and British material creditors of Tientsin-Pukow Railway; desire that the Legation take any appropriate action in the matter.
637
June 9 (192) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization to inform British Minister of general nature of proposal for claims commission; anxiety for conclusion of preliminary negotiations, at least, as soon as possible.
637
June 10 (193) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to inform Chinese Government of U. S. Government’s expectation that American creditors of Chinese railways will be accorded equal treatment with that of other nationalities; approval of suggestion that American creditors of Chinese railways should initiate negotiations of their own for conclusion of agreements similar to that obtained by British creditors.
638
June 14 (526) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Suggestion from Counselor of Legation at Nanking (text printed) that proposed action on behalf of American railway creditors be postponed temporarily lest it hinder negotiations for the establishment of a claims commission. Information that Counselor of Legation has been instructed to delay action until reply has been received concerning claims commission.
639
June 16 (205) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of suggested delay in matter of railway creditors; receipt of letter from Andersen, Meyer and Company (excerpts printed), indicating that while Minister of Railways is willing to conclude an agreement, it will probably prove ineffectual, since Tientsin-Pukow Railway is reported to have defaulted its May payment to British creditors.
639
[Page LXXIX]June 17 (208) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Attitude of T. V. Soong as to desirability of postponing action on proposed claims commission until his return to China, in view of disagreement among various Government departments; instructions to inform Counselor of Legation at Nanking and to request him to inform Department of his views and decision.
640
June 20 (541) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that claim of the Chinese Engineering and Development Company for treatment similar to that of British creditors was refused by Ministry of Railways on the ground that the U. S. Government is seeking a general claims convention; intention to bring matter to the attention of the Foreign Minister and the Ministry of Railways, pointing out that the proposal for a claims commission should not prevent granting of equality of treatment to specific claims of American citizens.
640
June 20 (212) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of and further instructions for representations to the Chinese Government for equality of treatment of American claimants, regardless of action taken on proposal for a claims commission; inquiry as to advisability of American claimants of Chinese railways acting as a unit, rather than attempting to secure individual agreements.
641
June 22 (550) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, June 21: Advice from Foreign Office official of possibility of indefinite delay in replying to U. S. proposal for a claims commission, owing to unfavorable attitude of Ministries concerned; opinion that further pressure would be inadvisable and suggestion that question be kept open by occasional informal approaches.
Minister’s approval of Nanking’s suggestion. Information that Ministry of Railways has announced that foreign creditors of Tientsin-Pukow Railway will be accorded equal treatment in settlement of debts.
641
Undated To the Chinese Legation
Observation as to attitude of present regime in Manchuria toward obligations of American creditors as compared with that of former authorities and of Nanking Government.
642
Aug. 8 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of Conversations With the Chinese Minister of Finance and the Chinese Minister
Discussion of Chinese desire for economic assistance from American and other foreign sources; observation concerning China’s obligation to arrange for settlement of outstanding accounts before undertaking new debts.
643
[Page LXXX]Aug. 11 (674) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Proposed British memorandum to Foreign Minister (excerpt printed), to be signed by American, British, and French Ministers, referring to reported hypothecation of 5 percent famine relief customs surtax for recent American cotton-wheat loan, and reserving right of bondholders of Hukuang Railway Loan to priority of payment from customs revenues. Request for instructions.
646
Aug. 23 (297) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Willingness to join in sending of memorandum, provided text contains no irrelevant or disputable statements, such as reference to cotton-wheat loan; proposed substitute statement (text printed).
646
Aug. 24 (298) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions for protest if, upon investigation, it proves true that Ministry of Railways contemplates hypothecation of revenues from Peiping-Hankow Railway and other lines as security for new loan to Canton-Hankow Railway.
648
Sept. 7 (2280) From the Minister in China
Note to British Legation, August 29 (text printed), concerning servicing of the Hukuang Railway Loan of 1911, based on Department’s instructions in telegram No. 297, August 23; information that no further communication has been received from the British Legation in the matter.
648
Sept. 14 [15] (747) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Proposed agreement between American creditors of Peking-Hankow Railway (text printed), concerning which Ministry of Railways has promised favorable consideration, provided American agent has power to act jointly for American companies concerned; desire that Department contact president of Baldwin Locomotive Works to request that he drop his demand for separate signatures in order that arrangements may be concluded.
650
Sept. 26 (327) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Willingness of Baldwin Locomotive Works to cooperate in effecting settlement with Ministry of Railways.
652
Nov. 3 (363) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Subjects to be taken up by the Minister with the appropriate authorities during his contemplated visit to Nanking, including difficulties which are preventing conclusion of agreement between American creditors and Ministry of Railways.
(Footnote: Information that a preliminary agreement was signed November 23.)
653
Nov. 22 (867) From the Minister in China (tel.)
British draft memorandum (text printed) for joint signature by American, British, and French representatives, protesting new regulations providing that 1933 customs duty Treasury notes shall be secured upon increased customs revenues, and inquiring as to what steps the Chinese Government proposes to take to implement its obligations under articles 8 and 9 of the Hukuang Railway Loan Agreement of 1911. Request for authorization to join in memorandum.
654
[Page LXXXI]Nov. 23 (383) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization to sign the memorandum referred to in telegram No. 867, November 22, provided British will agree to certain changes in wording.
655
Nov.27 (2396) From the Minister in China
Advice that formal protest was made to the Foreign Office on October 27 in accordance with Department’s instructions in telegram No. 298 of August 24; Foreign Office reply, November 17, claiming a distinction between ordinary Income of the various railways and special revenue, and Legation’s further protest, refusing to accept the distinction.
655
Nov. 29 (885) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for authorization to sign revised memorandum concerning Hukuang Railway loan agreement.
(Footnote: Information that authorization was granted on November 29, and that joint memorandum was dated December 20.)
656
Dec. 12 From the Counselor of Legation in China
Conversation between the U. S. Minister and Dr. Wang Ching-wei, President of the Executive Yuan and Acting Foreign Minister, who expressed his own approval of the proposed Sino-American Claims Commission, but asked the American Minister to consult with Dr. H. H. Kung, Minister of Finance.
657
Dec. 12 Memorandum by the Minister in China of a Conversation With the Chinese Minister of Finance
Discussion of proposal for establishment of a Sino-American Claims Commission; Dr. Kung’s assurance that matter will be given immediate and serious attention, and request that he be supplied with a list of outstanding claims.
657

Objection by the Department of State to Postponement of Payments on the American Portion of the Boxer Indemnity

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Feb. 7 (125) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Message (text printed) from Arthur Young, American adviser to the Chinese Finance Ministry, concerning intention of Chinese Government to request extension for another year of the arrangements for the temporary postponement of the American, British, and Italian Boxer Indemnity payments.
660
Feb. 11 (47) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Department’s objections concerning proposed Chinese request for further postponement of Indemnity payments.
660
Feb. 13 (143) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice to Young concerning Department’s reluctance to receive proposal for further Indemnity postponement; information that British Minister has likewise been approached in the matter and made reply indicating British unwillingness to assent.
661
[Page LXXXII]Feb. 17 (159) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Foreign Office note, February 13 (substance printed), requesting postponement of Boxer Indemnity payments for another year, as from March 1, 1933, and explaining reasons for such request. Information that British Minister has as yet received no formal communication in the matter, that Italian Minister, while personally not opposed to postponement, has received no instructions from his Government
662
Feb. 18 (59) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to confer with British and Italian colleagues and to inform Department of their views and of their Governments’ views toward proposed Indemnity postponements.
663
Feb. 20 (169) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Discussion of Indemnity postponement question with British and Italian representatives, who will communicate fur-thur with their Governments; information that British Minister is recommending against the Chinese proposal.
664
Mar. 9 (229) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Inquiry as to whether Department would now be prepared to issue instructions for reply to Chinese note of February 13, even though British and Italian colleagues are still without instructions from their Governments.
664
Mar. 10 (80) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Desire that American, British, and Italian replies to the Chinese Government synchronize as to time of transmission and that they be similar in attitude; authorization to reply along lines of Department’s telegram No. 47, February 11, provided British and Italian Governments are also prepared to reply adversely. Instructions to confer with British and Italian colleagues, pointing out desirability of an early reply.
665
Mar. 14 To the British Ambassador
Information that U. S. views coincide with those of British Government concerning undesirability of complying with Chinese request for postponement of Indemnity payments, and that the American Minister in China has been authorized to inform the Chinese Government accordingly, provided his British and Italian colleagues are authorized to take similar action.
665
Mar. 21 (268) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, March 20: Soong’s request that Minister recommend acceptance of Chinese proposal for postponement of Indemnity payments, with the promise that dependent institutions will be continued in their present status.
Information that British and Italian Legations are still without instructions, and request for further instructions concerning reply to Chinese Government.
666
Mar. 24 (95) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Department’s views are unchanged and that suggestions in telegram No. 80, March 10, should be followed; also that Department is suggesting, unofficially, to the British and Italian Embassies that instructions to their respective Legations in China be expedited.
666
[Page LXXXIII]Mar. 28 (286) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Preparation of British and American notes of refusal to be delivered to Foreign Office upon receipt of information that Italian Legation has instructions to make a similar reply.
667
Apr. 5 (307) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, April 4: Soong’s report that recent defeat of Government troops at hands of Communist forces has aggravated financial situation and the need for postponement of Indemnity payments.
667
Apr. 6 From the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs to the Under Secretary of State
Statement of Department’s position with regard to refusal to consent to postponement of Boxer Indemnity payments for another year.
668
Apr. 7 (116) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Inability, after careful and sympathetic consideration of the situation, to acquiesce in further postponement of Boxer Indemnity payments.
669
Apr. 18 (337) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that American, British, and Italian notes, identical as to substance, were delivered at the Foreign Office on April 13.
670
May 3 (396) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice that March and April installments of American Indemnity payments have not been paid, and that a note is being sent to the Foreign Office in the matter.
670
May 12 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Adviser to the Chinese Ministry of Finance
Chinese desire to submit new proposal for resumption of Boxer Indemnity payments but on a reduced scale; Mr. Hornbeck’s suggestion that it should be submitted simultaneously to the three interested governments, from Nanking.
671
May 13 (430) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Nanking, May 12: Instructions to inform Foreign Office of Legation’s surprise at learning of preferential treatment accorded Italian Government through payment of March and April installments of Italian portion of Boxer Indemnity, and to renew request for payments due the American Government for March and April.
671
May 16 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Chinese Minister of Finance and the Chinese Minister
Discussion of Chinese request for further suspension of Boxer Indemnity payments; explanation of U. S. position, and suggestion that Chinese Government work out plan providing for obligations connected with Chinese educational institutions and certain outstanding indebtedness.
672
[Page LXXXIV]June 3 (187) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Soong, when in Washington, was informed that Department’s views concerning postponement of Boxer Indemnity payments remained unchanged, that he submitted informally a proposal for revision of the Indemnity payments, which the Department, upon certain conditions, agreed to take under consideration.
674
June 12 (196) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that question of arrears in Boxer Indemnity payments was discussed with Young, who agreed to refer question to Soong; comment concerning possibility of British Government’s discussing question of British arrears with Soong, who is now in London; request for information concerning payment of Italian portion.
675
June 14 (527) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information concerning indemnity payments to Italy and other goverments for 1932 and 1933; also concerning British Legation’s suggestion to British Government that question of arrears in payment of British and American portions be discussed with Soong in London.
676
June 26 (1115) To the Minister in China
Acceptance, in which Treasury Department concurs, of Chinese proposal for alteration in date of payment of postponed portion of Boxer Indemnity.
676
Undated To the Chinese Legation
Representations concerning arrears in payment of American portion of Boxer Indemnity.
677
Nov. 16 Memorandum by the Minister in China of a Conversation With the Former Chinese Minister of Finance
Mr. Soong’s explanation of arrangements for payment of 2 months’ arrears of American portion of Boxer Indemnity in 10 monthly installments; also of arrangements with Italy concerning Italian portion of Indemnity.
678

Representations for the Protection of American Patents and Trade Marks in China

Date and number Subject Page
1933 May 15 (436) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Informal protest against recent public statement of Minister of Industries tending to encourage imitation of American patents by Chinese Citizens.
679
May 20 (172) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions, if favorable action is not taken soon by Chinese Government, to make oral and written representations to Foreign Minister concerning statement of Minister of Industries.
679
[Page LXXXV]June 9 (1102) To the Minister in China
Directions to continue close observation of the situation in China as regards the protection of American patents and to impress upon the Chinese Government that the U. S. Government expects the early enactment of appropriate legislation.
680
June 12 (514) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Efforts to secure action by Chinese Government publicly repudiating statement of Minister of Industries and calling attention of the public to Chinese treaty engagements to protect American patents.
680
July 21 (614) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Receipt of Chinese draft statement on the protection of foreign patents; notification to Foreign Office that Legation approves statement and requests that it be released to the press as soon as possible.
(Footnote; Release of statement on July 22.)
681
Nov. 8 (1231) To the Minister in China
Instructions to refrain from representations to the Chinese authorities as to the general application to American nationals of the trademark law of 1930, but to continue to make representations in specific cases where such representations appear to be warranted.
682

Registration of American and Other Foreign Publications Under the Chinese Press Law

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Feb. 2 (1942) From the Minister in China
Transmittal of copies of Foreign Office note of January 23, requesting that American publishers be instructed to register with the Ministry of the Interior under the Chinese press law, and Legation’s reply, refusing to instruct American nationals to comply with the requirements of the law.
683
Mar. 7 (220) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Inclination to agree with opinion expressed by Counselor of Legation at Nanking that voluntary registration of American publications should be permitted, provided, however, that Foreign Minister first gives a written undertaking exempting them from penal provisions of the press law and from registration with the Central Party Headquarters.
683
Mar. 9 (79) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of opinion expressed in Minister’s telegram No. 220 of March 7, and authorization to act accordingly, after discussion of question with British and other interested colleagues.
684
[Page LXXXVI]Mar. 25 (275) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that British Legation has accepted Foreign Minister’s oral assurances and has advised British publications to register, but that British Minister is willing to reopen the question. Advice from Shanghai that American, British, French, and Japanese Legations have been requested to instruct their nationals to register. Request for Department’s comments before taking action in the matter.
685
Apr. 1 (105) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to ascertain views of French and Japanese Legations and, if similar to those of Department, to inform Chinese Government of U. S. attitude, synchronizing reply with French and Japanese replies if possible; but, if French and Japanese views are not in accord with American attitude, to inform Department and submit recommendations.
686
Apr. 5 (306) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from British Chamber of Commerce at Shanghai that for the present foreign newspapers are not being required to register; report on British, French, and Japanese attitudes and recommendation that no further action be taken in the matter for the time being.
687
Apr. 7 (114) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of recommendation that no further action be taken for the time being.
689
June 28 (562) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Receipt from Foreign Office of written undertaking in accordance with Department’s requirements for registration of American publications under Chinese press law, and proposed acknowledgment (excerpt printed); information that British Legation has received similar note and is making similar reply.
689
July 5 (573) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for approval of amended paragraph (text printed) containing new proviso; information that British concur in new wording.
690
July 13 (246) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Suggested substitute paragraph (text printed), providing for assurance by Chinese authorities that conditions of new proviso have been met before recommendation for registration by American publications is given.
(Footnote: Inclusion of Department’s suggested paragraph in note to Foreign Office dated July 18.)
690
Oct. 9 (1212) To the Minister in China
Approval, in view of Chinese inability to confirm the understandings requested, of decision (concurred in by British Legation) to let the matter of registration of foreign publications under Chinese press law rest until the Chinese again reopen the question.
691
[Page LXXXVII]Dec. 7 (2413) From the Minister in China
Substance of Foreign Office reply, dated November 17, to U. S. note of July 18. Opinion that in view of French and British, attitudes there is little chance of obtaining the additional assurances requested in note of July 18, and suggestion that U. S. Government sanction voluntary pro forma registration with a general reservation that it cannot accept the application to American publications, whether registered or not, of any of the penal provisions or administrative controls contemplated by the Chinese press law.
691

Chinese Censorship Restrictions Upon Exhibition of American Motion Pictures in China

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Aug. 3 (1138) To the Minister in China
Views concerning right of censorship of any government over exhibition of a motion picture considered contrary to its interests, with reference to threat of Chinese National Board of Film Censors to exclude from exhibition in China all films of Columbia Pictures Distributing Company, Inc., unless it withdrew from world-wide circulation its film entitled “The Bitter Tea of General Yen”; instructions to endeavor to secure a satisfactory solution of the question through informal negotiations with the Chinese Board of Censors.
694
Sept. 13 (2290) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Receipt of Foreign Office memorandum of September 6 requesting that American motion picture distributors be informed of provisions of Motion Picture Censorship Law requiring that all foreign motion pictures to be shown in China be sent to Nanking for censorship prior to exhibition.
695
Oct. 3 From the American Counselor of Legation in China to the Director of the Department of International Affairs of the Chinese Foreign Office
Representations on behalf of Columbia Pictures Distributing Company, Inc., with reference to action of Chinese Consul General at Batavia; request that Foreign Office telegraph the Chinese Consuls General at Batavia, Manila, and Calcutta, advising them that the film “The Bitter Tea of General Yen” has been amended and approved by the Board of Censors and that they should not take any measures to warn Chinese residents abroad against the film.
696
Nov. 7 (2365) From the Minister in China
Complaint of Motion Picture Association of China against the action of the National Government Motion Picture Censorship Committee in fining foreign distributors for irregularities on the part of Chinese exhibitors over whom the distributors have no control; instructions to Nanking to make informal representations in the matter.
697
[Page LXXXVIII]Dec. 14 (2416) From the Minister in China
Opinion that, in view of reported attitude of Board of Censors justifying the imposition of Ines upon foreign distributors, a protest against the imposition of these fines would not further the interests of the distributors; instruction to Counselor of Legation at Nanking to continue his interest in the matter and, if necessary, to express concern over violation of treaty rights of American distributors.
697

Disinclination of the American Government To Raise Its Legation in China to the Status of an Embassy

Date and number Subject Page
1933 June 8 To the British Embassy
Information that the position of the American Government toward the Chinese proposal for reciprocally raising the diplomatic missions of the two countries to the status of Embassies is that circumstances do not warrant making the change at the present time, and is thus similar to the position of the British Government in the matter.
698

JAPAN

Political Developments in Japan

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Apr. 21 (364) From the Ambassador in Japan
Opinion that recent indications of hostility to the United States and to American companies in Japan by Japanese public and press are inspired by military propaganda; comment that, except in a few instances, action by the Embassy was not considered desirable in regard to such incidents, but that the ill effects of such anti-American propaganda upon Japanese-American relations has been pointed out to prominent Japanese.
700
June 8 (114) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Account of recent noticeable improvement in Japanese attitude toward the United States.
702
Aug. 17 (497) From the Ambassador in Japan
Observations concerning the political situation, roles of the two great parties, and continuance of the Saito coalition Cabinet.
703
Aug. 31 (506) From the Ambassador in Japan
Indications of new policy of friendliness toward United States by Japanese Government; observations concerning purpose behind this new attitude.
706
Sept. 18 (144) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Intention of new Foreign Minister Hirota to devote himself to the development of better relations with the United States.
710
[Page LXXXIX]Oct. 11 (156) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Reported disagreement in the Saito Cabinet over the demands of the Army and Navy for increased appropriations.
710
Nov. 15 (581) From the Ambassador in Japan
Observations concerning trial and sentences of ten naval sublieutenants involved in the terroristic acts of May 15, 1932, which included the assassination of Premier Inukai.
711
Dec. 14 (609) From the Ambassador in Japan
Matsuoka’s resignation from the Seiyukai Party and from the Imperial Diet, and issuance of a statement (excerpt printed) denouncing government by political parties and advocating a “superparty” government. Observations concerning Matsuoka’s statement and concerning the status of parliamentary government in Japan.
713

Representations Regarding Inadequate Police Protection for Property of Singer Sewing Machine Company During Strike

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Jan. 18 (19) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Representations to Foreign Minister requesting that an investigation be made of recent attack by striking workmen on the property of the Singer Sewing Machine Company at Yokohama and that steps be taken by the Japanese authorities for adequate police protection in the future.
716
Jan. 19 (21) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information from Foreign Office official that a full investigation had been made of the facts of the attack and an account cabled to the Japanese Ambassador in Washington.
717
Feb. 10 (36) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that Singer Sewing Machine Company strike was settled February 8 through the good offices of the Director of Police of Kanagawa Prefecture.
(Footnote: Ambassador’s report, March 8, of punishment of persons involved, and his belief that incident can be considered closed.)
717

Assistance by the Japanese Authorities in Securing Release of Dr. Niels Nielsen, Kidnapped in Manchuria

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Apr. 12 From the Consul General at Mukden (tel.)
Information that a report of the kidnapping of Dr. Niels Nielsen, American citizen and member of Danish Lutheran Mission stationed at Siuyen, has been brought informally to the attention of the Japanese consular and military authorities and of local authorities and their assistance requested
718
[Page XC]Apr. 13 (324) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Consul at Dairen has reported kidnapping of Dr. Nielsen and has made informal request for assistance of Kwantung Government and police in the case.
718
Apr. 17 (334) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, April 16: Report of Japanese military that Nielsen was kidnapped by bandits under Liu Ching-wen and is believed to be at a town southwest of Siuyen.
718
Apr. 20 (346) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Mukden, April 18: Offer to send special representative to assist in urging action by Japanese and local officials to obtain release of Nielsen.
From Mukden, April 19: Opinion that dispatch of special representative is not desirable; information that Japanese military are negotiating with Liu Ching-wen for his surrender and release of Dr. Nielsen and have assured Consul General that negotiations will be continued for at least another 2 weeks before military operations are undertaken.
719
Apr. 20 (125) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Danish Minister’s expression of his Government’s interest in the Nielsen case and of possibility of raising ransom money in Denmark; advice to Minister as to harmful effect of publicity upon negotiations for release of captive, and suggestion that best point of official contact in the matter is between the Danish and American Ministers in Peiping.
719
May 4 (401) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, May 3: Report of Japanese military that negotiations for Nielsen’s release are not progressing satisfactorily and that the commander at Siuyen has decided to resort to military measures. Intention, in view of difficulties of communication, to send Vice Consul Hall to Siuyen by special plane.
720
May 16 (440) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, May 15: Information that joint Japanese-”Manchoukuo” operations are being carried out to secure Nielsen’s release; arrangements for return of Vice Consul Hall, as local authorities feel that his presence only encourages bandits to increase their demands and there is nothing to be gained by his remaining.
721
June 9 (508) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, June 8: Report that bandits have escaped from Japanese-”Manchoukuo” troops, taking Nielsen with them; suggestion for representations at Tokyo for more effective measures in the matter, or for authorization for Consul General to call on Marshal Muto at Hsinking.
Suggestion that Embassy at Tokyo be requested to take appropriate action.
721
June 9 (56) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions for representations to the Japanese Government, expressing hope that efforts will be made to secure the safe and prompt release of Nielsen.
722
[Page XCI]June 10 (115) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Office assurance that Japanese Army authorities in Manchuria have been doing their best to secure Dr. Nielsen’s release, but that they will be informed of U. S. Government’s concern in the matter.
722
June 23 (216) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to consider Danish offer of assistance, either official or private, in securing early release of Nielsen and to discuss case with Danish Legation at Peiping.
722
July 7 (578) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, July 4: Refusal of Japanese authorities to permit a Danish missionary to proceed to Siuyen under military protection to assist Mrs. Nielsen on grounds that it would increase bandits’ demands.
July 5: View of Japanese authorities that it is inadvisable to attempt ransom negotiations for release of Nielsen at present; nonobjection of Japanese Consul General to mission representative visiting Siuyen, but assertion of military authorities that they are unable to afford protection.
723
July 7 (582) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Two confidential telegrams from Consul General at Mukden (texts printed): July 6, Mrs. Nielsen’s opinion that payment of a reasonable ransom, negotiated under the supervision of the mission, is the best means of securing release of Dr. Nielsen; July 5, request for authorization to visit Marshal Muto at Hsinking to endeavor to persuade him to take definite steps in the case or to cooperate with the Mission in its negotiations.
Intention, with Department’s approval, to authorize proposed visit to Marshal Muto and to send also a representative of the Legation with a personal message to Marshal Muto.
723
July 11 (589) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Discussion of case with Danish Minister; information that Consul General Myers has been instructed to seek proposed interview with General Muto and that Lieutenant Boatner of the Legation staff will assist him in any negotiations.
724
July 19 (604) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, July 16: Report of interview with General Muto, who agreed to instruct the appropriate authorities to make renewed efforts for the release of Dr. Nielsen and advised that details be discussed with the Japanese Consulate General and local authorities.
725
July 21 (612) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, July 20: Interview with Japanese and local officials concerning Nielsen case; Japanese assertion that no instructions have as yet been received from General Muto. Opinion that best course is to seek authorities’ unoflicial cooperation with ransom negotiations by the mission; request for information as to amount of ransom Danish Mission is prepared to offer.
726
[Page XCII]July 21 (613) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Further information from Mukden that Japanese Consulate General has been instructed by Tokyo, if American Consulate General presses too vigorously in the Nielsen case, to maintain attitude that Japanese are merely intermediaries and that all responsibility rests with “Manchoukuo”; also that Muto’s instructions will probably be of a general nature and that no increase of military efforts can be expected.
726
July 25 (622) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Consul at Mukden has been instructed to consult with Danish Mission in Mukden with regard to ransom money.
727
July 25 (635) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, July 27: Information that Japanese gendarme commander has sent a gendarme to Siuyen to investigate Nielsen case and has invited the Consulate General to send a representative, if space permits, to accompany a second investigating officer.
To Mukden: Authorization for Vice Consul Hall to accompany Japanese investigating officer.
727
Aug. 2 (646) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden: Information that gendarme Captain Sakamoto left by small plane for Siuyen, and that Vice Consul Hall was unable to accompany him.
728
Sept. 14 (316) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for information in the Nielsen case to assist Department in deciding whether to make further representations at Tokyo.
729
Sept. 16 (751) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden: Report of reopening of negotiations with bandits and view as to inadvisability of making any representations at this time.
729
Oct. 11 (796) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report of capture of Japanese negotiator sent to discuss terms with the bandits; suggestion that instructions be issued looking to action by “Manchoukuo” authorities similar to that recently taken to secure release of British “Nanchang” captives by payment of part or all of large ransom.
729
Oct. 13 (342) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Telegram to be repeated to Embassy in Tokyo (text printed), containing instructions for representations to Japanese authorities in the Nielsen case, expressing regret at capture of Japanese negotiator, and referring parenthetically to understanding that “Manchoukuo” authorities recently contributed part or all of ransom paid for release of three British officers captured by bandits.
730
Oct. 23 (165) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japanese assurance that the Nielsen case will continue to be given attention, and information that ransom of British officers was paid partly by “Manchoukuo” on the understanding that government would be reimbursed.
731
[Page XCIII]Oct. 25 From the Consul at Mukden (tel.)
Receipt of information from Japanese Consulate General that Nielsen is safe at Siuyen.
731
Oct. 26 (102) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to express to Foreign Office appreciation for Japanese official assistance in obtaining release of Nielsen.
732
Nov. 3 (832) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Mukden, October 30: Expression of appreciation to Japanese Consul General and to local Japanese military and provisional authorities for their assistance in the Nielsen case.
732

Plans for the Establishment of Oil Monopolies in Japan and Manchuria

Date and number Subject Page
1933 May 8 (94) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information concerning rumored tentative plans of Japanese Government to establish either an oil monopoly or a governmental licensing system, either of which would eventually drive the foreign oil companies from business.
732
June 2 (584) From the Consul General at Mukden
Indications of intention of “Manchoukuo” regime to establish an official oil company or monopoly, but absence of concrete information on the subject.
734
July 10 (594) From the Consul General at Mukden
Information concerning formation of a joint Japanese-”Manchoukuo” oil company and plans to develop the oil resources of the new state.
736
July 24 (479) From the Ambassador in Japan
Information concerning Japan-”Manchoukuo” oil company and building of a refinery at Dairen; proposed plans for assuring the refinery a market in Manchuria without violation of the open-door policy.
738
Sept. 15 (522) From the Ambassador in Japan
Probable effect on position of foreign oil companies of importation and sale of Russian gasoline in Japan; indication that Government will shortly arrive at a decision as to future oil policy; intimation by Foreign Office official of probable introduction of some form of control of oil companies in the near future.
739
Oct. 21 (350) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization for American consular representatives at Mukden and Dairen to take up as a local protection case complaints of American oil companies of discrimination in the levying of “Manchoukuo” customs duties on certain types of foreign oil, and to make representations, preferably oral, to Customs or other local authorities.
741
[Page XCIV]Dec. 9 (187) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Suggestion that question of customs discrimination in Manchuria against foreign oil companies be discussed with the British, inasmuch as local representations to “Manchoukuo” authorities have apparently not produced any favorable results.
741
Dec. 11 From the Consul at Dairen to the Ambassador in Japan
Account of Japanese efforts to obtain information regarding trade and organization of the Socony-Vacuum Corporation and other foreign oil companies.
742
Dec. 20 (189) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report that Consul at Dairen had an unsatisfactory interview with the “Manchoukuo” Customs authorities in regard to discriminatory levying of duties, and that Consul General at Mukden advises that he must make representations through the Japanese Embassy at Changchun as there are no local authorities available. Information that British representative is awaiting instructions from London, and suggestion that British-American conversations in the matter be held in London or Washington.
744
Dec. 22 (400) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization for Consul General at Mukden to proceed or to send representative to Changchun to make representations. Telegram (text printed) for repetition to Tokyo expressing opinion that British-American conversations at London or Washington would be premature, and suggesting that exchange of views and information with British colleague be continued, but not with a view to joint action at the present time.
744

Suggestions fob Treaty of Arbitration and Reciprocal Commercial Treaty Between the United States and Japan

Date and number Subject Page
1933 June 15 (60) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Press reports that a U. S.-Japanese arbitration treaty is under consideration and that Viscount Ishii will discuss subject with Secretary Hull in London; denial that Department is conducting any such treaty negotiations.
745
June 26 (222) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Message from Secretary Hull in London (text printed) denying that any Japanese-American negotiations have taken place in London with regard to an arbitration treaty.
746
July 25 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Discussion of Viscount Ishii’s recent approach to Secretary Hull on the subject of possible negotiation of a reciprocity treaty; suggestion that if the Japanese Government is interested in negotiating such a treaty, the matter could be taken up through the regular diplomatic channels in Washington or Tokyo.
746
[Page XCV]Aug. 10 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Expression to Japanese Ambassador of willingness to take up with Japan question of negotiation of a reciprocal commercial treaty when present U. S. commitments with five countries for negotiation of reciprocal commercial treaties shall have progressed sufficiently.
747
Oct. 11 (155) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Intention, if approached by Japanese on subject of an arbitration treaty, to take position that present time is not propitious for consideration of such a treaty.
(Footnote: Secretary’s approval of position.)
747

Retention and Fortification by Japan of Mandated Pacific Islands

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Feb. 7 Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of Conversations With the Second Secretary of the Japanese Embassy
Information that Mr. Kase was advised that there was no basis of fact for a newspaper article referred to by him concerning alleged statement by State Department officials of U. S. intention to deprive Japan of its mandate over the Pacific Islands, should Japan withdraw from the League of Nations.
748
Feb. 10 (285) From the Ambassador in Japan
Press reports of purported views of Japanese Foreign Office officials and of Japanese authorities on international law regarding Japan’s right to retain the mandate over the Pacific Islands should Japan withdraw from the League of Nations.
749
Feb. 21 (296) From the Ambassador in Japan
Memorandum by the Vice Consul at Yokohama (text printed) of a conversation with an American tourist concerning Japanese fortification of the mandated Pacific Islands.
750
Mar. 2 (32) From the Naval Attaché in Japan to the Chief of Naval Operations
Unofficial statement made public by Japanese naval authorities concerning question of Japanese sovereignty over mandated Pacific Islands after Japan withdraws from the League, and stressing importance of the Islands to Japan.
752
Sept. 5 (76) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Inquiry as to accuracy of news reports of Japanese Navy Office statement that mandated islands are “Japanese territory”.
752
Sept. 6 (135) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Translation (text printed) of statement concerning which Department inquired.
753
[Page XCVI]

Visits of Japanese Ship to Ports in the Aleutian Islands

Date and number Subject Page
1933 July 5 To the Japanese Ambassador
Expression of surprise at report of two visits by the ship Hakuho Maru, of the Japanese Department of Agriculture and Forestry, to the port of Attu in the Aleutian Islands, and of a contemplated third visit.
753
July 25 Memorandum by Mr. Lawrence E. Salisbury, of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs, of a Conversation With the Second Secretary of the Japanese Embassy
Explanation of visits of the Japanese vessel Hakuho Maru at the Aleutian port of Attu.
754

Exchange of Naval Visits Between the United States and Japan

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Apr. 21 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Japanese Ambassador
Discussion of cordial reception given Japanese training squadron at various ports on the Pacific coast.
755
May 3 (45) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Request for views as to advisability of a visit to Japan of the Commander in Chief of the Asiatic Fleet.
755
May 5 (91) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Opinion, concurred in by Naval Attaché that a visit by the Commander in Chief of the Asiatic Fleet would be favorably received.
756
June 17 (100) From the Japanese Ambassador
Thanks of Japanese Government for the courtesy and hospitality extended by the Government and people of the United States to the Japanese training squadron on its recent visit to ports of the Pacific coast.
756
June 28 (446) From the Ambassador in Japan
Cordial reception by Japanese Government and press of visit of Admiral Taylor on U. S. S. Houston, flagship of Asiatic Fleet, to Japanese ports.
757

Consideration of Possibility of Revising Restrictions on Japanese Immigration

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Jan. 30 Memorandum Prepared in the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Observations concerning the effect of a revision of the Immigration Act on U. S.-Japanese relations, particularly with reference to the Manchurian situation.
758
[Page XCVII]Aug. 25 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Suggestion, in reply to Japanese inquiry as to possibility of action toward repeal of the Japanese exclusion clause of the Immigration Act of 1924, that, as there does not appear to be a Congressional majority favorable to the proposed alteration, it would not be advisable to make the question the subject of public discussion at the present time.
765

SIAM

Proposed Revision of the Treaty of Friendship and Commerce Between the United States and Siam, Signed December 16, 1920

Date and number Subject Page
1933 Oct. 16 From the Siamese Minister
Desire of Siamese Government for modification of certain provisions of the Treaty of Friendship and Commerce with the United States, and information concerning nature of proposed modifications.
767
Nov. 2 To the Siamese Minister
Willingness to enter into discussion of proposed treaty modifications; possibility that Department may have certain suggestions for modification of other provisions of the Treaty. Request that American Legation at Bangkok be informed concerning proposals.
770
Nov. 18 (17) To the Minister in Siam (tel.)
Understanding that Minister has been informed by Siamese Foreign Office of proposal for modification of Treaty of 1920. Information that Department may submit certain proposals of its own; request for any comments which might be helpful in the matter.
770
Nov. 24 (28) From the Minister in Siam (tel.)
Belief that American interests are not likely to be injured by proposed treaty changes.
771
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