List of Papers

[Unless otherwise specified, the correspondence is from or to officials in the Department of State.]

Occupation of Manchuria by Japan and Statement of Policy by the United States

Date and number Subject Page
1931 Sept. 19 (599) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report that at 10 p.m. on September 18 Japanese soldiers began firing on Mukden and that at 1 a.m., September 19, the city was apparently surrounded.
1
Sept. 21 (155) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information that Antung, Newchwang, and Changchun have been occupied. Statement by the Chinese Chargé in Japan that the Foreign Office had informed him that orders had been issued to stop military operations but that Japan was determined to protect its civilians in Manchuria.
1
Sept. 21 (614) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that all South Manchuria has been occupied. Japanese statement claiming that the action was precipitated by a clash between Japanese guards and Chinese soldiers attempting to destroy the South Manchuria Railway tracks. Opinion that the action was the result of careful planning.
2
Sept. 22 (157) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Probability that the Japanese Army seized upon the railway incident and occupied whole area as a military measure to force liquidation of outstanding issues. Opinion that the Foreign Office was genuinely surprised by action of the Army.
4
Sept. 22 (625) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Conclusion that the occupation of South Manchuria is an aggressive act by Japan, apparently long planned, and that the signatories of the Kellogg Treaty should pronounce themselves in this regard.
4
Sept. 22 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador during which the Ambassador was given a memorandum of a verbal statement (text printed) expressing the concern of the U. S. Government in regard to the events in Manchuria, and in which the Ambassador expressed his surprise and inability to understand the causes of what had happened.
5
Sept. 24 (166) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Review of the Department’s actions in the Manchurian situation, especially with respect to the Department’s cooperation with the League of Nations.
8
Sept. 24 (167) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to deliver to the Foreign Minister a note (text printed) expressing the U. S. Government’s hope that both powers will cease military operations and refrain from any action liable to prejudice the amicable settlement of their differences. Information that an identic note will be delivered to the Chinese.
9
[Page VIII]Sept. 24 (341) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Statement of the Department’s policy in regard to the League of Nation’s action in the Manchurian situation. League’s adoption of U. S. suggestion that commission to Manchuria be not a military one but a commission appointed by both parties to the dispute.
(Instructions to repeat to Tokyo.)
10
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 25] From the Japanese Embassy
Statement issued after an extraordinary Cabinet meeting September 24, 1931, outlining the incidents leading to the occupation of South Manchuria and reiterating the statement that Japan has no territorial designs in Manchuria.
11
Sept. 28 (163) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Note from the Foreign Minister (text printed) giving assurances in response to U. S. representations.
13
Sept. 30 Resolution Adopted by the Council of the League of Nations
Affirming and requesting the speedy execution of: (1) Japan’s commitment that it has no territorial designs in Manchuria and will withdraw troops as rapidly as possible; and (2) China’s commitment that it will assume responsibility for safety of lives and property of Japanese nationals.
13
Oct. 8 (178) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information that the General Staff has issued a bulletin stating that the banditry and atrocities committed by the defeated Chinese troops make it impossible to withdraw the Japanese Army.
14
Undated [Rec’d Oct. 8] From the Japanese Embassy
Memorandum to be presented to the Chinese Government on October 9, 1931 (text printed), complaining of anti-Japanese activities in China.
15
Oct. 9 (191) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to ask the Foreign Minister: (1) whether the Japanese Government gave its assent to the General Staff bulletin which stated that the Japanese Army could not be withdrawn, and (2) whether Japanese airplanes have bombed Chinchow.
17
Oct. 9 (73) To the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Instructions to present to the Secretary General of the League of Nations a memorandum dated October 5 (text printed), indicating approval of the course taken by the League and stating that the U. S. Government, acting independently, will endeavor to reinforce League action.
17
Oct. 10 (192) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Concern over reported failure of Japan and China to carry out the commitments made to the League of Nations; instructions to impress upon the Foreign Minister the dangers involved in such failure.
18
Oct. 10 (180) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which he stated that the General Staff bulletin was not a Government pronouncement and in which he offered an explanation of the Chinchow bombing, stating that it was of no importance.
18
[Page IX]Oct. 10 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Secretary requested the Ambassador to express to the Foreign Minister his concern over recent events, including the Foreign Minister’s statement that the bombing of Chinchow was of no importance.
19
Oct. 11 (194) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to deliver to the Foreign Minister a statement to the effect that the Secretary considers the explanation of the Chinchow bombing quite inadequate and regards the matter as of very serious importance (text printed).
20
Oct. 12 (182) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Report that the message contained in the Department’s telegram No. 192, October 10, 1931, was delivered to the Foreign Minister who had received similar messages from the President of the Council of the League and from the British and French Ambassadors; Foreign Minister’s statement that the matter could be settled speedily by direct negotiations.
21
Oct. 12 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador presented the Foreign Minister’s reply to the Secretary’s message of October 10 in regard to the Chinchow bombing, and in which the Secretary stated his decision to authorize Gilbert, the U. S. Consul at Geneva, to sit with the Council of the League in certain discussions in order to show that the United States stood with the other nations of the world vis-à-vis Japan.
22
Oct. 14 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador made known the five points which the Foreign Minister proposes as the bases for direct negotiations with China.
24
Oct. 14 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador who indicated that his Government would be opposed to a neutral commission should the League propose it, and brought up the Shantung negotiations as a possible method of procedure.
24
Oct. 16 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Secretary said that he was sorry that the Japanese Government had opposed the participation of the United States in the League discussions of the Kellogg Pact since such opposition gave the appearance of a personal issue between Japan and the United States.
26
Oct. 20 (200) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to present a note to the Foreign Minister (text printed), calling attention to the obligations assumed under the Treaty for the Renunciation of War. Instruction to inform him that an identic note is being delivered to the Chinese.
27
[Page X]Oct. 24 (193) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Note from the Foreign Minister and accompanying statement (texts printed), setting forth Japan’s position with regard to the Treaty for the Renunciation of War and disclaiming any thoughts of recourse to war for the solution of outstanding differences with China.
28
Oct. 24 Resolution Voted Upon by the Council of the League of Nations
Recommendations for solution of the difficulties between China and Japan.
29
Oct. 26 (259) From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
Summary of the action of the Council of the League in regard to the Sino-Japanese conflict; impasse over Japan’s demands that long-standing problems be settled in advance of the withdrawal of Japanese troops.
31
Nov. 3 (217) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Memorandum to be presented to the Foreign Minister (text printed) reinforcing the position taken by the League with reference to the Japanese demands.
34
Nov. 5 (219) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Explanation of the Department’s policy in reinforcing the position of the League; and information that the suggestion is being made to the President of the Council that the impasse might be resolved by direct negotiations between the two Governments in the presence of neutral observers.
36
Nov. 6 (209) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Statement by the Foreign Minister of the five principles which the Japanese Government considers must be affirmed by both Governments before troops are withdrawn.
38
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 9] From the Japanese Embassy
Outline of the Japanese position with respect to the settlement of fundamental problems as a condition precedent to withdrawal.
39
Nov. 10 (326) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Instructions to proceed to Paris to be available for conferences with members of the Council, in view of the fact that the discussions of the Manchurian situation will involve American interests; background information and general instructions.
41
Nov. 19 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Secretary stated that he could not but regard the occupation of Tsitsihar by Japanese troops as a violation of the Kellogg Pact and the Nine-Power Treaty, and that he must reserve full liberty to publish all U. S.-Japanese correspondence on the Manchurian situation.
44
Nov. 21 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador stated that his Government would withdraw its forces from Tsitsihar as soon as possible and that it intended to adhere to the policy outlined in the Embassy’s memorandum handed to the Secretary on November 9, and in which the Ambassador reported that Japan was now willing to consent to a neutral commission.
46
[Page XI]Nov. 23 (240) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to inform the Foreign Minister that the proposal of a neutral commission will be futile unless there is an agreement to cease hostilities during the investigation, and that the Secretary sincerely hopes there is no foundation for the report that the Japanese are planning a military expedition against Chinese forces near Chinchow.
48
Nov. 23 (241) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Request that the Foreign Minister be further informed that the Department’s support of neutral investigation is conditioned upon the immediate withdrawal of Japanese troops from Tsitsihar.
49
Nov. 24 (234) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the Japanese Government is willing to agree to the Department’s conditions but insists that Japanese troops must protect Japanese citizens. The Foreign Minister’s assurances that there will be no hostile operations against Chinchow and that orders to that effect have been issued.
50
Nov. 27 (245) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Request that the Foreign Minister be informed that the Secretary is unable to reconcile the reported new Japanese military movements with the Foreign Minister’s assurances of November 24, 1931.
50
Nov. 28 (239) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s denial that reported military movements have taken place. Statement (text printed) alleged to have been given out by the Secretary which is causing bitter comment in Japan.
51
Nov. 28 (247) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Actual statement made by the Secretary at a press conference, November 27, 1931 (text printed).
(Instructions to repeat to Nanking and Paris.)
53
Nov. 28 (248) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the statement quoted in the Embassy’s telegram No. 239, November 28, 1931, is completely untrue and has already been publicly denied.
54
Dec. 8 (259) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to cooperate with the British and French Ambassadors in representations against any move by Japan which would aggravate the Chinchow situation. Details of a conversation with the Japanese Ambassador on December 7, 1931.
54
Dec. 9 (256) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report that representations were made to the Foreign Minister in cooperation with the British and French Ambassadors, and that the Foreign Minister understood that Wellington Koo’s proposal to withdraw from Chinchow was definite, which Koo denies. Opinion that unless the Chinese adhere to Koo’s proposal and withdraw their armies to the line he suggested, the Japanese will advance.
57
[Page XII]Dec. 10 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Secretary—after comments on the misunderstanding over Wellington Koo’s tentative proposal to withdraw from Chinchow—stated that any further move against Chinchow by the Japanese would be considered an entirely unjustified act of aggression.
58
Dec. 10 Resolution Adopted by the Council of the League of Nations
Decision to appoint a commission of five members to study the situation on the spot; pledge by China and Japan to avoid military action.
59
Dec. 11 (455) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Statement issued to the press December 10, 1931 (text printed), expressing the U. S. Government’s approval of the Council resolution and also expressing its continued concern over the Manchurian situation.
60
Dec. 11 (262) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Detailed information concerning the misunderstanding in regard to Wellington Koo’s tentative proposal to withdraw from Chinchow; instructions to reaffirm to the Foreign Minister that it would be most unfortunate for all concerned if the Japanese should attack Chinchow.
62
Dec. 22 (273) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Assurances by the Prime Minister that Chinese sovereignty will never be impaired, that Japan only desires to protect its citizens. Evidence of active preparations for further operations in Manchuria.
65
Dec. 22 (273) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to present to the Foreign Minister a statement (text printed) expressing apprehension at the reports that the Japanese are preparing to attack Chinchow, and emphasizing the unfortunate effect such action would have upon world opinion.
65
Dec. 24 (278) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Prime Minister’s assurances that Japan’s military operations are aimed at bandits and not the Chinese Army, but that there are difficulties in fixing the line of demarkation; and that Japan has no designs upon the integrity or sovereignty of Manchuria and is absolutely committed to the open-door policy.
67
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador, December 23, in which the Secretary expressed his concern over reports which indicate that Japan is moving against Chinchow although the facts show that there is no justification for such movement; statement that it will be regarded as pure aggression.
68
Dec. 27 (281) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Memorandum delivered by the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs (text printed) accusing the Chinese of bad faith in not withdrawing from Chinchow and explaining the necessity of subjugating bandits in that region. Information that a statement to the same effect has been given to the press and cabled to the Japanese Ambassador at Washington.
70
[Page XIII]Dec. 27 Statement by the Japanese Government
Explanation of the Japanese position in regard to Manchuria.
72
Dec. 29 (1148) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Marshal Chang has ordered all Chinese forces to withdraw from Manchuria in order to deprive Japan of any excuse for further aggression in North China—thus ending Chinese administration in Manchuria.
75
1932 Jan. 7 (7) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note for the Foreign Office (text printed) stating that the United States cannot admit the legality of any situation de facto; that it does not intend to recognize any treaty or agreement between China and Japan which may impair U. S. treaty rights, including those relating to Chinese sovereignty and the open-door policy; and that it does not intend to recognize any situation, treaty, or agreement brought about contrary to the Kellogg Pact.
76
Jan. 16 (11) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Reply of the Japanese Government (text printed) giving assurances with respect to the open door in Manchuria and Japan’s aims, while maintaining that treaties with respect to China must be applied with due regard to changing conditions in China and that the changes in administrative personnel in Manchuria have been the necessary acts of the local population.
76
Jan. 16 (13) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Discussion with the Foreign Minister of press reports of Japanese plans to establish an independent government in Manchuria.
78
Jan. 19 (17) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the Foreign Minister received all chiefs of mission and discussed with them the press comments about an independent government in Manchuria, which he stated was wholly due to the initiative of local Chinese officials.
79
Feb. 2 (11) To the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Rough draft of a possible statement (text printed) to be issued jointly or concurrently by the United States, Great Britain, and perhaps others, on behalf of maintaining the principles and provisions of the Nine-Power Treaty; and instructions to deliver a copy to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and to inform him that his comments and suggestions will be welcomed.
80
Feb. 24 (50) To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
For the Minister: Instructions to communicate to the Foreign Office and to the press a letter from the Secretary of State to Senator Borah (text printed) tracing the history of the open-door policy in China and stating that present conditions in China in no way indicate the advisability of modifying the Nine-Power Treaty and the Kellogg Pact or abandoning the principles embodied in these treaties.
83
[Page XIV]Apr. 4 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador communicated Japan’s intention to withdraw from the League Assembly meeting should the Assembly insist upon going into the Manchurian question further than is provided for in the resolutions of September 30 and December 10; discussion of discrepancies between recent Japanese assurances and present claims.
87
June 10 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Aide-mémoire delivered to the Japanese Ambassador (text printed) expressing the Department’s concern in regard to reports that the present regime in Manchuria plans to take over the Chinese Customs Administration in that area.
89
June 23 (166) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report that the Minister for War has stated that the resolutions of the League and Japan’s statements in regard to Manchuria before the establishment of “Manchukuo” can no longer be considered as binding upon Japan.
90
June 29 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in regard to the customs situation in Manchuria.
91
June 29 (177) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the Department’s concern over customs matters was expressed to a Foreign Office representative who gave assurances that there would be no interference with payments of foreign obligations.
92
July 16 From the Ambassador in Japan
Information that the League Commission of Enquiry finds that Japan’s action in Manchuria is based upon two false premises: (1) the argument of self-defense and (2) the argument of self-determination for Manchuria. Opinion of the Commissioners that the “Manchukuo” regime is directly subservient to the Japanese Government. Japan’s intention to recognize “Manchukuo.”
93
Aug. 2 (1656) From the Minister in China
Record of statements made to the League Commission by the Japanese Foreign Minister (text printed) who concludes that there can be no treaty violation involved in recognizing “Manchukuo” since its establishment was a move of self-determination by the inhabitants.
95
Aug. 13 From the Ambassador in Japan
Information that the Secretary’s speech of August 8, 1932, was deliberately used by the Foreign Office to inflame public opinion against the United States; warning that the Japanese military machine feels prepared for, and would welcome, war.
99
Aug. 15 (953) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Document handed to the League Commission by the Japanese Assessor (text printed) purporting to be the Japanese Ambassador’s account of the Secretary’s statements concerning his speech of August 8, 1932.
100
[Page XV]Aug. 17 (264) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that the document presented to the League Commission distorts the Secretary’s statements in the degree of leniency expressed toward Japan’s actions; corrected version with instructions to transmit it to the American member of the Commission of Enquiry.
101
Sept. 3 (224) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Strong conviction that the Japanese Government intends to see the Manchuria venture through; report that military preparations proceed steadily.
102
Sept. 15 (232) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
News that the signed protocol recognizing “Manchukuo” has been released to the press.
103
Oct. 3 (249) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the report of the League Commission of Enquiry has been received in Japan with the expected repercussions.
103
Nov. 21 (181) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information of Matsuoka’s call upon Hugh Wilson and Norman Davis in which he stated that: (1) Japan will not be diverted from her policy in Manchuria, (2) there is danger in the hostility of Japanese public opinion toward America, and (3) Japan will leave the League if her dignity is derogated.
104
Nov: 21 (37) To the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Belief that the inflamed public opinion in Japan has been artificially created. Statement of the issue as it will be drawn in the event that Japan follows the course indicated by Matsuoka.
105
1933 Jan. 5 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in regard to the outbreak at Shanhaikwan: The Ambassador’s statement that Japan has no territorial ambitions south of the Great Wall, but that no Cabinet which advocated compromise in the “Manchukuo” question could survive in Japan—that must be regarded as a closed incident. The Secretary’s response that he saw no other course than for Japan to get out of the League and the Kellogg Pact.
107
Jan. 12 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Further conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in regard to the trouble at Shanhaikwan, and Japan’s unwillingness to compromise on the “Manchukuo” question; the Secretary’s advice that the Ambassador not inform his Government that the U. S. Government is likely to change its position.
108
Jan. 18 (5) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Statement by President-elect Roosevelt, January 17, 1933 (text printed), to the effect that American foreign policy must uphold the sanctity of international treaties.
109
Feb. 20 (43) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Decision of the Cabinet that Japan will secede from the League if the Assembly adopts the report and recommendations of the Committee of Nineteen. Intimation from the Foreign Office that the Japanese advance into Jehol is expected to commence at any moment.
109
[Page XVI]Feb. 23 (45) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Factors to be given consideration in estimating the situation in the Far East. Statement that Japan is fully prepared to right.
110
Feb. 23 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Japanese Ambassador’s statement that “Manchukuo” is determined to suppress the irregulars in Jehol and that Japan is bound by treaty to support “Manchukuo.”
112
Feb. 24 Resolution Adopted by the Assembly of the League of Nations
Decision of the Assembly to appoint an Advisory Committee to follow and make reports on the Sino-Japanese situation and to invite the Governments of the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to cooperate in its work.
113
Feb. 24 (125) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Letter from the Secretary-General of the League (text printed) transmitting the report of the Committee of Nineteen and requesting an expression of U. S. views.
114
Feb. 25 (128) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Letter from the Secretary-General of the League (text printed) conveying an invitation to the U. S. Government to cooperate jn the work of the Advisory Committee.
114
Feb. 25 (78) To the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Letter for the Secretary-General of the League (text printed) stating that the U. S. Government is in general accord with the conclusions of the League Assembly and that, insofar as is appropriate under treaties to which it is a party, the U. S. Government expresses its general endorsement of the principles of settlement recommended by the League.
115
Feb. 27 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
General discussion with the Japanese Ambassador of U. S. Japanese relations; the Ambassador’s expression of confidence in his people and belief that sooner or later the moderate elements will not disappoint America.
116
Mar. 11 (86) To the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Letter for the Secretary-General of the League (text printed) expressing the desire of the U. S. Government to cooperate with the Advisory Committee, while reserving its independence of judgment; and informing him that the American Minister in Switzerland is being instructed to participate in the deliberations of the Committee, without the right to vote, if such participation is desired. Authorization to act in accordance with provisions of letter.
117
Mar. 13 (87) To the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Information that the Secretary-General’s letter of invitation and the Department’s reply of March 11, 1933, will be released to the press March 14, 1933, with an explanatory statement (text printed).
118
May 3 (89) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Office correction of a statement made by the Privy Councilor of “Manchukuo” to the effect that “Manchukuo” would apply the open-door principle only to those countries which recognized “Manchukuo’s” independence; assurances that the principle of the open door will be maintained.
119
[Page XVII]May 31 The Truce Agreement Between the Chinese and Japanese Military Authorities, Signed at Tangku
Providing for the Chinese to withdraw behind a specified line and for the Japanese to withdraw to the Great Wall.
120
June 12 From the Secretary-General of the League of Nations
Information that the Advisory Committee has drawn up a circular relating to the measures involved in the nonrecognition of “Manchukuo”; hope that the U. S. Government will declare its agreement to the recommendations.
120
Sept. 20 (2319) To the Chargé in Switzerland
Letter for the Secretary-General of the League from the Secretary of State (text printed) stating that the U. S. Government believes it will be possible for it to proceed in substantial accordance with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, except with respect to accessions to open conventions and procedure in control of narcotic drugs.
121
Oct. 3 (149) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with the new Foreign Minister in regard to ways and means for improving Japanese-American relations; the Ambassador’s advice to the Foreign Minister against sending a Japanese good-will mission to the United States and his indication that a change in the Japanese press would be more helpful.
123
Oct. 6 (89) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Approval of the Ambassador’s reply in regard to the goodwill mission; suggestion that the Foreign Minister might be informed that he could accomplish more by effecting the removal of discriminations against U. S. trade in “Manchukuo”.
125
Oct. 14 (97) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Examples of discrimination to be used in discussing the policies of “Manchukuo” with the Japanese Foreign Minister.
126
Oct. 23 (385) To the Ambassador in Japan
Information that the Department has authorized the Minister in Switzerland to make an oral rather than a written presentation of the U. S. Government’s views in regard to the recommendations of the Advisory Committee.
126
1934 Undated [Rec’d Feb. 21] Informal and Personal Message From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Statement of Japan’s desire for peaceful and friendly relations with the United States.
127
Undated [Rec’d Mar. 3] Informal and Personal Message to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Expression of gratification in regard to the Foreign Minister’s statement.
128
Mar. 21 To the Ambassador in Japan (cir. tel.)
Information that no negotiations are being conducted between the Japanese and U. S. Governments at present.
(Footnote: Telegraphed on the same day to Peiping with instructions to repeat to Shanghai and Nanking; and to London with instructions to repeat to Paris, Geneva, Berlin, and Rome.)
129
[Page XVIII]Mar. 22 (56) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that a Foreign Office spokesman has denied that the new Ambassador to the United States has been instructed to negotiate on exclusion of Japanese immigrants, recognition of “Manchukuo,” and abandonment of naval and air bases in the Philippines.
130
July 7 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Attitude of the United States regarding the report that the Manchurian authorities have established the Manchuria Petroleum Company and plan to establish a petroleum sales monopoly; hope that the Japanese Government will use its influence to discourage the adoption by the Manchurian authorities of measures which tend to violate the open-door principle and the provisions of treaties which the Manchurian authorities have agreed to respect.
130
Aug. 2 From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Statement that the oil policies of “Manchukuo” are in no way the concern of the Japanese Government; report of such information on the matter as the Japanese Government has received; and suggestion that the U. S. interests concerned deal directly with the authorities of “Manchukuo.”
132
Aug. 31 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Inability of the U. S. Government to believe that the Japanese memorandum of August 2, 1934, expresses that Government’s position and intention with regard to projects in Manchuria which contravene not only treaties but assurances which Japan has given to the United States and the world.
133
Nov. 6 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Account of a conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in regard to Japan’s attitude toward the “Manchukuo” petroleum monopoly.
134
Nov. 14 (1052) From the Ambassador in Japan
Report of later developments in the matter of the oil sales monopoly in Manchuria; memorandum from the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs, November 5, 1934, which the U. S. Embassy considers to be entirely unsatisfactory; and copy of the “Manchukuo” oil monopoly law (texts printed).
135
Nov. 30 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Reiteration of the U. S. position in regard to the proposed petroleum monopoly in Manchuria and statement that the U. S. Government cannot accept Japan’s implied disclaimer of responsibility in relation to the industrial policy in Manchuria of which this project is a manifestation.
143
Dec. 1 Memorandum by the American Ambassador in Japan
Account of a conversation with the Foreign Minister at the time of the presentation of the Embassy’s aide-mémoire of November 30, 1934; report that it was impossible to get anywhere because of the obviously specious character of the Foreign Minister’s arguments.
144
[Page XIX]1935 Apr. 10 (29, American Affairs III) From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Reply to the U. S. aide-mémoire of November 30, 1934, to the effect that Japan sees no reason for altering its former statements and is unable to agree with any proposal that it should bear responsibility for the actions of the “Manchukuo” government or with any contention which has for a premise a denial of the independence of “Manchukuo.”
146
Apr. 15 (383) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Statement that the U. S. Government is unable to accept as valid the contentions advanced in the Japanese aide-mémoire of April 10, 1935, and that upon the Japanese Government must rest the ultimate responsibility for injury to U. S. interests resulting from the creation and operation of the petroleum monopoly in Manchuria.
148
Apr. 16 Memorandum by the American Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister, in the course of which the Foreign Minister made the statement that until “Manchukuo” is recognized no dispute whatever can be entertained with regard to that country, following which the Ambassador stated that the U. S. Government based its whole case on treaty obligations and past assurances, and then took his departure, leaving note No. 383.
149
Apr. 16 Oral Statements by the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Observations concerning some of the ill effects which will result from the creation of the oil monopoly in Manchuria, and conclusion that if, as the Japanese insist, the principle of national defense is involved, it would seem that Japan cannot dissociate itself from the project, and that on the other hand, if it is purely a commercial question, it would appear to be fitting for Japan to associate itself with other nations in maintaining the principle of equality of opportunity in Manchuria.
150
1937 Oct. 30 (158) From the Consul at Mukden
Report of an interview with the Director of the Foreign Office of the State Council concerning the discriminatory features of the exchange control law enacted October 8, 1937; informal memorandum (text printed).
151
Dec. 1 (828) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Emphatic objections to any attempt by authorities in Manchuria to exercise jurisdiction over Americans in Manchuria and reservation of U. S. treaty rights, in view of reported signing of a treaty ending Japanese extraterritorial rights in Manchuria and the issuing of a manifesto in regard to extraterritorial rights of foreigners other than Japanese. Explanation that the Japanese Government is being addressed in this matter in view of the relationship between the Japanese Government and the authorities in Manchuria.
154
[Page XX]1938 Mar. 1 (24 Treaty II) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Statement that the policy of the “Manchukuo” government with respect to the treatment of nationals of third countries is a matter with which the Japanese Government is not concerned and that the Japanese Government, accordingly, regrets it is not in a position to give any explanation.
154
1939 Apr. 6 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Explanation that, although trade figures show an increase in U. S. exports to Manchuria in 1937 and 1938, the increase was obviously connected with Japan’s preparation for military operations and does not indicate that U. S. enterprise has benefited by the changes which have occurred in Manchuria since 1931; reiteration that U. S. enterprise is being discriminated against.
155

Military Action by Japan at Shanghai, 1932

Date and number Subject Page
1932 Jan. 27 (25) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Narrative of recent events in Shanghai leading up to the Japanese Consul General’s presentation of certain demands to the Chinese mayor; instruction to express the hope of the U. S. Government that Japan contemplates no action in contravention of the rights and interests of other nations.
161
Jan. 27 (26) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to make oral representations to the Foreign Minister in regard to reports that the Japanese contemplate military action near the International Settlement at Shanghai which would endanger radio station at Chenju in which the Radio Corporation of America has a large interest.
163
Jan. 28 (26) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s solemn assurance that there is no intention of interfering with the rights or interests of other nations in Shanghai; further discussion in regard to the Shanghai situation.
163
Jan. 29 (28) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to confer with the British Ambassador and to present a note to the Foreign Minister (text printed) protesting against the Japanese attack on Shanghai, January 28, 1932, after the Chinese mayor had made a satisfactory answer to the Japanese demands.
165
Jan. 30 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in regard to the seriousness of the situation created by the Japanese attack of January 28, 1932. Statement issued by the Japanese Consul General at Shanghai on January 29, 1932 (text printed).
266
Jan. 31 (30) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the flagship Houston and available destroyers have been ordered to Shanghai to ensure safety of American lives and property.
168
[Page XXI]Jan. 31 (31) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s claims in justification of the Japanese action; and request that the United States use its good offices to induce the Chinese not to move up their troops.
169
Jan. 31 (31) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions, in view of continued military actions, to represent urgently to the Foreign Minister that the Settlement should not be used by Japanese forces as a base for operations except in defense of the Settlement.
171
Feb. 1 (33) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s statement that the defense of the Settlement might require counterattacking.
172
Feb. 1 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Secretary stated that the firing on Nanking by Japanese vessels should be stopped at once if any good effects were to ensue from U. S. good offices.
173
Feb. 1 (34) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note for the Foreign Minister (text printed) presenting the five-point proposal of the powers for cessation of the conflict. Information that the same proposal is being submitted to the Chinese Government. Instructions to confer with the British Ambassador.
174
Feb. 2 (34) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s willingness to recommend favorable consideration of the first four points of the five-point proposal but not the fifth point which includes accepting neutral observers in negotiating a settlement of the outstanding controversies between the two nations.
175
Feb. 2 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador asked whether the U. S. Government laid stress on the fifth point and was informed that it did.
176
Feb. 3 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Discussion with the Japanese Ambassador during which the Secretary insisted that the Ambassador inform his Government that the U. S. and British Governments are determined to defend the Settlement and that the Japanese must cease to use it as a base of attack against the Chinese.
177
Feb. 3 (37) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to protest strongly against the stationing of Japanese forces in the sectors of other powers.
179
Feb. 4 (39) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Meeting of the Foreign Minister with the British, French, and U. S. Ambassadors in order to reply to the five-point proposal of the powers; intention of the Japanese to send land troops to Shanghai in spite of the report that the Chinese have accepted all five points. Statement by the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs that the marines have been withdrawn from the sectors of other powers.
180
Feb. 6 (44) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note from the Foreign Minister (text printed) replying to the five-point proposal.
182
[Page XXII]Feb. 6 (47) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Office program for a solution of the immediate Shanghai difficulties; desire of the Japanese that the suggestions originate from Shanghai.
183
Feb. 6 (3) To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Authorization to cooperate in attempts to find a solution based on the Japanese Foreign Office proposals; indication of the Department’s attitude.
184
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 7] From the Japanese Embassy
Statement of the Japanese Government, February 7, 1932, in regard to the Shanghai incident.
186
Feb. 8 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador conveyed the information that the first Japanese land forces had landed and proceeded to Chapei.
188
Feb. 8 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Statement to the Japanese Ambassador that if negotiations were going on at Shanghai they must be considered as a Japanese proposal, since Japan had rejected the five-point proposal.
189
Feb. 9 (57) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with Matsuoka who is proceeding to Shanghai to act as liaison officer between Japanese conciliators and the foreign powers; Matsuoka’s stress upon Japan’s determination to consider the Manchurian incident as dissociated from the Shanghai and other Chinese incidents.
190
Feb. 10 (50) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that military actions indicate that the Japanese have no plan for peace negotiations at Shanghai; instructions sent to the Consul General at Shanghai (text printed).
191
Feb. 12 (54) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conviction that the Japanese military authorities have at no time considered any cessation of hostilities on any fair basis; instructions to make no more conciliatory efforts.
192
Feb. 14 (48) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Note to the Japanese Consul General, February 13, 1932 (text printed), protesting against Japanese plans to land troops at a wharf in the Settlement.
192
Feb. 15 (67) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Exposition of the Japanese position at Shanghai by the Foreign Minister at a meeting with the British, French, German, Italian, and U. S. Ambassadors.
193
Feb. 15 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Secretary said that he proposed to protest publicly against the landing of Japanese troops in the Settlement and to notify the Japanese Government that they will be held financially responsible for all damages suffered from use of the Settlement as a base for military operations.
194
[Page XXIII]Feb. 17 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador stated that the Japanese Commander at Shanghai has been authorized to deliver an ultimatum to the Chinese forces to withdraw 20 kilometers from the Settlement.
196
Feb. 19 From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that the British, French, Italian, and U. S. Ministers called on the Japanese Minister to point out Japan’s responsibility for the danger to foreign life and property caused by the use of the Settlement as a base for attack.
197
Feb. 21 (92) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Note from the Japanese Consul General at Shanghai, February 19, 1932 (text printed), replying to the American Consul General’s protest transmitted to the Department in his telegram No. 48, February 14, 1932.
198
Feb. 23 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador concerning the repercussions apt to result from the actions of the Japanese military authorities at Shanghai.
198
Feb. 24 (62) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to make representations, jointly with the British, French, and Italian Ambassadors if possible, requesting: (1) That the Japanese warships be moved farther down the river so as not to endanger the Settlement, and (2) that any further Japanese reinforcements be landed elsewhere than in the Settlement. Instructions to leave a written memorandum.
200
Feb. 27 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador said that his Government would do everything possible to avoid danger to the Settlement.
201
Undated Communication Made by the President of the Council of the League of Nations at the Meeting of February 29, 1932
Setting forth proposals for the restoration of peaceful conditions in the Shanghai area.
203
Feb. 29 (46) From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Letter from the Secretary-General of the League, and the U. S. Minister’s reply to the effect that the United States is happy to associate itself in the League’s effort toward peace (texts printed).
204
Mar. 1 (84) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report that the instructions in Department’s telegram No. 62, February 24, 1932, have been carried out. Foreign Minister’s reply (text printed) stating that the message has been transmitted to the Army and Navy who will give it as favorable consideration as possible.
205
Mar. 3 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador who presented an announcement of the cessation of hostilities and a set of basic conditions for cessation of hostilities (texts printed) and expressed his Government’s desire that the United States participate in round-table conferences mentioned in the basic conditions; Secretary’s comments on the Japanese attacks of March 2 and 3, 1932, after Japan’s acceptance, on March 1, 1932, of the League’s proposal for cessation of hostilities and the various steps, including a conference.
205
[Page XXIV]Mar. 3 (71) To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Instructions not to participate in the round-table conferences now in prospect until given further instructions; opinion that the situation is obscured by the Japanese offensive of March 2 and 3.
208
Mar. 5 (77) To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
For the Minister: Resolution passed by the Plenary Assembly of the League (text printed) to effectuate the Council proposals of February 29, 1932. Conditions under which the U. S. Government is willing to have the Consul General and military and naval authorities participate in the proposed conference.
209
Mar. 11 Resolution Adopted by the Assembly of the League of Nations
Declaration that members should not recognize any results attained by means contrary to the Covenant of the League or the Pact of Paris; decision to set up a Committee of Nineteen to follow the Shanghai situation.
210
Mar. 12 (46) To the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Letter for the Secretary-General of the League (text printed) expressing the U. S. Government’s gratification at the League action of March 11, 1932.
213
Mar. 12 (97) To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
For the Consul General and the Minister: Secretary’s statement to the press (text printed) approving the action of the League.
213
Mar. 15 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador concerning the progress of the conference in Shanghai.
214
Apr. 21 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador who indicated that Japan was troubled by the feeling that through the League she was being dictated to by the small nations and that she might withdraw from the Assembly as a protest.
215
May 5 Agreement Concerning the Definitive Cessation of Hostilities at Shanghai
Terms negotiated with the assistance of friendly powers in accordance with the Assembly resolution of March 4, 1932.
217

Further Japanese Political and Economic Penetration Into China 1934–1936

Date and number Subject Page
1934 Apr. 20 (751) From the Ambassador in Japan
Translation of an unofficial statement made on April 17, 1934, by Mr. Amau of the Japanese Foreign Office (text printed), defining the Japanese policy toward the rendering of assistance to China by other powers. Explanation that the statement was made to foreign correspondents and appeared to have been based upon an instruction issued to the Japanese Minister in China.
223
[Page XXV]Apr. 24 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in regard to the Amau statements; the Secretary’s request for an official translation of the statement and his assertion that the United States considered Amau’s declarations as exceedingly important.
225
Apr. 25 (75) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s explanation that Amau had given out the statement without the Foreign Minister’s knowledge or approval; his assurance that Japan has no intention of seeking special privileges in China nor of encroaching upon the territorial and administrative integrity of China.
227
Apr. 25 From the Japanese Ambassador
Translation of a statement made by Mr. Amau, April 20, 1934, to foreign correspondents and translation of the Foreign Minister’s instructions to the Japanese Minister in China (texts printed).
228
Apr. 26 From the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs to the Under Secretary of State
Opinion that the translation of the instructions to the Japanese Minister to China furnished by the Japanese Ambassador gives the Department a basic document which may be regarded as an official “indicator” of the Japanese policy vis-à-vis China.
230
Apr. 28 (59) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Aide-mémoire for the Foreign Minister (text printed), with respect to the recent indications of the Japanese attitude with regard to the rights and interests of Japan and other countries in China; reaffirmation of U. S. position with regard to the questions and rights involved.
231
Apr. 29 (83) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report that the aide-mémoire has been delivered and that the Foreign Minister’s only comment was that the whole affair had caused a great misunderstanding.
232
Undated [Rec’d May 16] From the Japanese Ambassador
Proposal that the United States and Japan issue a joint declaration of policy.
232
May 19 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador stated that his Government agreed with the fundamental phases of the Secretary’s aide-mémoire but that it did feel that it had a special interest in preserving peace and order in China.
233
June 18 (539) To the Ambassador in Japan
An account of conversations with the Japanese Ambassador on May 16 and May 29, 1934, during which the Secretary rejected the Ambassador’s secret and confidential proposal of May 16 for a joint declaration of policy.
237
1935 June 15 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador stated that, despite the many rumors and reports coming out of China, nothing was taking place except an effort on the part of Japanese officials and representatives to have China do two or three things requested of them.
239
[Page XXVI]Dec. 5 Statement by the Secretary of State
Reply to inquiries of press correspondents in regard to the “autonomy movement” in North China, Chinese and Japanese activities in relation thereto, and the U. S. Government’s attitude.
240
1936 Feb. 1 (16) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that, in reply to press inquiries, the Secretary has stated that there are no new developments in relations between the United States and the countries of the Far East and that no conferences on political matters have been held or been suggested.
241
June 12 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador to England concerning commercial relations, in which the Secretary defined and described the reciprocal trade-agreements program.
241
Oct. 3 (203) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Assurances by the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs that the questions under discussion with China are not unconditional demands but are Japan’s wishes, and that Japan does not intend to use force to obtain China’s agreement.
245
Oct. 4 (128) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to make an oral statement to the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs (substance printed) expressing appreciation for the Vice Minister’s assurances.
246

Abandonment by Japan of Cooperation With Other Powers in Efforts for Limitation of Naval Armaments

denunciation by japan of the washington naval treaty of 1922

Date and number Subject Page
(Note: Information that preliminary and exploratory naval conversations among representatives of United States, Great Britain, and Japan were held in London in 1934 in preparation for the London Naval Conference of 1935, and that Mr. Norman H. Davis represented the United States at these conversations.)
1933 Sept. 15 (520) From the Ambassador in Japan
Information that the announcement of the U. S. naval construction program has completely upset the calculations of the Japanese naval leaders who have built up an intense antipathy for the arms limitation treaties and a universal demand for ratio revision in Japan’s favor. Interview given by the Naval Minister to United Press correspondent (text printed).
249
1934 Sept. 18 (204) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information from the Foreign Minister that Japan has decided to give notice before December 31, 1934, to terminate the Washington Naval Treaty.
253
Oct, 24 (6) From the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Report on meeting with the Japanese delegates during which the Japanese presented their proposals (substance printed) for a common upper limit of global tonnage and the reduction or abolition of offensive arms in favor of essentially defensive arms.
254
[Page XXVII]Oct. 25 (6) To the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Indications that the Japanese are preparing the ground for a walk-out and are endeavoring to make it appear that they are driven to it by the indifference of other countries to Japan’s needs in the field of self-defense.
256
Oct. 31 (186) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Summary of developments in London since October 25: MacDonald’s rejection of the Japanese idea of a common upper limit; Matsudaira’s statement that his Government will denounce the Washington Naval Treaty before the end of the year.
257
Nov. 13 (17) To the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Conviction that there is practically no chance of bridging the definite disagreement between the Japanese delegation on the one hand and British and American delegations on the other; belief that Japan’s thesis is based on a desire to obtain overwhelming supremacy in the Orient.
259
Nov. 22 (191) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Summary of developments at London since October 31: British “middle course” proposals to Japan.
260
Nov. 22 (34) To the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Opinion that further British exploration of the “middle course” would not be of value unless for the purpose of filling in time until such moment as the Japanese, through denunciation of the Washington Treaty, assume responsibility for breaking off the conversations.
262
Nov. 23 (52) From the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Discussion with MacDonald and Simon, the British Foreign Secretary, in regard to the relative merits of further negotiation with the Japanese; outline of recent Anglo-Japanese conversations.
263
Nov. 26 (37) To the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Acceptance of the British point of view that the conversations should not be broken off right away; willingness to continue them until the Japanese denounce the Washington Treaty.
266
Nov. 30 (55) From the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Information from Matsudaira that his Government has not come to a final conclusion on the British “middle course” proposals but is prepared to continue explorations along those lines.
267
Dec. 1 (58) From the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Impression that Simon is less hopeful than heretofore of reaching an agreement with the Japanese.
267
Dec. 5 (66) From the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Statement made to Matsudaira that the United States will construe Japan’s notice of denunciation, on or before December 31, as tantamount to a termination of the negotiations and will expect adjournment to take place immediately thereafter.
268
[Page XXVIII]Dec. 6 Speech Delivered by Mr. Norman H. Davis
Statement of the difference between the American idea of equality of security and the Japanese idea of equality of armaments.
(Footnote: Information that this speech was delivered at a luncheon given for the American delegation by the Association of American Correspondents in London.)
269
Dec. 15 (55) To the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Willingness to accede to the British idea of bringing the conversations to an end through a tripartite meeting December 19 or 20, 1934, subject, however, to an advance agreement, regarding a satisfactory communiqué. Belief that this will be near enough to the Japanese denunciation to render the connection between the two events clear in the mind of the public.
271
Dec. 19 Appendix to Memorandum of Meeting of the American, British, and Japanese Delegations
Communiqué issued at the end of the tripartite meeting.
272
Dec. 19 (280) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the Privy Council has approved the Government’s decision to abrogate the Washington Naval Treaty; impression that the Foreign Minister desires to delay the formal notice until after the London conversations have ended.
273
Dec. 29 (250) From the Japanese Ambassador
Notice of the Japanese Government’s intention to terminate the Washington Naval Treaty, which will accordingly cease to be in force after December 31, 1936.
274
Dec. 29 From the Japanese Ambassador
Assurances that Japan does not intend to proceed to naval aggrandisement; expression of willingness to work toward a new agreement to replace the Washington Treaty.
274
Dec. 29 To the Japanese Ambassador
Acknowledgment of the notice of termination and statement that certified copies are being sent to the other powers.
275
Dec. 29 (218) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Statement by the Secretary of State issued to the press (text printed) relative to the Japanese Government’s notice of termination.
275

withdrawal of japan from the london naval conference of 1935

Date and number Subject Page
1935 Oct. 3 (284) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Information concerning the Japanese Ambassador’s inquiry in regard to U. S. attitude toward the conference being proposed by the British and toward qualitative limitation. Instructions to convey to the British Government the Secretary’s reply to the Japanese Ambassador (text printed) stating U. S. concurrence as to the desirability of such a conference and the U. S. view that both quantitative and qualitative limitation should be continued.
277
[Page XXIX]Oct. 24 (1776) From the Ambassador in Great Britain
British note (text printed) inviting the United States to be represented at a naval conference to be held at London December 2, 1935.
(Footnote: Information that the opening date was postponed to December 7, 1935.)
278
Nov. 2 (1539) From the Chargé in Japan
Information that Japan’s position with respect to the abolition of the ratio principle and the establishment of a common upper limit of global tonnage remains unchanged. Review of events leading up to Japan’s final acceptance of the invitation to participate in the conference.
279
Nov. 30 (373) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Opening speech to be made by the American delegation (text printed) embodying President Roosevelt’s letter of guidance of October 5, 1934, to Norman Davis which contained a proposal for a proportional reduction of 20 percent in present navy levels.
(Footnote: Information that the speech was delivered on December 9, 1935.)
281
Dec. 7 (4) From the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Opening speech of the Japanese delegation (text printed) outlining the Japanese thesis of a common upper limit for naval armaments and the reduction of offensive forces.
284
Dec. 17 Memorandum of a Conversation Between the American and the Japanese Delegations
Tentative suggestion made by an American delegate that a temporary agreement might be reached by using the present structure with modifications as to qualitative limitation and with perhaps, in a preamble, a statement that an adequate navy is the sovereign right of every nation; expression of interest by the Japanese delegate.
285
Dec. 17 (22) From the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Conversation with the British delegation concerning future procedure; methods by which the Japanese might be brought to a discussion of qualitative limitation apart from quantitative limitation.
289
1936 Jan. 12 (9) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
For the Chairman of the American delegation: Report of the final instructions issued to the Japanese delegation, including instructions to make clear that Japan will not discuss qualitative apart from quantitative reduction nor enter into temporary agreements which would continue the present inequalities.
290
Jan. 14 (46) From the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Information that the Japanese have urged the British to agree to an adjournment of the Conference until later this year, but that the British refused and have indicated that they will propose that the other powers remain to discuss a naval agreement to which Japan might adhere later if she wished.
291
[Page XXX]Jan. 14 (47) From the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
British opinion that the discussions should proceed, despite Japanese withdrawal, on the theory that Japan will later want to come into any agreement concluded.
292
Jan. 15 (49) From the Chairman of the American Delegation (tel.)
Final statement to be made by the American delegation (text printed).
294
Jan. 15 Press Communiqué, London Naval Conference
Statement by the chairman of the First Committee that, since the Japanese proposals have received no support, the committee should proceed to other work at the next meeting.
(Footnote: Information that the communiqué was issued at the close of the tenth meeting of the First Committee.)
296
Jan. 15 From the Chairman of the Japanese Delegation to the Chairman of the Conference
Notice of Japan’s withdrawal from the Conference.
297

refusal by japan to agree to limitation of gun caliber for battleships

Date and number Subject Page
1936 July 25 (A14–7 (3)/EM–) From the Acting Secretary of the Navy
Inquiry whether Japan has signified its intention to agree to the provision of the London Naval Treaty of 1936 which would limit the caliber of guns on capital ships to 14 inches.
298
Dec. 3 (434) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Request for a report on the status of the British inquiry into Japan’s willingness to accept the 14–inch gun limitation.
298
1937 Mar. 30 (178) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Information that the British Ambassador in Tokyo has received a formal Japanese refusal to accept the 14–inch gun limitation.
299
June 4 (75) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the U. S. Government faces a decision as to the caliber of guns to be mounted on two new battleships; request that the Japanese Government be asked if it would be willing to limit itself to 14–inch guns.
300
June 18 (161) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japanese aide-mémoire (text printed) setting forth Japan’s unwillingness to accept any limitation of gun caliber.
301
July 10 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Announcement that, since there is not a universal acceptance of the 14–inch gun limitation, guns of 16 inches will be mounted on the two U. S. battleships under construction.
302
[Page XXXI]

rejection by japan of American, british, and french proposals for the reciprocal exchange of naval construction information

Date and number Subject Page
1938 Feb. 3 (36) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Decision of the British, French, and U. S. Governments to present identic notes to the Japanese Government, in view of reports that the Japanese are building ships exceeding the limits of the London Naval Treaty of 1936. Transmission of the text of the note.
303
Feb. 5 (875) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Announcement of U. S. intention to exercise its right of escalation under the London Naval Treaty of 1936 unless Japan can furnish satisfactory assurances that it will not, prior to January 1, 1943, construct or acquire any vessel exceeding the limits in question without previously informing the U. S. Government of its intentions.
303
Feb. 12 (18 American I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Refusal to give the desired assurances or information concerning Japan’s naval program.
304
Mar. 31 To the British Ambassador
Notification that, in view of Japan’s action, the United States finds it necessary to exercise its right of escalation as provided in the London Naval Treaty of 1936.
(Footnote: Similar notes sent on the same date to the French Ambassador and the Canadian Minister.)
306

refusal by japan to grant the privilege of naval visits of courtesy to united states ships on a reciprocal basis into certain territorial waters

Date and number Subject Page
1936 June 13 (75) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to suggest to the Foreign Minister that, in view of similar courtesies extended by the U. S. Government, it would be beneficial if an invitation were extended to the U. S. Alden to visit unopened ports in the Pacific mandated islands.
307
July 8 (150) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s reply that he would see what could be done in regard to the invitation to the Alden.
308
July 28 (163) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Statement by the Vice Foreign Minister that the Ambassador’s suggestion in regard to the Alden has been referred to the Ministry of Overseas Affairs; indications that the Foreign Office can do nothing further.
309
Aug. 7 (102) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Assumption that Japan will not act favorably in the matter of the Alden; information that the Department is replying adversely to a request from the Japanese Embassy that the Shintoku Maru be permitted to enter a Hawaiian harbor which is not a port of entry.
309
[Page XXXII]

Japan’s Undeclared War in China and Further Japanese Penetration by Armed Force or Threat of Force

Date and number Subject Page
1937 July 8 (206) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Information that a clash took place July 7, shortly before midnight, at the Marco Polo bridge between Japanese and Chinese troops and that the Japanese began firing on the nearby town of Wanpinghsien on July 8, at 3:30 a.m.
313
July 8 (207) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Statements from Japanese and Chinese sources concerning the clashes on July 7 and 8.
314
July 8 (185) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Indications from the Foreign Office that the prospects for settlement of the incident are favorable.
314
July 10 (215) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Report of the American Naval and Military Attachés that the Japanese and Chinese forces have withdrawn from the scene of the clashes of July 7 and 8.
315
July 12 (190) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the Cabinet has decided to send reinforcements to China if the Chinese fail to keep the agreement drawn up July 11, 1937, which provides for the withdrawal of Chinese and Japanese forces from the Yungting River.
315
July 12 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in regard to the incident of July 7, 1937; the Ambassador’s opinion that Chiang Kai-shek is behind the entire movement and assertion that he still has some hope that the matter might be composed.
316
July 12 From the Japanese Embassy
Explanation of the incident of July 7, 1937, and of the Japanese actions since then; statement that Japan has not abandoned hope that aggravation of the situation may be prevented through peaceful negotiations.
318
July 12 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Statement that the Japanese Ambassador and the Counselor of the Chinese Embassy have called at the Department and have both been given an expression of the view that conflict between Japan and China would be a great blow to world peace and progress.
319
July 13 (192) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
An analysis of the attitude of the Japanese toward China; statement that there is well-coordinated and extensive preparation for such further use of force as may seem to be required in North China.
319
July 13 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Interview with the Japanese Ambassador during which the Secretary stressed the interest of the U. S. Government in the maintenance of peace in the Orient and the Ambassador expressed his belief that war could be avoided.
320
July 14 (200) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Opinion expressed by the War Office and the Foreign Office that the incident can be settled if the Chinese faithfully execute the agreement of July 11, 1937.
322
[Page XXXIII]July 15 (201) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information from the Foreign Office that negotiations on the basis of the agreement of July 11, 1937, are going on at Peiping and Tientsin.
323
July 15 (202) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Announcement that the Cabinet has decided to dispatch to North China reinforcements of an undisclosed number of troops.
324
July 16 (205) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Account of the North China situation by a representative of the Foreign Office; opinion of an officer in the War office that there is a “50–50” chance of a peaceful settlement; ample indications that Japan is prepared to use the force necessary to compel execution of the agreement of July 11, 1937.
324
July 16 Statement by the Secretary of State
U. S. Government’s position in regard to international problems.
325
July 16 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation between the Secretary of State and the Japanese Chargé who expressed the opinion that there is not much hope of a speedy settlement.
326
July 16 From the Japanese Embassy
Explanation of the purpose for which the additional troops were dispatched to China.
328
July 19 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Japanese Chargé; the Chargé’s account of his Embassy’s latest information and expression of his Government’s apprehension in regard to the growing anti-Japanese sentiment in Hankow.
328
July 20 (214) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Statement issued at the end of an emergency Cabinet meeting (text printed) expressing the Japanese Government’s decision to take self-defensive steps to enforce the agreement of July 11, 1937.
330
July 21 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Secretary expressed the U. S. Government’s interest in and concern with the situation in the Far East and stated his intention of conveying these same expressions to the Chinese Ambassador and to the U. S. Ambassadors in China and Japan in order that there may be no misunderstanding of the position taken.
330
July 22 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Foreign Minister’s claim that the main difficulty in the situation is that the Nanking Government will not recognize the agreement of July 11, 1937 (text printed) and is actively obstructing a settlement.
333
July 27 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy concerning a report which the Department had received to the effect that the Japanese intend to launch a general attack on the Chinese in and around Peiping.
334
[Page XXXIV]July 27 Address Delivered by the Japanese Prime Minister Before the Japanese Diet
Explanation that troops were sent to North China solely to preserve the peace of East Asia; emphasis upon national defense and economic development; mention of a possible program based on the conception of Japan and “Manchukuo” as a single unit.
336
July 28 (230) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s explanation in reply to the Ambassador’s oral representations, that the Japanese plan to attack in the Peiping area only if the Chinese fail to keep the agreement of July 11, 1937; and assurances in regard to the protection of American and other foreign nationals.
337
Aug. 6 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Report of action taken to prevent the publication of a Foreign Office press release in regard to the reported plan of American aviators to offer their services to the Chinese Army.
338
Aug. 10 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Offer to the Foreign Minister of good offices in arranging for negotiations to adjust Sino-Japanese relations; the Foreign Minister’s reply that an opening for such negotiations had already been made at Shanghai.
339
Aug. 11 (403) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Information that the British, French, German, Italian, and U. S. Ambassadors have addressed notes to the Japanese Ambassador and the Chinese Foreign Minister expressing the hope that a plan will be carried out to exclude Shanghai from the scope of possible hostilities.
341
Aug. 13 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador: the Ambassador’s statement that the situation at Shanghai is serious; Secretary’s emphasis on the equal responsibility of both Japan and China for the losses which would occur in a military engagement at Shanghai.
342
Aug. 13 From the Japanese Embassy
Concurrence of the Japanese Government with the principles contained in the statement issued by the Secretary of State on July 16, 1937.
343
Aug. 13 From the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy in China to the Counselor of the American Embassy in China
Reply of the Japanese Ambassador (text printed) to the note from the British, French, German, Italian, and U. S. Ambassadors; assurances that the Japanese forces have no intention of making any unprovoked attack on the Chinese forces at Shanghai; request that the interested powers attempt to bring about the withdrawal of the Chinese troops at the earliest possible moment.
343
Aug. 13 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Request of the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs for local mediation at Shanghai.
344
[Page XXXV]Aug. 13 (467) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
The Japanese Consul General’s request that the consular representatives at Shanghai explore the situation further with the Mayor. Willingness of British and French colleagues to confer on the subject.
345
Aug. 13 (473) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Plan suggested by the consular representatives at Shanghai for a settlement based on the status quo ante; willingness of both the Mayor and the Japanese Consul General to submit these proposals to their respective Governments.
346
Aug. 14 (216) To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Approval of action reported in telegrams No. 467 and No. 473 of August 13.
347
Aug. 16 (272) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Informal note presented to the Foreign Minister (text printed) expressing the U. S. Government’s hope that the Japanese Government will give favorable consideration to the plan formulated by the consular representatives at Shanghai.
347
Aug. 17 (150) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Approval of note transmitted in telegram No. 272, August 16.
349
Aug. 17 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
The Secretary’s announcement at his press conference that Congress is being asked for an appropriation for emergency relief and evacuation expenses necessitated by the situation in the Far East and that, at the request of the commander of the U. S. Asiatic Fleet, 1,200 marines are being sent from San Diego to Shanghai; explanation of the U. S. foreign policy upon which these actions are based.
349
Aug. 21 (289) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note from the Foreign Minister enclosing a note addressed to the British Chargé (texts printed) stating that hostilities will cease when the Chinese troops are evacuated from the Shanghai area and that Japan is not in a position to withdraw her forces from their purely defensive position; Foreign Minister’s hope that the enclosed note will answer the Ambassador’s note in regard to the plan formulated by the consular representatives at Shanghai.
353
Aug. 23 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
The Secretary’s statement concerning the situation at Shanghai, indicating clearly that the principles of policy set forth in the Secretary’s statement of July 16, 1937, apply to the Pacific area.
355
Aug. 23 (780) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Request for an express and specific formal assurance by the Japanese Government that the operations of the Japanese armed forces will not be directed against or into the city of Tsingtao where American nationals are at present concentrated on the advice of their Government.
357
[Page XXXVI]Aug. 31 (103, Asiatic I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Information, in reply to the Ambassador’s request for assurances, that practically all Japanese residents have been evacuated from Tsingtao and that the attitude of the Mayor of Tsingtao is extremely unsatisfactory in regard to protecting Japanese property and the remaining Japanese nationals.
358
Sept. 1 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conditions presented by the Foreign Minister to the Chinese Ambassador: (1) good relations with Manchuria (de facto recognition of “Manchukuo”), (2) withdrawal of Chinese troops from North China, and (3) cessation of anti-Japanese activities. The Foreign Minister’s statement that if these conditions were accepted, he could stop the war at once.
359
Undated From the Ambassador in Japan
Report of a radio speech made on September 1 by the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs asserting Japan’s peaceful intentions and lack of territorial designs in North China.
361
Sept. 2 (187) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Background material for understanding and interpreting the American position. Secretary’s agreement with the Ambassador’s view that U. S. objectives should include (1) avoidance of involvement and (2) protection of U. S. citizens; belief, however, that solidifying relations with either combatant should not be a definite objective.
361
Sept. 5 Address Delivered by the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs Before the Japanese Diet
Review of the developments in the China affair; conclusion that since China has ignored Japan’s peaceful motives and has mobilized her armies, Japan must now take a resolute attitude and compel China to mend her ways.
364
Sept. 5 (343) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Prime Minister’s speech before the Diet (text printed) leading up to the statement that at present the sole measure for Japan to adopt is to administer a thoroughgoing blow to the Chinese Army so that it may lose completely its will to fight.
367
Sept. 5 (347) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report on the addresses of the Ministers of War and Navy.
368
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 6] From the Navy Department
Letter from the commander in chief of the U. S. Asiatic Fleet to the commander of the Japanese Third Battle Fleet at Shanghai (text printed) setting forth the U. S. position regarding recent articles in the local press given out by “spokesmen” of Japanese authorities, in which warnings were given concerning the navigation of the Yangtze and Whangpoo Rivers by foreign vessels; and stating that the British, French, and Italian naval commanders are in agreement with the U. S. views.
369
[Page XXXVII]Sept. 10 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Information that the Japanese authorities have a blockade of Chinese shipping along the entire China coast; and that China has announced her intention of taking appropriate action against Japanese vessels and has requested that vessels of third powers avoid proximity to them.
371
Sept. 22 (400) To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Advice that the U. S. policy is that no affirmative assent need be given to measures taken by the Japanese in their enforcement of their blockade; outline of the procedure which the Department would suggest be followed; and information that the Navy Department has been consulted and will direct the commander in chief to be guided by the procedure set forth herein.
371
Sept. 24 (2) To the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Authorization to sit with the suggested subcommittee of the League of Nations Assembly Advisory Committee on China; instructions, in the conversations at Geneva, to refer to the principles set forth in the Secretary’s statements of July 16 and August 28, 1937; and to take the position that the developments in the Far East concern all nations and not just those of a particular or special group.
373
Sept. 28 (7) To the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
Exposition of U. S. position in connection with the Minister’s possible contributions toward enabling his associates at Geneva to reach decisions which will be effective in regard to objectives which are common to the United States and to the League members.
375
Sept. 29 (432) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Memorandum by the Military Attaché (text printed) reporting information gathered from Well-informed Japanese officers in regard to the Army’s position relative to certain issues of concern to the United States.
377
Oct. 4 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Information that, in reply to the Ambassador’s oral representations, the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs said that the landing of Japanese forces in the International Settlement had been for self-defense.
378
Oct. 4 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Representations against the use of the International Settlement at Shanghai as a base for military operations; opinion that the present Japanese operations cannot be construed as a means of defense of the Settlement.
378
Oct. 5 Address Delivered by President Roosevelt at Chicago
Expression of the belief that the peace-loving nations of the world must make a concerted effort against those forces which are creating a state of international anarchy and instability.
379
[Page XXXVIII]Oct. 6 First Report Adopted by the League of Nations Assembly
The subcommittee’s review of the Sino-Japanese situation since the incident of July 7, 1937, conclusion that the military operations carried on by Japan against China are out of all proportion to the incident that occasioned the conflict and that Japan’s actions are in contravention of her obligations under the Nine-Power Treaty and the Pact of Paris.
384
Oct. 6 Second Report Adopted by the League of Nations Assembly
Subcommittee’s recommendation that the Assembly invite the members of the League who are parties to the Nine-Power Treaty to initiate consultation in regard to the application of the stipulations of the treaty; that the states thus engaged make proposals to the Assembly; and that the Assembly express its moral support for China and recommend that the members of the League consider how far they can extend aid to China.
394
Oct. 6 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Statement that the U. S. Government’s conclusions with respect to Japan’s actions in China are in general accord with those of the Assembly of the League of Nations.
396
Oct. 7 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation between the Japanese Ambassador and the Secretary of State during which the Ambassador asked whether, in the light of the Department’s action of October 6, 1937, the Department has in mind any further course and the Secretary replied that no particular step is being considered at present.
397
Oct. 9 (463) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Statement released by the Foreign Office (text printed) attributing the actions of the League and the United States to lack of understanding and setting forth Japan’s claims that China started the hostilities, that Japan has no territorial designs whatever, that she has contravened no treaties, and that the Chinese Government is a menace to the peace of the world.
399
Oct. 12 Extract From Radio Address Delivered by President Roosevelt
Intention of the U. S. Government to participate in the conference of the parties to the Nine-Power Treaty; intention to cooperate with the other signatories to the treaty, including China and Japan.
400
Oct. 15 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Information that the Foreign Minister has said that, since no invitation to the Nine-Power Conference has as yet been received, the Japanese Government has not reached a decision but that according to present tendencies such an invitation would be declined.
402
Oct. 19 (130, Asia I) From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Statement, in reply to the Embassy’s aide-mémoire of October 4, 1937, that no exception can properly be taken to the landing of Japanese troops at the Settlement for the defense of the Settlement and the protection of Japanese residents against the menace of Chinese forces.
403
[Page XXXIX]Oct. 28 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Information that the U. S. Government continues to hold the views set forth in the Embassy’s aide-mémoire of October 4, 1937.
404
Nov. 3 Address Delivered by Norman H. Davis at the Nine-Power Conference at Brussels
Statement of the background and purpose of the Conference.
404
Nov. 13 Statement Made by Norman H. Davis at Brussels
General observations, reiterating the principles which guide the Conference; difficulties caused by Japan’s refusal to attend.
408
Nov. 15 Declaration Adopted by the Nine-Power Conference at Brussels
Statement of the position of the states represented at the Conference, concluding with the assertion that they must consider what is to be their common attitude when one party to a treaty maintains, against the views of all the others, that its action does not come within the scope of that treaty and sets aside provisions of the treaty which the others hold to be operative in the circumstances.
410
Nov. 16 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister concerning reports which he had received that the draft resolution of the Nine-Power Conference provides for united action against Japan and that the United States not only took the initiative in convoking the Conference but is also taking the lead at Brussels.
413
Nov. 18 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Report of having pointed out to the Foreign Minister that the Conference used the term “common attitude,” not “united action,” and that there was not an atom of truth in any allegation that the United States took the initiative in convoking the Conference.
415
Nov. 18 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Apprehension expressed by the Secretary of State lest the present situation in the Far East injure the mutual good relations which the Secretary and the Foreign Minister have striven to promote.
416
Nov. 22 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Announcement of Foreign Service changes made necessary as a result of the removal of the Chinese National Government to Chungking and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to Hankow.
417
Nov. 24 Report Adopted by the Nine-Power Conference at Brussels
Record of the actions of the Conference including its recommendation that hostilities be suspended and resort be had to peaceful processes and its decision to suspend sittings to allow the participating powers to exchange views and further explore peaceful means of settlement.
417
[Page XL]Nov. 30 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Representations against intended Japanese troop movements into and through certain sectors of the Settlement; statement that, since Chinese forces have been excluded from the areas concerned, it would be appropriate if the Japanese forces were directed to abstain from entering the areas at this time.
422
Dec. 4 To the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives
Report on H. Res. 364 “requesting certain information from the President of the United States.”
423
Dec. 15 (160, American I) From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Statement that the Japanese Government has no intention of impairing the administration of the Municipal Council of the International Settlement at Shanghai but intends to cooperate with the International Settlement authorities.
426
Dec. 18 To Senator William H. Smathers
Brief statement of U. S. policy in China, in reply to Senator Smathers’ letter favoring the withdrawal of U. S. ships and citizens from the conflict area.
426
1938 Jan. 8 To Vice President Garner
Information concerning U. S. citizens, U. S. armed forces, and U. S. capital in China, as requested by S. Res. 210.
429
Jan. 10 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Japanese peace terms conveyed to Chiang Kai-shek through the German Ambassador, on the German Ambassador’s initiative: (1) abandonment by China of all anti-Japan and anti “Manchukuo” activities and cooperation with Japan in combating communism, (2) the establishment of certain demilitarized zones, (3) settlement of Sino-Japanese economic relations, and (4) indemnification for the results of the hostilities.
434
Jan. 12 (10) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Proposed representations which it is suggested might, in the Ambassador’s discretion, be made to the Foreign Minister while the Imperial Conference is sitting.
435
Jan. 14 (28) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Opinion that, since the Imperial Conference met only briefly to give the Emperor’s sanction to decisions already adopted by the Government, the proposed representations would entail reaction the reverse of that desired.
436
Jan. 16 Statement by the Japanese Government
Announcement that the Japanese Government will cease to deal with the Chinese Nationalist Government, and that they look forward to the establishment of a new Chinese regime which can be counted upon to cooperate with Japan; reiteration of respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of China and for the rights and interests of other powers.
437
Jan. 17 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Foreign Minister’s explanation of the background of the Government’s announcement of January 16, 1938.
438
[Page XLI]Jan. 22 Address Delivered by the Japanese Prime Minister Before the Japanese Diet
Review of Japan’s national policy and of her successes in China; statement that the end of the conflict is still far distant and that many sacrifices will be necessary.
438
Jan. 22 Address Delivered by the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs Before the Japanese Diet
Detailed account of the China affair and of Japan’s relations with the Soviet Union, the United States, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, and Spain.
440
Feb. 1 (177) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
From Tokyo: Statement made in the Diet by the Foreign Minister, January 25, 1938 (text printed), explaining the present Sino-Japanese relations as an incident and not a war, on the grounds that the Japanese are simply combatting the anti-Japanese movement as represented by the Chiang regime; efforts to impress upon third countries that supplying arms to China will only prolong the struggle.
446
Feb. 4 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Decision of the U. S. Government to reduce its armed forces in North China by the withdrawal of the Fifteenth Infantry from Tientsin; and review of the background for the presence of U. S. forces in China.
448
Feb. 8 To the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
Negative answers to the three questions set forth in the proposed S. Res. 229 concerning possible commitments to other countries in regard to the use of U. S. forces.
449
Feb. 17 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Telegram from the U. S. Consul General at Shanghai, February 16, 1938 (text printed), reporting that the Sixth Regiment of Marines will sail from Shanghai February 17, 1938.
450
Mar. 3 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Report from the Consul General at Tientsin (text printed) that the Fifteenth Infantry, U. S. Army, has left Tientsin; and description of the friendly demonstrations by all nationalities which marked their departure.
451
Mar. 4 Statement by the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the Budget Committee of the Lower House of the Japanese Diet
Assertion that it is Japan’s idea, as the central support of peace in the Far East, to work for the security and progress of East Asia just as the United States is working for peace on the American continent as the central figure there; opinion that if both parties understand their respective positions, there can be no cause for conflict.
451
Mar. 10 Statement by the Japanese Military Commander in Central China
Declaration that Japanese forces may have to remain in China for 5 years, 10 years, or 100 years, depending on the circumstances; assurances that neutral rights will be respected, but that injustices in the name of foreign rights cannot be recognized.
452
[Page XLII]Mar. 17 Address Delivered by the Secretary of State
Detailed discussion of some of the fundamental conditions and problems presented by American international relations and foreign policy.
452
Apr. 14 To the British Embassy
Inclination of the United States to await a time when developments in the Sino-Japanese conflict are such as to render more opportune an offer of good offices by a third country or countries.
463
May 16 (2936) From the Ambassador in Japan
Remarks made to foreign press correspondents by the Foreign Minister and by the Prime Minister in interviews on May 9, 1938, their principal point being that the hostilities in China must go on to a finish and that the Japanese Government would have no dealings with the Chiang Kai-shek regime, even if that leader were to sue for peace.
464
July 7 Statement by the Japanese Prime Minister
Appeal for national unity on the first anniversary of the beginning of the China incident; intimation that the foreign powers who are aiding the Chiang regime may try to threaten Japan’s national safety.
467
Aug. 2 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Announcement that the U. S. Ambassador in China and his staff have departed from Hankow for Chungking, where the Chinese Foreign Office has been removed; but that the U. S. Consul General and his staff will remain at Hankow.
470
Aug. 16 Radio Address by the Secretary of State
Review of the foreign policy and objectives of the United States.
471
Sept. 21 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Extract from an account of a conversation with the Hungarian Minister during which the Secretary stated that since August 1937 he had proceeded on the theory that Japan is seeking by any and every means to secure domination over that half of the world.
475
Oct. 12 (657) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Communication from the Foreign Office (text printed) giving informal notification that the Japanese forces intend to launch military operations in Kwangtung Province for the sole purpose of cutting the supply lines of the Chiang forces; assurances in regard to the rights of third powers.
476
Oct. 13 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy in reference to the landing of Japanese troops in South China; the Counselor’s assurances in regard to Japanese intentions.
477
Nov. 3 Statement by the Japanese Government
Announcement of the capture of Canton and the three Wuhan cities; expression of determination not to lay down arms until the Chiang regime is crushed; explanation of the new order in East Asia which Japan seeks to establish.
477
[Page XLIII]Nov. 3 Radio Speech by the Japanese Prime Minister
Enunciation of the views of the Government to meet the new situation created by the capture of the Wuhan cities; and an appeal to the nation to make a fresh determination to attain the objects of the crusade in China.
478
Nov. 4 Statement by the Secretary of State
Response to requests by the press for comments on the statement issued by the Japanese Government; reiteration that the position of the U. S. Government is governed by: (1) the principles of international law, (2) the provisions of treaties to which the United States is a party, and (3) by the principles of fair play.
481
Dec. 22 Statement by the Japanese Prime Minister
Announcement of Japan’s basic policy for adjusting the relations between Japan and China.
482

Bombings of Civilians by the Japanese and Other Acts Endangering the Life and Welfare of American Citizens in China

1937

Date and number Subject Page
1937 Aug. 22 From the Commander in Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet, et al., to the Commander of the Japanese Third Battle Fleet at Shanghai
Information that as a result of the practice of a Japanese destroyer of anchoring at night near the U.S.S. Augusta a shell fell on the Augusta’s deck on the night of August 20 killing one man and wounding 18 others. Request that the Japanese men-of-war be kept below Hongkew Creek at all times in order to reduce danger to neutral vessels.
487
Aug. 23 (299) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that a list of places of residence of U. S. missionaries has been delivered to the Foreign Office. Foreign Office oral reply (text printed) stating that, desiring as Japan does to avoid harm to Americans, the Japanese Navy has issued orders to that effect and the Navy suggests that American properties be conspicuously marked and Americans be advised to evacuate such properties as may become occupied by Chinese forces.
488
Aug. 23 (302) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report that oral representations have been made to the Foreign Office in support of the recommendation of five Ambassadors in China that Japanese bombers be instructed to avoid operations in a specified area of Nanking. Foreign Office reply (text printed) expressing Japan’s desire to protect the Embassies of foreign powers but stating that there are Chinese military works in the same area and that should China use these for hostile acts, Japan would have to take necessary steps to cope with the situation.
489
[Page XLIV]Aug. 27 (781) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Reservation by the U. S. Government of all rights in respect to damages sustained by American nationals as a result of the activities of Japanese forces in the military operations now in progress in China.
490
Aug. 30 (180) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Telegram from the U. S. Embassy in China (text printed) stating that the British, German, Italian, French, and U. S. Embassies in China suggest that the several Ambassadors in Tokyo represent to the Japanese Government that the Hankow-Canton-Hong Kong railway is being used to evacuate foreign nationals and that it is hoped that the Japanese will not bombard or machine gun the trains or otherwise interrupt their use for evacuation.
Department’s approval of the suggested action.
490
Aug. 30 (183) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Telegram from the U. S. Embassy in China (substance printed) asking whether, since U. S. citizens will have to use the railways and motor roads of China in leaving for places of safety, the several Governments could not properly represent to the Japanese Government that it refrain from attacks on defenseless cities, hospitals, trains, motor cars, etc.
Instructions to invite the attention of the Foreign Office to the situation and to suggest to the interested Ambassadors the advisability of their taking similar action.
491
Aug. 31 (333) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note to the Foreign Minister in regard to the Hankow-Canton-Hong Kong railway (text printed). Information that the British and French Ambassadors are addressing similar notes to the Foreign Minister but that the German and Italian Ambassadors envisage only an oral approach.
491
Aug. 31 (102, Asia I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Statement that, since the Japanese operations in China are confined to measures of defense against illegal and provocative attacks on the part of China, the Japanese Government is not liable for damages sustained by nationals of third countries as a result of fighting in that area.
492
Sept. 1 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister for the purpose of appealing to him to take steps to obviate the risks to which Americans in China are constantly subjected. The Foreign Minister’s reply that the Japanese forces intended to attack only military objectives but that sometimes bombs went astray and accidents happened; his promise to bring the Ambassador’s representations to the attention of the War and Navy Ministries.
492
Sept. 1 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Request for the discontinuance of such bombing operations over Nanking as might result in destruction of nonmilitary property and in the wounding and death of civilians; and representations with a view to persuading Japan to refrain from attacks upon defenseless cities, hospitals, trains, etc.
494
[Page XLV]Sept. 3 (108, Asia I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Statement that the Japanese Government is taking all possible measures to protect the lives and property of foreigners but that, since the Chinese are using the Hankow-Canton-Hong Kong railway for military purposes, the Japanese Government cannot guarantee to refrain from interrupting its operations.
495
Sept. 6 (788) From the Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Recommendations made by the commanders in chief of the American, British, and French naval forces at Shanghai to the Japanese naval commander at Shanghai and the Chinese military commander in Pootung following the artillery duel of September 3, 1937, during which shells fell into the International Settlement. Hope that these recommendations may be acted upon favorably.
495
Sept. 10 (112, Asia I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Opinion of the Japanese naval commander at Shanghai that the measures recommended would not effect the safety of the Settlement; counterproposals advanced by the Japanese Government.
496
Sept. 14 (205) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to inform the Foreign Office that the U. S. Government cannot accept the position of the Japanese Government that it is not liable for damages sustained by nationals of third countries as a result of the fighting in China, and that the U. S. Government will look to the Japanese Government for compensation.
(Footnote: Information that the note was delivered on September 15, 1937.)
497
Sept. 15 From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Statement that Nanking is an appropriate object for Japanese bombing operations but that such operations are limited to military organs and establishments and that the Japanese Government regrets that noncombatants sometimes become victims; assurance that nothing is further from the thoughts of the Japanese forces than to make attacks upon defenseless cities, hospitals, trains, and motor cars not used by the Chinese for military purposes.
497
Sept. 17 (796) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Emphatic objections of the U.S. Government to attacks upon American nationals and humanitarian establishments, in view of the attack of September 12, 1937, by Japanese planes upon an American missionary hospital at Waichow, Kwangtung Province.
498
[Page XLVI]Sept. 19 (728) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Notice issued by the commander in chief of the Japanese Third Fleet (text printed) that after noon of September 21, 1937, the Japanese naval air force may have to resort to such offensive measures as bombing against Chinese forces and military establishments in and around Nanking, and advising foreigners and foreign warships to move into areas of greater safety.
499
Sept. 20 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Ambassador made emphatic representations against the announced plans to bomb Nanking, while expressing appreciation with regard to Japanese arrangements to avoid bombing the Hankow-Canton railway and further appreciation with regard to the Japanese note expressing regret for the bombing of the American missionary hospital at Waichow and offering to consider indemnification. Opinion that the civil government in Tokyo has very little influence with the military and naval forces where their general objectives are concerned.
500
Sept. 20 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Acting Secretary expressed the U.S. Government’s deep concern in regard to the announced plans to bomb Nanking and pointed out that only 48 hours” notice had been given and that no areas of greater safety had been specified.
502
Sept. 21 (0021) From the Commander in Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet to the Commander of the Yangtze Patrol (tel.)
Letter sent to the commander in chief of the Japanese Third Battle Fleet (text printed) notifying him that the two U.S. gunboats must remain at Nanking as long as the U.S. Embassy and U.S. nationals are there, and requesting that the Japanese naval air force be instructed not to drop bombs in the vicinity of these vessels.
503
Sept. 22 (780) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Statement that, with regard to the announced plan to bomb Nanking, the U.S. Government objects both to such jeopardizing of its nationals and to the suggestion that its officials and nationals should withdraw from the areas where they are lawfully engaged in legitimate activities; reservation of all rights in respect to damages which might result; and expression of the hope that further bombings in the Nanking area will be avoided.
504
Sept. 25 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy in which the Counselor, in referring to the intended bombing of Nanking, gave assurances that the Japanese military authorities had no intention of bombing other than military objectives, and was informed that in spite of a number of such assurances all reports indicated that large numbers of noncombatants were being killed.
505
Sept. 27 Resolution Adopted by the League of Nations Advisory Committee
Solemn condemnation of the aerial bombardment of open towns in China by Japanese aircraft.
506
[Page XLVII]Sept. 28 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Statement with reference to the League resolution of September 27, 1937, that the U.S. Government holds the view that any general bombing of a large populace engaged in peaceful pursuits is unwarranted and contrary to principles of law and of humanity.
506
Sept. 29 (431) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Office note, September 29 (text printed), stating that the bombing of military objectives in the Nanking area is a necessary measure; expressing desire for the safety of nationals of third countries and hope for U.S. cooperation with the measures taken by the Imperial Japanese Government; and conveying the information that the Japanese Government’s view with regard to damages to nationals of third countries remains unchanged.
507
Sept. 30 (435) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Memorandum from the Foreign Office (text printed) requesting that a list be supplied indicating the locations of U.S. charitable institutions in China. Suggestion that the Department instruct Nanking whether it desires that such information be supplied.
508
Oct. 1 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Substance of a telegram from the U. S. Minister in China (text printed), reporting the bombing of Nanking and naming nonmilitary establishments which apparently have been the targets of Japanese bombers.
508
Oct. 5 (250) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to say to the Foreign Office that the U.S. Government perceives no need for the supplying of a list of the locations of U.S. properties in China, with the possible exception of those near Chinese military establishments, but that the U.S. Government’s reservation of rights will in no way be affected by the fact of its having given or not having given such information.
509
Oct. 5 (251) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that much unfavorable press comment has been caused by the use of the expression “cooperation with measures taken by the Imperial Japanese Government” in the Foreign Office note transmitted in the Embassy’s telegram No. 431, September 29, 1937. Instructions to make clear to the Foreign Minister that what the U. S. Government seeks and expects is not “cooperation” between the two countries in any phase of military operations but that Americans shall not be endangered by any military operations.
510
Oct. 7 Memorandum by the Counselor of the American Embassy in Japan
Record of a conversation in which the Department’s telegrams No. 250 and No. 251 of October 5, 1937, were read to the Director of the American Bureau of the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
511
[Page XLVIII]Oct. 24 (0024) From the Commander in Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet to the Chief of Naval Operations (tel.)
Letter to the commander in chief of the Japanese Third Battle Fleet (text printed), listing instances when bombs and shells have fallen on the sector of the International Settlement at Shanghai guarded by U.S. Marines; calling attention to the bomb dropped in the sector on October 22, 1937, in spite of repeated representations by the Marine commander and repeated Japanese assurances; and requesting that urgent steps be taken to prevent recurrences.
512
Oct. 27 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Information that on October 24, 1937, a party of 10 persons including 5 Americans, while horseback riding in the British sector of the International Settlement, were machine gunned by an airplane stated to be Japanese; that in reply to oral representations made by the U.S. Ambassador in Japan a note dated October 26 has been received from the Japanese Foreign Office (text printed) expressing regret and offering to make necessary compensation in respect of any injury incurred by U.S. nationals.
513
Oct. 29 (0029) From the Commander in Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet to the Chief of Naval Operations (tel.)
Communication from the commander in chief of the Japanese Third Battle Fleet (text printed) expressing regret concerning the incident of October 22, 1937, and giving assurances that the Japanese naval forces have been instructed to exercise greater care in the future.
513
Nov. 2 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Tabulation of latest available figures on the number of U. S. nationals who have been evacuated from Shanghai and the number remaining.
514
Nov. 2 (0002) From the Commander in Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet to the Chief of Naval Operations (tel.)
Report on a conference with the Japanese Military Attaché at which the senior British, French, Italian, and Netherlands naval officers were also present and at which the Japanese were emphatically informed of the gravity of the situation. Belief, however, that incidents will continue as long as the Settlement is flanked by both Japanese and Chinese forces.
515
Nov. 12 (0012) From the Commander in Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet to the Chief of Naval Operations (tel.)
Letter to the commander in chief of the Japanese Third Battle Fleet (text printed) requesting that he use his influence to prevent the indiscriminate bombing of Soochow announced for November 13, 1937, or at least to provide time for arranging a mutual agreement upon a safe area to which refugees can betaken.
516

sinking of the u. s. s. “panay,” december 12, 1937

Date and number Subject Page
1937 Undated Summary of Events at Nanking Between November 21 and December 10, 1937
Description of the developing situation, including the continuous Japanese air raids on Nanking and the steady progress of the Japanese forces in their march on the capital.
517
[Page XLIX]Dec. 12 (340) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the U.S.S. Panay and three Standard Oil steamers are reported to have been bombed and, sunk at a point 27 miles above Nanking; instructions to inform the Foreign Minister and to ask for information and request that the Japanese Government immediately take appropriate action.
519
Dec. 13 (619) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the Ambassador on his own initiative has called on the Foreign Minister leaving with him an aide-mémoire and portions of telegrams received from the Embassies at Nanking and Hankow giving the facts with regard to the Panay and American refugees on the Standard Oil ships.
520
Dec. 13 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Information that the Secretary is getting all the facts concerning the sinking of the Panay and that when they are assembled, representations will be made to Tokyo; statement of the facts received so far.
521
Dec. 13 (622) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Visit from the Foreign Minister to bring the information of the bombing of three Standard Oil vessels and the sinking of the Panay and to express the profound apology of the Japanese Government; the Foreign Minister’s statement that the commander in chief of the Japanese Third Battle Fleet has accepted full responsibility for the accident.
521
Dec. 13 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador expressed the full apologies and regrets of his Government and in which the Secretary read a memorandum from President Roosevelt (text printed) setting forth his expectations of a full expression of regret and a proffer of full compensation and guarantees against similar attacks’ in the future.
522
Dec. 13 (342) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note for the Foreign Minister (text printed) setting forth the expectations of the U.S. Government. Instructions to inform the British Ambassador before presenting the note but not to await action by him.
523
Dec. 14 (630) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note from the Foreign Office (text printed) stating that, while the sinking of the Panay and Standard Oil vessels was due to a mistake, the Japanese Government regrets the incident and presents its sincere apologies; that the Government will make indemnifications and will deal appropriately with those responsible for the incident; and that orders have been issued to prevent similar incidents.
524
Dec. 14 (631) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report that a note has been delivered to the Foreign Minister in accordance with the Department’s instructions; that it has been pointed out to the Foreign Minister that while the Japanese note delivered earlier in the day is responsive to some of the points set forth by the U.S. Government, it does not meet all of them.
526
[Page L]Dec. 15 (638) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report that the senior aide to the Navy Minister called on the U.S. Naval Attaché and conveyed the information that the Navy has taken steps to avoid the future occurrence of incidents similar to the sinking of the Panay and that the commanding officer of the naval air force at Shanghai has been transferred to a post in home waters.
526
Dec. 16 (350) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to make a statement to the Foreign Minister pointing out the seriousness of the reports now reaching the U.S. Government which give definite indications of deliberateness of intent on the part of the Japanese forces which attacked the Panay and the U.S. merchant ships, and also pointing out that these reports give added importance to the question of the Japanese undertaking to deal appropriately with those responsible and to the question of the character of the steps to be taken to ensure the future safety of Americans in China.
527
Dec. 16 (645) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Request for instructions in regard to the many cash donations being made for the benefit of Americans in the Panay disaster in view of the realization that their acceptance might prejudice the principle of indemnification.
Dec. 17 (647) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report that the instructions embodied in the Department’s No. 350, December 16, 1937, have been carried out.
528
Dec. 17 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in regard to the Panay incident, in which the Secretary again referred to the question of whether the Army and Navy officials involved were going to be dealt with properly.
529
Dec. 18 (361) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Suggestion that Prince Tokugawa or some other outstanding Japanese personage might be asked to constitute himself an authorized recipient for Panay sympathy donations, public announcement to be made of such arrangement with an accompanying announcement that the funds will be devoted to something testifying to good will between the two countries but will not be conveyed to the U. S. Government or U.S. nationals.
530
Dec. 20 (662) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the senior aide to the Navy Minister has informed the U.S. Naval Attaché of a report on the Panay incident made by the commander of the Japanese Yangtze Patrol (substance printed).
531
Dec. 21 From the Second Secretary of Embassy in China
Complete report on the Panay incident, the actions of those on board, and the subsequent dangers to which they were subjected by the Japanese forces.
532
Dec. 23 (371) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the report of the findings of the Naval Court of Inquiry is being sent separately and is to be communicated to the Foreign Minister, and that the opinion of the Court is also being sent but not for communication.
541
[Page LI]Dec. 23 From the Commander in Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet to the Secretary of the Navy (tel.)
Report of the findings of the Court of Inquiry.
542
Dec. 23 (0023) From the Commander in Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet to the Secretary of the Navy (tel.)
Opinion of the Court of Inquiry.
546
Dec. 23 (676) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Account of a conference at the Embassy during which the Vice Minister of the Navy made a statement and various Japanese naval and military officers made reports in which the main effort was to prove that the Panay incident was due to mistakes and was unintentional.
547
Dec. 24 (679) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Panay note handed to the Ambassador by the Foreign Minister at 7 p.m. (text printed), with the statement that the Japanese Government has no objections to its immediate publication in the United States.
549
Dec. 25 (376) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note for the Foreign Minister (text printed) stating that the U.S. Government regards the action taken by the Japanese Government, as set forth in its Panay note of December 24, 1937, as responsive to the request made by the U.S. Government in its note of December 14, 1937.
551
Dec. 26 (683) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report that a note has been delivered to the Foreign Minister in accordance with the Department’s instructions No. 376, December 25, 1937, and that the Foreign Minister expressed his hearty thanks.
552
Dec. 28 (691) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Communication from the Navy Minister and the Chief of the General Staff to the commander in chief of the Japanese Fleet in China (text printed) emphasizing the importance of the Navy’s fulfillment of the guarantees given by the Japanese Government to respect American lives, property, and interests. Reply from the commander in chief (text printed) stating that the officers and men of the Fleet are determined not to repeat the blunders.
552
1938 Jan. 14 (27) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with Prince Tokugawa in regard to the possible disposal of the Panay sympathy donations, during which Prince Tokugawa expressed fear that some donors might resent the use of the funds for other than the specific purpose for which they were given.
553
Jan. 21 (46) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Decision of Prince Tokugawa, on the recommendation of his personal advisers, that he should not undertake the disposal of the Panay donations; explanation of the delicacy and the importance to the Japanese of the customs involved; and suggestion that the money might be nominally accepted by the Panay survivors and then contributed by them to some worthy project in Japan, which would be viewed as a “return present” and therefore eminently proper in the Japanese scheme of things.
554
[Page LII]Jan. 23 (23) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Explanation of the Department’s difficulty in reaching a decision in view of the lack of clear indications as to the intentions of the donors in regard to the allocation of the funds; and suggestion that Prince Tokugawa might be approached again in regard to this difficulty.
556
Feb. 9 (91) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Resolution concerning the purpose of the contributions (text printed), adopted by a committee organized by Prince Tokugawa to represent the donors as widely as possible.
556
Feb. 12 (57) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Authorization to proceed in accordance with the suggestion set forth in the Ambassador’s telegram No. 46, January 21, 1938.
557
Feb. 28 (139) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
List of projects which have been suggested for the utilization of the funds; outline of a proposal that the money be held in perpetuity under a trust in Japan to be known as the America Japan Trust, the income to be expended in accordance with certain principles; and information that the fund now amounts to yen 37,099.05.
557
Mar. 2 (73) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Approval of the plan for a trust fund; suggestion, however, that it be so constituted as to have a wider scope so that the Panay contributions could gradually lose their identity in a fund which might receive accretions from time to time from other sources.
558
Mar. 19 (99) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note for the Foreign Minister (text printed) stating that, with reference to the Japanese Government’s assurances that it would make indemnification for all losses sustained, the total amount which the U.S. Government is prepared to accept is $2,214,007.36 which includes no item of punitive damages.
(Footnote: Information that the text of the note dated March 21, 1938, was delivered by the Ambassador on March 22, 1938.)
559
Mar. 22 (194) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Memorandum presented by the U. S. Naval Attaché (text printed) reporting a conference with the senior aide to the Navy Minister who denied the report that the Navy Minister had exonerated the officers connected with the Panay bombing and stated that all responsible persons had been appropriately punished.
560
Apr. 4 (227) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Office request, April 1, 1938 (text printed), for an itemized statement of the Panay incident indemnification claim.
560
Apr. 5 (229) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel).
Report that the Director of the American Bureau has given an oral explanation of the circumstances surrounding the request for an itemized statement and that he has asked for a confirmation of his opinion that the U. S. Government does not intend to present a punitive claim.
561
[Page LIII]Apr. 7 (123) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Communication for the Foreign Office (text printed) itemizing the indemnification claim and stating that the U. S. Government does not intend to ask for punitive damages.
561
Apr. 20 (257) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that an Embassy press release, April 19, 1938, making an announcement concerning the proposed America Japan Trust has been favorably received and that the Foreign Office has issued a statement thoroughly approving the trust (text printed). Statement that the Embassy press release included the information that contributions to the trust fund were not related to the payment officially undertaken by the Japanese Government.
562
Apr. 22 (264) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report that the Panay check for $2,214,007.36, payable to the Secretary of State, has just been received.
563

1938

Date and number Subject Page
1938 Jan. 7 (7) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Instructions that, in replying to requests from Japanese or Chinese authorities for information in regard to the location of American nationals, property, etc., it is highly important that it be specified that the U. S. Government’s reservation of rights will in no way be altered by its having given or not having given such information.
564
Jan. 10 (16) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Telegram to the Consul General at Shanghai, January 10, 1938 (text printed), informing him that informal representations have been made to the Japanese Foreign Minister in regard to the reports of the looting of American property at Soochow and Hangchow.
564
Jan. 17 (866) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Emphatic protest against the flagrant disregard of American rights shown by Japanese troops in recent military operations at Nanking, Hangchow, and other places; statement that the U.S. Government finds it impossible to reconcile such actions with assurances given in the Foreign Minister’s Panay note of December 24, 1937; request that the Japanese Government reinforce the instructions already issued in such a way as to prevent a repetition of the outrages.
565
Jan. 17 (34) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Supplementary observations made to the Foreign Minister when presenting notes, including an intimation of the doubt that the Panay incident could be regarded as liquidated if the Japanese authorities failed to carry out in good faith the assurances given in their note of December 24, 1937.
566
[Page LIV]Jan. 18 (27) From the Third Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Report of numerous cases of irregular entry of American property by Japanese soldiers; conclusion, after repeated representations to the Japanese Embassy, that the Embassy is powerless to stop the depredations and that the Japanese Army is unwilling or unable to afford adequate protection to American property.
567
Jan. 19 Memorandum by the Counselor of Embassy in Japan
Conversation with the Director of the American Bureau of the Japanese Foreign Office in which the Counselor brought to the Director’s attention the contents of telegram No. 27, January 18, 1938, and stated that, since previous instructions from Tokyo had been ineffective, it was expected that the Japanese Government would take drastic action; statement by the Director that the Cabinet has under consideration a plan for ensuring that the forces in China comply with orders from Tokyo.
568
Jan. 25 (135) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Report on the behavior of Japanese troops in the vicinity of Shanghai and in Soochow and Hangchow; evidence that some of the looting was for the benefit of the Japanese Army and with the knowledge and consent of the officers.
569
Jan. 28 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Statement of events at Nanking leading up to the slapping of the Third Secretary of the American Embassy by a Japanese soldier; the Third Secretary’s report (text printed) of the affair and subsequent apology tendered him on behalf of the commander of the Japanese forces.
570
Jan. 31 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Information that representations have been made by the Ambassador in Japan in regard to the slapping of the Third Secretary of Embassy at Nanking; that the Japanese Government has offered an apology (text printed) including assurances that those concerned will be appropriately punished; and that the Third Secretary has reported that he has been informed that the commanding officer and 20 men concerned have been court-martialed.
574
Feb. 2 (81) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Request for instructions with regard to a communication from the Japanese Embassy, January 31 (text printed), requesting that proper marks be placed on all establishments of third powers within a specified area and that information concerning the location of these establishments be furnished to the Japanese Embassy. Belief that the consulates would find it impossible to communicate with many places within the indicated area.
576
Feb. 4 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Ambassador spoke of the steadily mounting evidence of Japanese depredations and asked for a precise statement to convey to the U.S. Government; and the Foreign Minister replied that the strictest possible orders had been issued, that an investigation was being conducted at Nanking, and that in the light of investigations in progress full indemnification would be made.
577
[Page LV]Feb. 4 (872) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Specific cases of disregard shown by Japanese forces in China for U.S. property; evidence that these incidents occurred with the knowledge of, and some at the direction of, the Japanese officials; statement that the U.S. Government expects assurances as to specific measures to be taken and full indemnification for all losses and damages.
578
Feb. 4 (53) To the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Instructions for sending a preliminary reply to the Japanese Embassy giving such information as is available in regard to the location of U.S. establishments in the indicated area and informing them that an effort is being made to secure more detailed information; also to include in any such communication a safeguarding statement in the sense of the Department’s telegram No. 7, January 7, 1938.
579
Feb. 12 (17, American I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Explanations in regard to the events against which the Ambassador protested in his note No. 866, January 17, 1938, and statement of the specific steps taken to prevent the recurrence of such events.
580
Feb. 15 Memorandum by the Counselor of Embassy in Japan
Conversation with the Director of the American Bureau in which the Director conveyed a message from the Foreign Office stating that the Military Attaché at Nanking had been directed to express regrets for the entry of the U.S. Embassy by Japanese troops and that the Government is prepared to express regrets for desecration of the American flag “if such desecration shall have been established.”
583
Feb. 15 (6, Asia I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Request that the property of U.S. nationals in specified sections of China be marked as indicated, that the location of such property be communicated to the Japanese authorities, and that certain other protective measures be adopted by U.S. nationals.
583
Feb. 16 Memorandum by the Counselor of Embassy in Japan
Conversation with the Director of the American Bureau in which the Counselor informed him that the occupation and looting of the University of Shanghai could not be reconciled with the repeated official assurances that U.S. property would be respected.
585
Feb. 17 (7, Asia I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Assertion that the Japanese Government cannot assume responsibility for damage done to property of nationals of third countries where Chinese have used areas adjoining such property for military purposes. Request that the Chinese be urged to move objects of a military nature from the vicinity of property owned by U.S. nationals.
585
[Page LVI]Feb. 21 (880) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Statement that the failure on the part of U.S. officials or nationals to comply with requests of Japanese forces affords no excuse for injury which has occurred or may occur to U.S. nationals or property by Japanese armed forces and any such injury is considered by the U.S. Government as the responsibility of the Japanese Government.
586
Mar. 26 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
List of American mission property still occupied by Japanese troops. Request that prompt action be taken to cause the evacuation of American property and to direct that American owners or representatives be permitted to occupy or to inspect their properties.
588
Apr. 2 (41, American I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Statement that Japanese officials on the spot are investigating the cases referred to in the Ambassador’s note No. 872, February 4, 1938, and that the Japanese Government is prepared to pay appropriate indemnification where, as a result of such investigations, evidence of injury by Japanese forces is obtained.
589
May 16 (925) From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Request that the Japanese Government cause an investigation to be made of the reported bombing of the American mission at Hsuchowfu, May 10 and 11, 1938, and that the Embassy be informed of the results as soon as possible.
590
May 30 (942) From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Reference to the damage to American mission property at Nantungchow on August 17, 1937, and the occasions on which it has been brought to the attention of the Foreign Office; hope that assurances will be given that the matter will be settled promptly.
590
May 30 (943) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Reports from the American Consul at Shanghai (texts printed) of two instances when Japanese naval forces disregarded the rights and immunities of U.S. vessels; expectation that instructions will be issued to prevent further interference with U.S. vessels.
591
May 31 (946) From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Information that a message has been received from Haichow (text printed) reporting the bombing of American mission property there; request that the Japanese Government cause an investigation to be made and that the Embassy be informed of the results at the earliest possible moment.
593
[Page LVII]May 31 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Interview with the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs in which the Ambassador delivered various notes dealing with injuries by Japanese forces to U.S. interests in China and expressed the hope that the new Foreign Minister’s assurances that he would guarantee the protection of American interests in China would bear fruit promptly.
594
June 3 Statement by the Acting Secretary of State
Reiteration of this nation’s emphatic reprobation of the general bombing of extensive areas wherein reside large populations engaged in peaceful pursuits, in view of the recent aerial bombings in China and Spain which have resulted in the deaths of many hundreds of the civilian population.
595
June 9 (368) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report of a conversation with the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs during which the Ambassador brought up informally the question of the bombing of civilian populations in China and was told that the Foreign Minister was negotiating with the military authorities in connection with this problem.
596
June 10 (955) From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Report that Japanese troops have occupied U.S. mission property at Soochow in contradiction to the Japanese Government’s repeated assurances; request that urgent measures be taken to cause the evacuation of the property; and reservation of right to claim compensation for all losses.
597
June 11 (812) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Letter for the Ambassador from the Japanese Minister at Large (text printed) requesting that on and after June 11, 1938, vessels of third powers not enter the area from Wuhu to Hukow on the Yangtze River so long as the commander in chief of the Japanese Fleet in China Sea finds it strategically inconvenient for them to enter and that those above Hukow sail up above Hankow as hostilities spread in that direction.
597
June 11 (813) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Letter for the Ambassador from the Japanese Minister (text printed) expressing the hope that the powers concerned will find a new method to make their vessels more distinguishable from the air.
598
June 11 (822) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
From Tokyo: Note presented to the Foreign Minister (text printed) stating that there are a number of Americans in Hankow and a number of U.S. and foreign vessels in the vicinity and that the U.S. Government expects that they will be protected in accordance with the Japanese Government’s assurances. Information that the British Ambassador will take similar action and that the French Ambassador has asked for instructions.
599
[Page LVIII]June 12 (286) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Communication from the commander in chief of the Asiatic Fleet (text printed) stating that he intends to visit Nanking and Wuhu about June 24 or 25; that the future presence of U. S. vessels in the Wuhu-Hukow area will depend upon whether U.S. nationals in that area need assistance; that the Japanese and Chinese authorities will be notified of the movements of U. S. men-of-war; that the Japanese Ambassador’s warning does not relieve that nation of its responsibility; and that the present markings of U.S. vessels should be apparent at altitudes of several thousand feet.
600
June 13 (0012) From the Commander in Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet to the Commander of the Yangtze Patrol (tel.)
Explanation that it is not intended that U. S. ships shall remain within the area of active military engagements; instructions that, after full opportunity has been given for the evacuation of nationals, notice of the probable date of withdrawal of gunboats from a specific area should be given.
600
June 14 From the Counselor of the American Embassy in Japan to the Director of the American Bureau of the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Letter from the American Consul General at Shanghai to the Japanese Minister at Large in China (text printed) setting forth the attitude of the commander in chief of the U. S. Asiatic Fleet concerning the requests of the Minister at Large in regard to U.S. vessels on the Yangtze.
601
June 18 (867) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information that Rear Admiral Nomura has issued a statement attempting to defend the bombing of civilian populations.
601
June 20 (18 Go, Asia I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Measures recommended for the protection of U.S. nationals and property in a certain area of active military operations in China.
602
June 27 (972) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Reiteration of U.S. position that, although U.S. nationals have been and are being advised to take the recommended precautionary measures, the obligation to avoid injuring U.S. lives and property rests upon the Japanese authorities irrespective of whether the U.S. nationals do or do not take such measures.
603
June 28 (975) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Formal protest against the bombing on June 15, 1938, by Japanese airplanes of a U.S. mission at Pingtu; request that an investigation be made and that instructions be issued which will prevent the recurrence of such acts.
604
July 4 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Ambassador made forceful and emphatic representations on many points at issue in Japanese-American relations.
605
[Page LIX]Undated From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Rough notes left with the Foreign Minister as a guide to the oral representation made in the conversation on July 4, 1938.
611
Aug. 16 (1026) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Emphatic representations in regard to the repeated bombing attacks on U.S. mission properties at Wuchang, the location of which had been marked on maps delivered to the Japanese authorities.
619
Aug. 26 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Note presented to the Japanese Foreign Office by the U.S. Ambassador in Japan, upon instruction of the Secretary of State (text printed) protesting against the attack on a commercial plane of the China National Aviation Corporation (in which the Pan American Airways has a large interest) endangering the life of the U.S. pilot and killing several noncombatant passengers.
619
Sept. 3 (81, Asia I) From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Request that certain measures be carried out and certain conditions be met to insure the safety of the rights and interests in Hankow of third countries, in view of the attack soon to be made on Hankow by Japanese forces.
620
Sept. 12 (1038) From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Statement setting forth views of the U. S. Government concerning rights and interests of third countries in regard to military operations in and against the definitely arranged specified area of Hankow.
622
Oct. 13 (664) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note from the Foreign Minister, October 12, 1938 (text printed) referring to the Foreign Minister’s note of June 20, 1938, and urgently requesting that the suggested precautionary measures be taken since military operations are actually being undertaken in South China. Information that a similar note has been received by the British Embassy.
623
Oct. 14 (97, Asia I) From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Declaration that if the precautionary measures set forth in the Ministry’s note of September 3, 1938, are not taken, the Japanese Government cannot assume responsibility for damages to rights and interests of third powers.
624
Oct. 16 (671) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note to the Foreign Minister (text printed) restating the position of the U. S. Government in regard to the obligation of the Japanese authorities as set forth in the Embassy’s note No. 972, June 27, 1938.
625
[Page LX]Oct. 27 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs
Information that a report has been received that the Japanese naval authorities at Shanghai have requested that third power vessels off Hankow be moved to other anchorage since it will be difficult to give assurance that Chinese troops close to these vessels will not be attacked. Statement that the U. S. Government takes the strongest possible exception to this position.
626
Oct. 31 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs in which the Ambassador made emphatic oral representations in regard to the Nyhus case and supported them by a vigorous note addressed to the Foreign Minister.
627
Oct. 31 (1105) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Emphatic protest against the bombing of U.S. mission property in Tungpeh in which an American national, Phoebe Nyhus, was killed; urgent request that an investigation be made, the responsibility fixed, and steps taken to ensure that similar incidents do not occur.
627
Nov. 7 (41 Go, Asia I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Notice of the extension of hostilities west into the Provinces of Shensi, Hupeh, and Hunan; desiderata for the safeguarding of lives and property of nationals of third countries; and urgent request that the United States take prompt and appropriate measures in the premises.
628
Nov. 11 From the Japanese Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Endorsement of the action of the Japanese military authorities in requesting the removal of vessels of third powers from the Hankow area during the Japanese attack; statement, however, that no unforeseen incidents involving U. S. vessels occurred.
629
Dec. 22 (1157) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
List of U. S. notes to the Japanese Government in regard to the bombing of U. S. mission property which have not been answered; desire of the U. S. Government to be informed whether it may expect an expression of regret and indemnification for U. S. nationals killed and injured in the Tungpeh bombing and when it may expect replies to the U. S. notes.
630
Dec. 26 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Foreign Minister anticipated note No. 1157, December 22, 1938, and expressed regret for the Nyhus incident, confirming his statement with a written note; and in which the Ambassador accepted the expression of regret but presented note No. 1157 with the request that replies to the notes mentioned be expedited.
631
[Page LXI]Dec. 26 (117, American I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Expression of regret for the Nyhus incident at Tungpeh; statement that since Tungpeh is outside the territory occupied by Japanese forces, it is impossible to carry out a complete investigation; expectation that the incident will be satisfactorily settled locally in the near future.
632
Dec. 28 (118, American I) From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Reply to six of the U.S. notes in regard to bombing of U.S. property and nationals; addendum (text printed) setting forth the results of investigations of various other incidents.
633
Dec. 30 (119, American I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Information as to the U.S. notes to which the Japanese notes of December 26, 1938, and December 28, 1938, were intended as replies.
640

1939

Date and number Subject Page
1939 Mar. 8 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Hope that steps will be taken to alleviate the restrictions placed upon American personal and business interests in Tientsin by the Japanese authorities and to prevent the imposition of further restrictions such as those contemplated to be made effective March 10, 1939.
642
Mar. 30 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Ambassador presented a note in regard to the continued bombing of U.S. property in China and informally told him that these continued bombings were leading to a growing conviction in the United States that they are intentional and are part of a campaign to drive foreign interests out of China.
642
Mar. 30 (1230) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Formal and emphatic protest against the continued disregard by the Japanese military forces of U.S. lives and property in China, with special reference to specific cases.
643
May 11 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister during which the Ambassador made emphatic oral representations (text printed) against the recent indiscriminate bombings by Japanese forces in China, the representations being based primarily on humanitarian grounds and also on the ground of the risks to American lives and property.
646
[Page LXII]May 19 (238) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Communication from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, May 17, 1939 (text printed), explaining the steps taken by the Army and Navy to protect the interests of third powers in China and stating that a solatium has been forwarded to the U. S. national wounded in one incident and that an attempt is being made to arrange a solatium for the Nyhus family.
649
May 22 (241) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Note presented to the Foreign Office (text printed) calling attention to the recent recrudescence of Japanese bombing of U. S. mission property at Tangho and Tungpeh and pointing out that the locations of two of the properties were unmistakably known to the Japanese military in view of representations already made in regard to previous bombing of the same properties.
650
June 19 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
The Secretary’s statement of the U. S. Government’s concern with the developments in Tientsin in their broader aspects and in connection with other events in other parts of China.
652
June 22 (290) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information that during a conversation with the Director of the American Bureau the Chargé stated that the Japanese would be making a mistake if they assumed that if U.S. nationals in Tientsin were not mistreated, the American public would not be aroused by reports of indignities inflicted on British nationals.
652
June 24 (173) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Approval of action reported in telegram No. 290, June 22, 1939.
652
July 6 (183) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy who called to bring the report of the Japanese investigations which concluded that nothing further could be done by the Japanese air force to effect their desire to avoid the bombing of U. S. and other foreign property and recommended an isolation distance of one kilometer between U. S. and Chinese properties.
653
July 7 (429) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Report that Chungking has had another air raid, that the business section appeared to be the main target, that a British gunboat narrowly escaped a direct hit, and that a bomb fell within 150 feet of the quarters of the Counselor of the American Embassy.
654
July 7 (186) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instruction to express to the Foreign Minister the deep concern of the U. S. Government for the safety of the U. S. Ambassador and his staff at Chungking and for the safety of U. S. nationals and property.
Request that the Consul General at Shanghai ask his Japanese colleague to take appropriate action vis-à-vis the Japanese military command.
(Repeated to Peiping, Chungking, and Shanghai.)
654
[Page LXIII]July 8 (576) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Report that action has been taken as requested in the Department’s telegram No. 186, July 7, 1939, for Tokyo, and that the Japanese Consul General was also informed that five bombs struck within 200 yards of the U.S.S. Tutuila in the recent air raids on Chungking.
(Repeated to Tokyo, Chungking, and Peiping.)
655
July 10 (320) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information that representations have been made to the Foreign Minister with regard to the recent bombings at Chungking; and that the Foreign Minister said that he could not promise that the bombing of Chungking would cease as air attack was an important and effective phase of the military operation, but that he had already communicated with the Japanese Navy Department in regard to the bombings.
(Repeated to Shanghai for relay to Chungking and Peiping.)
655
July 10 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in regard to Japanese policy, during which the Secretary read and presented to the Ambassador a written statement in regard to the bombing of Chungking (text printed) protesting against a continuation of such indiscriminate bombing and stating that the President would like an immediate statement from the Japanese Government, without making the matter one of a formal exchange of notes.
656
July 10 (190) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information that a conversation has been held with the Japanese Ambassador in regard to the Chungking bombings and that the Ambassador has been informed that the President desires an immediate statement from the Japanese Government.
660
July 10 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Announcement that U.S. diplomatic and consular officials have made appropriate representations to the Japanese authorities against the indiscriminate bombings of Chungking.
660
July 13 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Statement by the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy that the Japanese Foreign Office had gotten in touch with the Japanese Navy Department in regard to the Chungking bombings even before representations were made by the U.S. Chargé in Japan on July 10, 1939.
660
July 13 (438) From the Ambassador in China (tel.)
Reference to the Japanese Foreign Minister’s statement that the air attacks on Chungking are an important and effective phase of the military operations; statement that Chungking is unarmed in any sense that might be construed as offensive and that the raids are carried out indiscriminately with the deliberate intention of terrorizing the unarmed population.
661
July 15 (202) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to read to the Japanese Foreign Minister the pertinent portions of Chungking’s No. 438, July 13, 1939, which Chungking has been instructed to repeat to Tokyo.
662
[Page LXIV]July 17 (90, American I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Chargé in Japan
Reply to the U.S. representations with regard to the bombing of U.S. mission property at Tangho and Tungpeh; addendum (text printed) setting forth facts according to the investigations of Japanese forces who have recently occupied the two places.
662
July 18 (340) From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information that the Director of the American Bureau has stated that the Chungking bombings are being investigated and that the Japanese Ambassador at Washington will shortly be instructed to make a statement in response to the Secretary’s representations of July 10, 1939.
665
July 20 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador presented two statements concerning the Chungking bombings, repeating the same line of suggestions and comment to the effect that Japanese officials are always warned to be cautious; in reply to which the Secretary indicated his disappointment and stated that the sole question related to whether the Japanese Government would use sufficient precautions to put an end to such dangerous bombings.
665
July 20 From the Japanese Ambassador
The Japanese Government’s statement in reply to the Secretary’s representation on July 10, 1939; and the report on the bombing of Chungking by the commander in chief of the Japanese China Sea Fleet (text printed).
667
Nov. 20 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Information that difficulties of transit at the Japanese military barriers around the foreign concessions at Tientsin are increasing.
669
Dec. 5 (1426) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs Emphatic protest against a third bombing of the U.S. mission property at Tungpeh on August 1, 1939. 670
Dec. 8 (390) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Suggestion that, in view of the fact that all 59 of the Japanese replies recently received disclaim responsibility, the Ambassador informally approach the Foreign Office and, after mentioning publicity currently emanating from Japan concerning the “settlement” and “payment” of U.S. claims, state that additional publicity of this kind may impel the U.S. Government to publish figures and statements which would cover the situation as a whole.
671
Dec. 13 (1428) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Expression of appreciation for the recent large number of replies to U.S. representations; suggestion, however, that a more favorable impression might well be created by concrete evidence of an earnest desire on the part of Japan to afford to the claimants equitable amounts in compensation for damages sustained.
672
[Page LXV]Dec. 26 (706) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Informal letter dated December 23, 1939, from the Director of the American Bureau (text printed) explaining that the Japanese notes are intended not merely to communicate the results of investigations but to show Japanese readiness to give renewed consideration if and when further representations are made on the basis of fresh investigations made by the United States.
673

1940

Date and number Subject Page
1940 Jan. 31 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Information that the bombing of the Chinese portion of the Haiphong-Yunnan railway endangers U. S. nationals and commerce; statement that if the bombing continues, the United States will have no choice but to add this to the list of injuries, commercial and otherwise, suffered by it as a result of Japanese action in China.
674
Feb. 14 (119) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Statement made by the Foreign Minister in the Budget Committee of the Lower House in regard to the cases pending between the United States and Japan (text printed).
675
Mar. 1 (45, American I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Addendum (text printed) based on the report from the Japanese authorities in the area concerning the bombing of the U.S. mission property at Tungpeh on August 1, 1939. Information that $15,000 has been sent to the Nyhus family as an expression of sympathy.
676
Undated [Rec’d Mar. 6] From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
View that the question of assumption of responsibility by the Japanese Government does not arise in the bombing of the Hanoi-Yunnan Railway in view of the fact that the exclusion of the railway from any claims to neutrality in the event of war between China and any other country was established by the Chinese-French railway construction agreement of 1903.
677
Mar. 11 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Refusal to admit the relevancy, in the bombing of the Haiphong-Yunnan Railway, of the Japanese reference to the Chinese-French railway construction agreement of 1903 or to admit lack of Japanese responsibility for loss of U.S. life or damage to U.S. property. Full reservations of U.S. rights and rights of U.S. citizens in the matter.
678
Apr. 23 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Request that further instructions be sent to the Japanese armed forces at Tientsin with a view to eliminating the long-continued and unlawful interference by Japanese forces with the movement of U.S. nationals and merchandise.
Detailed information of several instances of interference.
678
[Page LXVI]May 10 (95, Asia I) From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Explanation of various incidents of interference at Tientsin; and statement that the Japanese authorities there are doing all in their power to lessen all inconveniences to nationals of third powers.
(Footnote: Information that the barriers were removed June 20, 1940, following the signing of an arrangement relating to local issues between Great Britain and Japan on June 19, 1940.)
680
May 10 (3130) From the Consul at Shanghai
Detailed summary of the developments in regard to negotiations between U.S. claimants and Japanese authorities for the local settlement of U.S. property losses resulting from the acts of the Japanese forces; statement that as a result of these negotiations, 21 cases have been settled by the payment of “solatia payments” to the U.S. claimants.
682
Undated From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Request that arrangements be made to provide for the free passage through the Tientsin barriers of all Americans, and their personal effects, en route to Peitaho or other resorts.
690
June 13 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Information that Chungking was intensively and indiscriminately bombed on June 12, 1940, and that U. S. mission property was damaged; statement that the United States condemns such practices wherever and whenever they occur.
690
June 14 [Asia I, 8/Go] From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Notice of plan to increase the severity of the attacks on Chungking; advice that the U. S. officials and citizens be evacuated to a safe place until after the bombardment; designation of a safe area; and statement that Japan cannot be responsible if U.S. nationals remain in areas other than those designated.
691
June 14 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister concerning the various representations which have been made in regard to the indiscriminate bombing of Chungking.
691
June 15 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Interview with the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs in which oral and written representations in regard to the Chungking situation were made, with the request that they be brought immediately to the attention of the Foreign Minister.
692
June 15 (1564) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Reiteration of the position of the U.S. Government with regard to warnings such as that given in the Foreign Minister’s note of June 14, 1940; statement that the U. S. Government cannot accept the view that Chungking in general is a legitimate target for air attack, and that it will expect to hold the Japanese Government responsible for any injury or loss to U. S. nationals.
693
[Page LXVII]June 18 (121, American I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Statement that the Japanese military forces will not hereafter relax their attack on Chungking and that the Japanese Government cannot accept responsibility for unavoidable damage which may occur.
694
Sept. 13 (1630) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Emphatic protest against the destruction of a U.S. mission church at Chungking on August 19, 1940; statement that since the location of the mission property has twice been notified to Japanese officials and since representations have previously been made in regard to eight separate occasions when the property was attacked, it is difficult to avoid the inference that at least some of the attacks have been deliberate.
695
Sept. 13 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Data in regard to Japanese bombing of U.S. property in China; explanation that the data was taken from the Embassy files for the information of the new Foreign Minister.
696
Sept. 22 (878) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation on September 21, 1940, with the Foreign Minister who said that it was his firm determination to sweep away as many as possible of the past troubles between Japan and America, and was informed that many of the troubles are current and not past.
697
Oct. 16 (1000) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Message from the Vice Foreign Minister (text printed) stating that he has taken up with the Navy the matter of the damage to the U.S. Consulate at Kunming on October 13, 1940, and that the Navy will see to it that the incident will not be repeated.
698
Oct. 28 (1670) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Protest against the bombing of an American firm in Chungking and the endangering of the U.S. Embassy on October 25, 1940; information that 11 bombs fell in the area designated as a safety zone in the Foreign Minister’s note, Asia I, 8/Go, June 14, 1940.
699
Oct. 28 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Hope, in view of the interest expressed by the Foreign Minister, that the menace to U.S. officials and to U.S. nationals and property in China will be obviated through effective orders to the responsible Japanese officials.
699
Nov. 8 (1678) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Further information which has come to light since representations were made concerning the attack on a plane of the China National Aviation Corporation on October 29, 1940, which resulted in the death of the U.S. pilot.
700
[Page LXVIII]Nov. 11 (1125) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Suggestion that the Department may wish to consider delaying the proposed publicity regarding the bombings in China in view of the expressed intention of the Foreign Minister to obviate points of friction with the United States; opinion that this represents a belated recognition of the position in which Japan has placed herself vis-à-vis the United States through the conclusion of the tripartite alliance and other recent developments.
702
Nov. 14 (1684) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Further information in regard to the attack, October 29, 1940, on a plane of the China National Aviation Corporation in which the U.S. pilot was killed.
703
Nov. 23 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Statement that on November 21, 1940, an American Vice Consul engaged in official duties and his companion, another American national, were taken into custody by Japanese soldiers and threatened by rifles; information that appropriate representations have been and are being made.
703
Nov. 26 (1700) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Formal protest against the illegal action by Japanese soldiers in taking into custody an American Vice Consul and his companion who was also an American national.
704
Dec. 18 (193, American I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Explanation of the circumstances of the destruction of a plane of the China National Aviation Corporation and the killing of the U.S. pilot on October 29, 1940.
705

1941

Date and number Subject Page
1941 Jan. 27 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Japanese Foreign Minister in which representations were made regarding the marine-gendarme incident of December 30, 1940, in Peiping, to which the Foreign Minister replied that the version of the incident received by the Foreign Office differed from the American version and that he thought it desirable to make a further effort to reach a settlement locally.
707
Jan. 27 Oral Statement by the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Description of the action involved in the incident between U. S. marines and Japanese gendarmes in Peiping, December 30, 1940; statement that the U.S. Government takes a serious view of the Japanese actions in the matter; and conclusion that, if the attitude of the Japanese military authorities reflects the attitude of the Japanese Government, the U.S. Government will be forced to add this to the list of unsettled cases involving abuse of U.S. nationals, rights, and interests in China by Japanese agencies.
707
[Page LXIX]Feb. 4 (1738) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Representations in regard to the indiscriminate bombing of Kunming on January 29, 1941, which damaged the U.S. Consulate and endangered the lives of the Consul and his family.
710
Apr. 14 (1779) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs
Representations concerning the indiscriminate Japanese bombing attack of April 8, 1941, which again endangered American lives and property at Kunming.
710
May 6 (1793) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Information that the U.S. Consulate at Kunming was again damaged during an air raid on that city April 29, 1941; emphasis upon the unfortunate effect of these indiscriminate attacks upon public opinion in America; and statement that the U.S. Government looks to the Japanese Government to take the necessary steps to prevent further endangering of U. S. lives and property.
711
May 7 Oral Statement by the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs
Reference to five separate notes to the Foreign Office with regard to damage to U.S. property by Japanese bombings of Kunming; statement that at the present juncture an American death or injury might have repercussions of a serious character and that the U.S. Government looks to the Japanese Government to take appropriate measures to prevent such an occurrence.
712
May 17 (1802) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Representations against the continued endangering of American lives and property in China, with especial reference to the damage to the U.S. Consulate and several American residences during the air raid on Kunming May 12, 1941.
713
June 10 (5645) From the Ambassador in Japan
Note handed to the Foreign Minister, together with a copy of the memorandum of the conversation, June 5, 1941 (texts printed), protesting the bombing of the properties of the Methodist Episcopal Mission at Chungking on June 1, 1941, and report that on June 6, 1941, the Foreign Minister stated that the War Minister had given him assurances that special care would be taken in the future.
713
June 16 (830) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Delivery of a note to the Foreign Minister (text printed) in protest against the recent bombings of Chungking, which, on June 15, 1941, resulted in heavy damage to the U. S. Embassy and the jeopardizing of the lives of the U. S. Ambassador and other nationals and the U.S.S. Tutuila.
715
[Page LXX]June 19 (851) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note from the Foreign Office June 18, 1941 (text printed), explaining that the dropping of bombs in the vicinity of the U. S. Embassy and the U.S.S. Tutuila on June 15, 1941, was the result of an accident, expressing extreme regret, and suggesting the transfer of the U.S.S. Tutuila to a zone of safety.
717
July 8 Oral Statement by the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Reasons why the U.S. Government will not consider moving the Tutuila.
718
July 8 (1845) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Representations in regard to the damage to the U. S. Embassy during an air raid on Chungking June 29, 1941, which is considered the more reprehensible as it followed so closely on the assurances given by the Japanese Government June 18, 1941.
718
July 30 (443) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report from attaché at Chungking (text printed) of an apparently deliberate bombing attack on the U. S. Embassy area and the U.S.S. Tutuila which resulted in material damage to the Tutuila. Account of a conversation with the Japanese Ambassador on the subject; and instructions to take the matter up urgently with the Foreign Minister.
719
July 31 (1134) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report of a visit from the Acting Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs who called to express the deep regret of the Japanese Government in regard to the damage to the Tutuila.
720
July 31 (1138) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with the Foreign Minister who expressed his regrets and insisted that the bombing of the Tutuila was all an accident, in reply to which he was informed that it could not have been an accident and that the U.S. Government must reserve a further expression of its views.
720
July 31 (1141) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report that the senior aide to the Navy Minister has called upon the U.S. Naval Attaché and expressed the Navy’s regret and its willingness to make full reparations for the damage to the Tutuila.
722
Aug. 1 (451) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that the Japanese Ambassador has called and stated under instruction: (1) that the Japanese Government regrets the endangering of the Tutuila and the U.S. Embassy, (2) that it is certain that the bombing was accidental, (3) that the bombing of the city area of Chungking will be discontinued, and (4) that full indemnification will be made—adding that the Japanese Government requested that (3) be kept secret.
722
Aug. 5 (1173) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japanese statement handed to the U. S. Naval Attaché (text printed), setting forth results of investigation of the Tutuila incident and concluding that the incident was an accident.
723
[Page LXXI]Aug. 12 To the Japanese Embassy
Request, in view of the repeated bombings of the city area of Chungking in the past four days, for an explanation and a definitive indication of the Japanese Government’s intentions regarding its pledge of July 31, 1941, to suspend such operations.
723
Aug. 14 (502) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Account of a conversation with the Japanese Ambassador who stated that the Japanese Government’s promise had been to cease bombing the Chungking city area temporarily and not indefinitely.
724
Aug. 14 (1238) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report of a conversation between the Counselor of the U.S. Embassy and the Director of the American Bureau in which the Director emphasized the importance of secrecy in regard to the Japanese promise to cease bombing Chungking.
725
Aug. 16 (509) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Statement that the Japanese promise has been kept in strict confidence and that the Foreign Office may be so informed should occasion arise; instructions to add that the complete disregard of the spirit of the promise is deprecated and deplored.
725
Oct. 11 (650) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to address a note to the Foreign Office stating that the Navy Department has advised the State Department that the damages to the U.S.S. Tutuila were in the sum of $27,045.78.
726

Representations to the Japanese Government With Respect to the Integrity of the Chinese Maritime Customs and Salt Revenue Administration

Date and number Subject Page
1937 Sept. 24 Memorandum by the Counselor of Embassy in Japan
Conversation with the Director of the American Bureau of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, in which the American Counselor stated the desire of the U.S. Government to associate itself with the British Government in urging the importance of preserving the integrity of the Chinese Maritime Customs and Salt Revenue Administration.
729
Nov. 28 (827) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Representations against the exclusion of American and other interested foreign governments from discussions at Shanghai between Japanese authorities and Customs employees with regard to proposed changes in the organization of the Chinese Maritime Customs and in the disposition of revenues.
730
[Page LXXII]Nov. 30 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy, in which the Counselor stated that his Government could not admit the right of American or other foreign representatives to participate in the making of arrangements concerning the customs at Shanghai, and the Chief of the Division of Par Eastern Affairs expressed the hope that the American Consul General at Shanghai would be given an opportunity to offer suggestions and comment regarding any arrangement under contemplation.
731
Dec. 5 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Expression of gratification for the friendly and frank discussions regarding the Customs now proceeding at Shanghai between the American Consul General and his Japanese colleague; desire for assurances that no arrangement regarding the Customs Administration will be concluded without prior consultation with the American Consul General.
732
Dec. 14 Memorandum by the Counselor of Embassy in Japan
Conversation with the Director of the American Bureau of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, in which the Director expressed regret at the Counselor’s information that the attitude of the Japanese Consul General at Shanghai was not one which inspired confidence in the intention of local Japanese authorities to work cooperatively with representatives of other foreign governments toward safeguarding the integrity of the Customs.
732
Dec. 23 (850) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Desire for assurances regarding the safeguarding of revenues of the Customs at Shanghai, continuance of control of the existing tariffs and procedure, and return of harbor craft to the Customs Administration.
733
Dec. 28 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs regarding the Chinese Customs, in which the Vice Minister reiterated previous general assurances that American interests would be given full consideration, and the Ambassador observed that the Customs represented one of the American interests envisaged in the Panay note of December 14, 1937, to which the Japanese Government had replied in a manner responsive to U.S. desires.
734
Dec. 28 (853) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Urgent suggestion that the Japanese Government not countenance any action by Japanese military or other authorities to disrupt the Chinese Customs or impair the authority of the present Customs Administration; hope that the assurances requested in note No. 850 of December 23, 1937, may be received.
734
1938 Jan. 6 (2725) From the Ambassador in Japan
Report of the Embassy’s representations since September 24, 1937; belief that any chance of success lies in continuing to reiterate the interest of the U.S. Government in the preservation of the integrity of the Chinese Customs.
735
[Page LXXIII]Jan. 10 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Ambassador made informal protest against the disregard of customs requirements for Japanese goods and vessels, and the Foreign Minister implied that the final result of discussions now proceeding would be entirely satisfactory to American interests.
736
Jan. 11 (6) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions, in view of report from Tientsin that kerosene was imported from Japan duty free and placed on the market in December 1937, to emphasize to the Foreign Office the discriminatory character of such importations as well as their damaging effect upon Customs Administration, pointing out that such cases of discrimination are inconsistent with repeated assurances that the Japanese Government will respect U.S. rights and interests.
737
Jan. 17 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Foreign Minister replied to the Ambassador’s representations concerning the duty-free kerosene importation by stating that he would take up the matter with the proper authorities.
737
Jan. 17 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Insistence, in view of the taking over of the Consolidated Tax Office in the International Settlement at Shanghai by certain Chinese understood to be nominees of the Japanese military, that the Japanese Government neither take any action nor countenance action by any provisional Chinese regime which fails to take account of the obligation of the Chinese Government to the Export-Import Bank for wheat, flour, and cotton credits.
738
Jan. 31 (874) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Declaration that the action of the provisional regime in Peiping in revising customs rates in North China seriously threatens the integrity of the Customs, and that the U.S. Government holds the Japanese Government responsible for any adverse effects resulting to American rights and interests.
738
Feb. 7 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Request that instructions be issued to Japanese authorities at Shanghai to permit resumption of normal Customs control over Japanese vessels and cargo.
739
Feb. 17 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Statement that before examining any plan for settlement of the Chinese Customs problem, the U.S. Government expects to receive Japanese assurances that no action will be taken or countenanced which will disrupt the Customs or jeopardize the servicing of foreign loans and indemnity quotas from Customs revenue.
740
[Page LXXIV]Mar. 19 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Understanding that in certain Japanese-occupied parts of China the functioning of the Chinese Salt Administration has either been brought to a standstill or has been taken over by the de facto authorities for their own benefit; statement that the U.S. Government has a substantial interest in the Salt Administration in view of the U.S. loans amounting to over $15,000,000 which are secured by the salt revenues; full reservation of U.S. rights and interests.
741
Mar. 22 (34, Commercial 1) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Inability of the Japanese Government to assume any responsibility with respect to the tariff revision made by the provisional Chinese government at Peiping; observation that the tariff rate is fair and gives no preferential treatment to any third country.
742
May 17 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Ambassador made oral representations against the reported exemption of the Japanese-occupied area of China from the obligation to furnish its share of the foreign exchange necessary to service foreign obligations secured on Customs revenues. Information that the Foreign Minister evidenced resentment over the representations.
743
June 21 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Statement that the U.S. Government would welcome assurances from the Japanese Government that it is prepared to accord full respect to U.S. interests in the China salt revenues.
745
Aug. 31 (78, Asia I) From the Japanese Minstry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Explanation of the difficulties of the Salt Administration in China; advice, however, that the Japanese Government is informed that the new governments in North and Central China are studying the problem of payments on the loans secured by the salt tax.
745
Oct. 25 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Information that the Chinese Martime Customs at Shanghai granted clearance and then suspended clearance for the President Coolidge until a shipment of bullion from the Chase National Bank in Shanghai, for which the Customs had duly issued export permits, had been removed; advice that the American Consul General made a strong protest.
745
Nov. 24 (1126) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Formal protest against the taking over of the Chinese Maritime Customs House at Canton by the Japanese authorities; opinion that this action constitutes an infringement of the international status of the Customs.
746
[Page LXXV]Dec. 16 (114, Asia I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Contention that, as the Canton area is occupied by the Japanese Army, it is accordingly proper that the Customs be placed under its authority; refusal of the Japanese Government to accept the Ambassador’s protest contained in note No. 1126 of November 24, 1938.
747
1939 Feb. 17 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Ambassador stated the U.S. Government’s inability to accept the Japanese contention that military occupation of the Canton area affords justification for taking over the Customs.
747
Sept. 6 (1366) From the American Chargé in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Protest against seizure and continued occupation by Japanese authorities of the Customs at Swatow.
748
Sept. 6 (1370) From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Representations against notification by Shanghai Customs authorities that duties in gold unit notes or customs gold unit checks will not be accepted but must be paid in Hwa Hsing or standard dollars; observation that integrity of the Customs is seriously affected; protest against attempts of the Japanese-sponsored regime at Shanghai to dictate to the Customs authorities.
749
Oct. 26 (1405) From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Opinion that the reported intention of the new regime, proposed to be established at Nanking under Japanese sponsorship, to prevent the present Inspector General of Customs from exercising his functions unless he accepts appointment under the new regime would constitute a serious disruption of the Customs; request that the Japanese Government refrain from any action, direct or indirect, tending to destroy the administrative integrity of the Customs.
750
Dec. 28 (204, Asia I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Contention that, because the Swatow district is occupied by Japanese forces, it is natural that the Customs should be affected; refusal to accept the protest contained in U. S. note No. 1366 of September 1, 1939.
750
Dec. 28 (203, Asia I) From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Advice that the Japanese Government is not in receipt of such information concerning the Inspector General of Customs as is set forth in U.S. note No. 1405 of October 26, 1939, and cannot state its attitude toward hypothetical questions.
751
1940 Jan. 12 (5, Asia I) From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Contention that responsibility for a direct reply to U.S. note No. 1370 of September 6, 1939, does not rest with the Japanese Government; explanation, however, of precedents and practical arguments for the use of Hwa Hsing notes for Customs payments.
751
[Page LXXVI]Jan. 25 (12, Asia I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Information that the question of the Swatow Maritime Customs was satisfactorily settled at the end of 1939 between the Japanese military and the Commissioner of Customs.
753
Feb. 6 (1474) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Protest against the levying of taxes on imports and exports by the Japanese-sponsored Swatow Rehabilitation Commission and the continued refusal of Japanese authorities to allow the Chinese Maritime Customs to function at Swatow; request that instructions be issued to Japanese agencies in China to the end that further infringement of the rights and duties of the Customs be stopped.
753

Acts of Japan in Occupied China Interfering With American Treaty Rights and Equality of Commercial Opportunity

1937–1938

Date and number Subject Page
1937 Dec. 24 (0024) From the Commander in Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet to the Chief of Naval Operations (tel.)
Letter from the commander in chief of the Japanese Fleet in China, December 21, 1937 (text printed), setting forth the conditions under which foreign vessels will be convoyed down the Yangtze and stating that the Japanese Navy desires that foreign vessels refrain from navigating the Yangtze except when an understanding is reached with the Navy. Reply dated December 23, 1937, and signed by the U.S., French, Italian, and British naval commanders (text printed) reserving the right to move their men-of-war whenever necessary without notification.
757
Dec. 26 (0026) From the Commander in Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet (tel.)
Letter to General Matsui, December 24, 1937 (text printed) concerning conditions in Shanghai due to restrictions imposed by the Japanese Army.
758
Dec. 28 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Reminder that, while claiming freedom for its ships on the Yangtze, the U.S. Government looks to the Japanese authorities to give prior warning in the event of any area on the Yangtze becoming a danger area through steps taken by the Japanese.
760
1938 Jan. 12 (63) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Request from the Japanese naval authorities through the Japanese Consul General (text printed) that the vessels of foreign powers refrain from navigating the forced channel in the Yangtze without making prior arrangements with the Japanese Navy.
760
[Page LXXVII]Jan. 15 (45) To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Instructions to inform the Japanese Consul General that, while as a matter of courtesy the Japanese and Chinese are being informed so far as practicable of the movements of U. S. vessels, the U.S. Government claims absolute freedom of movement of its ships on the Yangtze.
761
Apr. 4 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Request that the Japanese Government take steps to cause the removal of restrictions preventing U.S. missionaries and business men from returning to Nanking, in view of the fact that the area of hostilities has passed far beyond that city.
761
Apr. 12 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in regard to currency exchange control in North China; Foreign Minister’s assurance that Japan will continue to support the principle of equal opportunity and the open door in China.
762
Apr. 12 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Statement that the U.S. Government would welcome assurances from the Japanese Government that it will not support or countenance financial or other measures in the areas occupied by Japan which discriminate against U. S. interests; full, reservation of U.S. rights and interests in occupied areas of China.
763
May 17 (315) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which strong representations were made regarding the hardships caused by the refusal of Japanese authorities to grant passes to Americans to enter peaceful areas where Japanese civilians are freely permitted to go.
763
May 31 (945) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Expectation of the U.S. Government that the Japanese Government will take steps to cause the return to their owners of the premises of the University of Shanghai and other U. S. property occupied by Japanese forces and that it will issue instructions to effect the removal of the obstacles to the return of U.S. nationals to certain areas.
764
June 1 (746) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
From Tokyo, May 31, 1938: Conversation with the new Foreign Minister who stated that he would guarantee the protection of U.S. interests in China.
766
June 2 (762) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Conversation with the Japanese Minister at Large in China in which the Consul General expressed the hope that the Japanese authorities in Shanghai would cooperate toward removing the obstacles in the way of U.S. business and missionary enterprises.
767
[Page LXXVIII]June 2 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Information that the Japanese authorities have returned certain U.S. mission property in the Chapei district of Shanghai; that they have agreed to the return of U.S. missionaries to Nanking; and that, in regard to the University of Shanghai, the Japanese Government is sending a committee to the Japanese-controlled area in Central China to investigate the situation there.
767
June 3 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Expression of gratification in regard to the steps taken by the Japanese Government and confidence that it will take appropriate action with regard to the remaining questions.
768
June 27 Memorandum by the Counselor of Embassy in Japan
Conversation with the Director of the American Bureau in regard to a statement issued on June 25, 1938, by the spokesman of the Japanese Embassy at Shanghai, affirming that foreign nationals in Japanese-occupied areas in China do not enjoy extraterritorial rights.
769
June 30 Memorandum by the Counselor of Embassy in Japan
Conversation with a representative of the American Bureau of the Foreign Office who explained that a mistake had been made and that what the spokesman of the Japanese Embassy at Shanghai had said was that foreigners enjoying extraterritorial rights could not invoke them to refuse search by Japanese soldiers in Japanese-occupied areas.
770
June 30 (399) From the First Secretary of Embassy in China (tel.)
Telegrams from five different U. S. consular offices in China (texts printed) reporting on the commercial difficulties caused by Japanese interference.
771
July 6 (66, American I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Decision of the Imperial Government that the Japanese forces will withdraw from the University of Shanghai by July 5, 1938, but that the school cannot be allowed to open until such time as it will not hinder military operations; exposition of the difficulties involved in allowing foreigners to return to apparently peaceful areas.
774
July 16 Memorandum by the First Secretary of Embassy in Japan
Conversation with the Director of the American Bureau in regard to a statement (text printed) which the Japanese Government desired published with the Japanese note of July 6, 1938.
776
July 29 (1013) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Opinion that the evacuation of the property of the University of Shanghai by Japanese troops without returning the property to its rightful owners does not lessen the responsibility of the Japanese Government for damages, etc., and that this action leads to the interpretation that the Japanese authorities hope the property will become useless to the owners, thereby making its purchase possible. Request that appropriate steps be taken to effect prompt return of the property to the full control of its owners.
777
[Page LXXIX]July 30 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Ambassador made full representations regarding the University of Shanghai, and the Foreign Minister replied with an explanation of Japanese reasons for restricting the occupation of the University and a denial of any intention to purchase the property.
778
July 30 Statement by the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Representations regarding the failure of the Japanese authorities to return the University of Shanghai to its owners.
779
Oct. 3 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Prime Minister, at present also Foreign Minister, for the purpose of presenting the U. S. desiderata; the Prime Minister’s assurances that any delay in meeting all U.S. desiderata would be only temporary and stated that the new “China Organ” was being formed to deal with such questions.
781
Oct 3 Oral Statement by the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
Discussion of the restrictions and violations of U.S. rights in China; presentation of measures which the President of the United States requests that the Japanese Government take to implement the repeated assurances given to the U.S. Government.
782
Oct. 6 (1076) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs
Statement of various instances in which Japanese authorities are subjecting U.S. citizens in China to discriminatory treatment and violating the rights and interests of the United States; apprehension lest in other occupied areas of China there develop a situation similar in its adverse effect upon competitive position of U.S. business to that which now exists in Manchuria. Request that Japan implement its assurances by taking certain measures.
785
Oct. 26 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the new Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs in which the Vice Minister’s attention was called to the several hundred U.S. notes regarding Japan’s depredations against U.S. property already on file in the Foreign Office which would give the Vice Minister the necessary background for such representations as the Ambassador might be called upon to make in the future.
790
Nov. 2 (373) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to approach the Foreign Minister and take up in a vigorous manner the entire question of freedom of navigation on the lower Yangtze River and to press for a favorable reply setting an early date subsequent to which Japan will not impede free navigation.
791
[Page LXXX]Nov. 7 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Initial interview with the Foreign Minister of a negative and unsatisfactory character in which the Ambassador inquired whether the Foreign Minister would renew the assurances of his predecessor and whether he would interpret a certain passage concerning Japanese policy contained in the Prime Minister’s speech of November 3, 1938; the Foreign Minister’s counsel of patience, especially with respect to pressing for a reply to the U.S. note of October 6, 1938.
792
Nov. 7 (1111) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Reiteration of the U.S. Government’s request that the Japanese Government implement its repeated assurances with regard to U.S. navigation rights on the Yangtze by discontinuing the restrictions on U.S. trade thereon between Shanghai and Hankow.
794
Nov. 14 (101, Asia I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Reasons why the Japanese Government does not consider that the time has yet been reached when recognition of freedom of navigation on the Yangtze can be immediately given; hope that the Ambassador will appreciate the fact that there is no intention of wilfully hindering U. S. commerce.
795
Nov. 18 (102, American I) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Views of the Japanese Government with regard to the instances of violations of U.S. rights in China set forth in the Ambassador’s note No. 1076, October 6, 1938; and statement that Japan does not intend to object to the participation of third powers in the reconstruction of East Asia when such participation is undertaken with an understanding of the purport of Japan’s intentions in East Asia.
797
Nov. 19 Memorandum by the Counselor of Embassy in Japan
Informal interview with the Foreign Minister who stated his reasons for declining to repeat the assurances of his predecessors regarding the principle of the open door, which assurances he stated had not been intended to be unconditional since the time had passed when Japan could give an unqualified undertaking to respect the open door in China.
801
Nov. 21 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Ambassador spoke concerning the principles of policy and the broad objectives of the United States in the Far East; and in which the Foreign Minister denied the allegation that Americans would be expected to deal only through Japan’s middlemen and stated that, while Japan intended to assure for herself certain raw materials, there would be a large field for U. S. trade which would be welcomed.
806
Nov. 21 Oral Statement by the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Representations with regard to the open door in China and outline of the obvious steps which the Japanese Government should take to prevent the steady deterioration of Japanese-American relations.
808
[Page LXXXI]Dec. 1 Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation between the Assistant Secretary of State and a representative of the Japanese Financial Commission abroad who made inquiries as to the prospects of concluding a trade agreement between Japan and the United States; to which the Assistant Secretary replied that such an agreement was not politically feasible in view of Japanese policy in China and pointed out that the Japanese reply to the U. S. note of October 6, 1938, was unsatisfactory and not responsive to U.S. grievances.
811
Dec. 8 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister who, in presenting his oral comments in an unofficial paper, stated “off the record” that an improvement in the situation could hardly be expected until Chiang Kai-shek had been eliminated, and did not hesitate to talk, although in general terms, about what the United States would be permitted to do or not to do in China.
813
Dec. 8 Memorandum Handed by the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Assurances that, while foreigners will not be allowed to establish businesses competitive with certain industries which might be granted monopolistic privileges as measures of protection, they may participate in those industries within the scope of the established plans; also that in the field of trade there will not be established, as a rule, any special discrimination against third countries either in customs duty or other systems of trade barrier.
814
Dec. 19 Statement by the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Explanation of the necessity for a close cooperation between Japan, “Manchoukuo,” and China, politically, as a measure of self-defense against communism, and economically, as a measure of self-preservation in the presence of a world-wide tendency to erect high customs barriers and to employ economic measures for political ends.
816
Dec. 26 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Ambassador explained that the U. S. Government and press found it difficult to appraise the recent assurances of the Japanese Government in view of the number of qualifying phrases with which they were circumscribed.
818
Dec. 30 (1153) From the Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Statement that the Japanese note of November 18, 1938, appears to affirm that it is Japan’s intention to make the observance of the principle of equality of opportunity in China conditional upon an understanding by other Governments of a “new order” in the Far East as fostered by Japanese authorities; reiteration of the U. S. position that such principles are not subject to nullification by a unilateral affirmation; reservation of all U. S. rights.
820
[Page LXXXII]

1939

Date and number Subject Page
1939 Jan. 12 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador who congratulated the Secretary on the accomplishments at Lima and was informed that the reaffirmation of the doctrine of equality of commercial opportunity was an outstanding feature of the broad basic program adopted at Lima and that the United States asserts and will continue to assert this principle; the Ambassador’s intimation of a desire to enter into an understanding about protection of all U.S. rights and interests.
827
Jan. 27 Extract From an Address Delivered by the Under Secretary of State on “Some Aspects of Our Foreign Relations”
Discussion of relations with countries in the Far East.
828
Feb. 17 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which he stated, in reply to the Ambassador’s oral statement (text printed) inquiring as to Japanese intentions in connection with the occupation of Hainan Island, that Japan had no territorial ambitions in China and that the occupation would not go beyond military necessity.
830
Mar. 11 (1207) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Hope that the Japanese authorities will not countenance the new drastic trade restrictions imposed by the Japanese-sponsored regime in North China and that they will, on the contrary, remove existing restrictions.
831
Apr. 13 (34, Commercial III) From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Statement that the Japanese Government believes that the new trade measures in North China have been enacted and enforced with impartiality and that Japan is determined to support them without stint.
833
Apr. 18 (193) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Information that the new North China Transportation Co. has been formed and will take over the work of the South Manchuria Railway in administration of railways, etc., in North China and Meng Chiang, thus consolidating all transportation facilities in those regions under one management, primarily Japanese.
834
Apr. 20 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador during which the Secretary read to the Ambassador a statement (text printed) relating certain facts concerning the interference with the legitimate movements of U.S. citizens in China on the part of Japanese military and other officials.
834
Undated [Rec’d May 3] From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Information that an adjustment of present conditions in the International Settlement at Shanghai is believed necessary in order to render possible active Japanese cooperation in its administration and to accomplish a revision of the administrative machinery.
838
[Page LXXXIII]May 13 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister who stated, in reply to the Ambassador’s oral representations regarding press report of possible Japanese occupation of the International Settlement at Shanghai (text printed), that Japan had no intention of occupying the Settlement.
841
May 17 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Exposition of views regarding matters contained in Japanese aide-mémoire of May 3, 1939; opinion that Settlement authorities are prepared to continue their best efforts toward meeting any reasonable requests for further adjustments.
842
May 17 Oral Statement by the Counselor of Embassy in Japan, Accompanying “Aide-mémoire” of May 17, 1939
Advice that the Chinese courts in the Settlement do not try anti-Japanese terrorists and that in other criminal cases where Japanese have been complainants the decisions have been rendered without prejudice; information that the text of the American aide-mémoire will be released to the press immediately.
844
May 17 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Reasons for the landing of a small U.S. naval detachment in the International Settlement at Amoy.
845
Undated Extract From the Report of the Embassy in Japan for May 1939
Report that on May 24, 1939, a Foreign Office spokesman stated that Chinese sovereignty still extended over foreign settlements in China and that, as it was Japan’s aim in China to control Chinese sovereignty, this sovereignty might also be controlled in the settlements.
845
June 2 (149) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Tentative outline for an approach to the Foreign Office (text printed) setting forth the U.S. position that neither the Chinese nor any other Government has any right unilaterally to interfere with the administration of the International Settlements.
846
June 9 (157) To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Authorization to make the approach outlined in the Department’s telegram No. 149, June 2, 1939, with certain changes.
848
June 12 (1298) From the American Chargé in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Information that the conditions brought about by the trade restrictions in North China cannot be reconciled with the objectives set forth in the Foreign Minister’s note of April 13, 1939; hope, therefore, that the Japanese Government will not continue to stand behind these measures and will remove existing restrictions.
848
[Page LXXXIV]Aug. 17 (1357) From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Data relating to various claims of U.S. concerns against the Peiping-Suiyuan Railway; request that steps be taken to have payments resumed; reservation of rights of U.S. firms arising from the taking over of the Peiping-Suiyuan Railway by a Japanese agency or Japanese-controlled company; similar reservation with respect to any railways taken over by the North China Transportation Co.
849
Aug. 26 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Ambassador presented a paper in regard to the reports that the Japanese were instigating anti-American movements in China, and the Secretary replied by reading a list of instances of transgressions by Japanese in China to the detriment of U. S. interest, of which the Ambassador requested a copy and was told that one would be sent to him.
851
Aug. 26 From the Japanese Ambassador
Information offered in proof of the falseness of the reports of anti-American movements in North China; hope that steps will be taken to eradicate from the mind of the U.S. public any suspicion which might have been left by the false reports.
853
Sept. 5 To the Japanese Embassy
Statement on the subject of anti-foreign propaganda in China, furnished in response to the Japanese Ambassador’s request during the conversation of August 26, 1939.
854
Oct. 18 Press Release Issued by the Department of State
Information that the difficulties at Amoy have been settled and that the U.S. landing force is being withdrawn.
857
Nov. 14 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation with the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy who was informed that the cases recently settled by the Japanese authorities were more or less surface matters and did not touch some of the more fundamental difficulties such as the economic restrictions on U.S. interests in Japanese-occupied China.
857

1940

Date and number Subject Page
1940 Mar. 20 (1498) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Information that Japanese naval authorities in South China refuse to permit U.S. oil companies to ship kerosene to the Nanhoi District; request that they be directed to withdraw these and other restrictions calculated to prevent U.S. oil companies from freely operating in the areas of China under Japanese occupation.
860
July 15 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Request that the new discriminatory regulations on imports into North China be removed; and full reservation of U.S. rights in regard thereto.
861
[Page LXXXV]Aug. 9 (297) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Transcript of an oral statement handed to the Japanese Ambassador expressing the concern of the U.S. Government over the actions to which certain Japanese agencies appear to be resorting as a means of exerting pressure upon the authorities of the foreign-administered areas of Shanghai and upon the nationals of third powers (text printed); and an illustrative list of recent restrictions (text printed) which was also handed to the Japanese Ambassador.
862
Aug. 23 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador who called to present a memorandum replying to the memorandum handed to him during the conversation on August 9, 1940.
864
Aug. 23 From the Japanese Embassy
Japanese explanation of the restrictions listed in the memorandum handed to the Japanese Ambassador on August 9, 1940.
866
Sept. 18 (1636) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
List of representations made by the U.S. Embassy at Peiping to the Japanese Embassy there in regard to interferences with U.S. trade in petroleum products; types of interferences involved; emphatic protest against such restrictions; and full reservation of U.S. rights in the matter.
872
Sept. 20 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Under Secretary presented an oral statement in reply to the Ambassador’s memorandum of August 23, 1940, and, speaking of the Japanese ultimatum to the Government of French Indochina, informed the Ambassador that, in view of Japanese aggressions in the Far East, the Japanese Government would certainly have no ground for complaint because the United States rendered assistance in the form of supplies, munitions, et cetera, to China and to Indochina in the event that the latter was attacked.
877
Undated To the Japanese Embassy
Statement that the Japanese Embassy’s memorandum of August 23, 1940, is unresponsive to the U. S. Government’s complaints in regard to economic restrictions which adversely affect U.S. interests in Japanese-occupied China. Expression of regret for the tone and language used in some parts of the Japanese memorandum.
(Footnote: Handed to the Japanese Ambassador on September 20, 1940.)
881
Oct. 11 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Hope that the situation set forth in the Ambassador’s note No. 1653 of the same date will receive the Foreign Minister’s personal attention and effective intercession.
883
[Page LXXXVI]Oct. 11 (1653) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Statement calling attention to the apparent intentions of the Japanese authorities to institute controls over the trade of Shanghai similar to the controls which have practically eliminated American trade from Manchuria and North China.
883
Oct. 15 (163, Asia I) From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Reply to U.S. aide-mémoire of July 15, 1940; explanation why the Japanese Government is convinced that the new regulatory measures are necessary for the protection of the welfare of North China.
884
Oct. 24 (1665) From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Protest against the new measures regulating the movement of vegetable fibers, animal hair, leather, and furs in North China; especial request for the exemption of the furs and skins now covered by purchase contracts.
889
Oct. 25 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Hope that the Foreign Minister will give his earnest and early consideration to the difficulty set forth in the Ambassador’s note No. 1665 of October 24, 1940.
891
Nov. 10 Oral Statement by the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Information from the Association of Fur Exporters and Importers that the Japanese firms in North China are readily receiving permits to export their furs whereas other firms are unable to secure permits.
891
Nov. 20 (5158) From the Ambassador in Japan
Oral statement to the Foreign Minister, November 15, 1940 (text printed), expressing regret that the Japanese Government should have deemed it proper, without the permission of the Chinese Government at Chungking, to undertake to alter the status of Chinese courts in the French Concession at Shanghai.
892
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 18] From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Conviction that steps taken regarding Chinese courts in the French Concession at Shanghai will contribute to the maintenance of order and security; inability, in view of Japanese non-recognition of the Chungking regime and determination not to deal with it, to agree with the argument set forth by the U.S. Government.
893
Dec. 17 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister who presented an oral statement in reply to certain U.S. notes of June 10 and September 15, 1940; the Ambassador’s refutation of the Foreign Minister’s charges.
895
[Page LXXXVII]Dec. 17 Oral Statement by the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
General explanations and excuses in regard to cases complained of in the U.S. notes of June 10 and September 15, 1940; charge that the various points at issue might have been settled locally but for the State Department’s insistence upon legal principles.
895
Dec. 17 Oral Statement by the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Japan
Information that the authorities on the spot have been ordered to investigate the cases complained of in the Ambassador’s note No. 1638, September 18, 1940, but that before these reports are received it is possible to state: (1) that the restrictions on shipments into unoccupied areas are necessary to prevent certain supplies from reaching Chiang Kai-shek, and (2) that all restrictions with regard to price fixing are applicable to Japanese and foreigners alike.
899

1941

Date and number Subject Page
1941 Jan. 7 Oral Statement by the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Information that the U.S. Government regrets that the Foreign Minister’s oral statement of December 17, 1940, cannot be considered as responsive to the representations made by the U.S. Government.
901
Feb. 6 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Director of the American Bureau who came in to report on his observations during his recent visit to China but offered little or nothing which could be regarded as either helpful or hopeful.
901
Mar. 25 Memorandum by the Second Secretary of Embassy in Japan
Conversation with the. Director of the American Bureau in which the Second Secretary gave the Director an oral statement with reference to interference with petroleum trade in the Canton area and was informed by the Director that he would investigate the difficulties and see what could be done although he felt that progress would be slow and better results would be obtained by not pressing the matter too urgently at the present time.
904
Mar. 25 From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Oral representations concerning interference with petroleum trade in the Canton area.
905
Aug. 4 (203) From the Counselor of Embassy in China (tel.)
Memorandum left at the Japanese Embassy, August 1, 1941 (text printed), setting forth instances of arbitrary action by the Japanese authorities against Americans and American interests in many parts of China.
905
[Page LXXXVIII]Aug. 6 (1871) From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Report that armed guards were posted on July 28, 1941, at five U.S. firms in Chefoo and that the Foreign and Chinese staff were detained request that guards posted on U.S. property in Chefoo be removed and that steps be taken to prevent further instances of the detention of Americans or the unwarranted detention of non-American employees of American firms.
906
Aug. 7 (1873) From the American Embassy in Japan to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Report that Japanese armed forces occupied U.S. properties at Tsingtao on July 28, 1941, and were still in occupation on July 29; request that steps be taken to effect the withdrawal of any forces which may yet be in occupation of U. S. properties and to prevent the occurrence of similar incidents in the future.
907
Aug. 13 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Japanese Ambassador in which the Secretary handed the Ambassador a statement of instances of mistreatment of Americans and injury to American rights in places under Japanese jurisdiction, in reply to which the Ambassador said that he would be glad to take the matter up with his Government.
907
Undated To the Japanese Embassy
Statement of recent cases of interference with U.S. rights and interests in Japan and in Japanese-occupied areas of China.
(Footnote: Handed to the Japanese Ambassador August 13, 1941.)
908
Aug. 15 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Ambassador supported the representations made by Secretary of State on August 13, 1941, and brought to the Foreign Minister’s attention the serious matter of the inability of a group of U.S. officials and citizens departing for the United States to obtain passage to Shanghai on Japanese vessels; the Foreign Minister’s understanding that the Coolidge arrangements had broken down because of U.S. condition limiting passengers to officials, which the Ambassador denied, stating that that condition had been laid down by the Japanese Government.
911
Aug. 16 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Confirmation of his statement made the previous day that the condition limiting passengers exclusively to officials should the Coolidge call at Yokohama, had been laid down by the Japanese Government and that it was that condition which had wrecked the whole project.
913
Sept. 13 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan
Conversation with the Foreign Minister in which the Ambassador presented a letter in regard to further instances of interferences with U.S. citizens and the Foreign Minister promised to give his best efforts to removing these grounds for complaint.
913
[Page LXXXIX]Sept. 13 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Memorandum (text printed) giving further instances of obstructions, interferences, and inconveniences imposed on U.S. citizens within the Japanese Empire and Japanese-controlled areas.
914
Sept. 16 (105, American I) From the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy in Japan
Reply to the Secretary’s representations of August 13, 1941, concerning interferences with U.S. rights and interests; information that instructions have been issued to prevent the measures from being applied unreasonably or unnecessarily; addendum (text printed), reporting details of those cases which have been clarified.
917
Oct. 7 (1577) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Office note, October 3, 1941, explaining the necessity for posting guards on the property of certain U.S. firms at Chefoo and denying that there were any detentions of nationals of third powers.
921
Oct. 21 (1663) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report of the receipt of a Foreign Office note dated October 10, 1941 (summary printed) which the Ambassador considers unsatisfactory in that it attempts to explain away a number of isolated cases without discussing the general principles underlying U. S. complaints.
921
Oct. 28 (1702) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Report of the receipt of a Foreign Office note dated October 22, 1941 (summary printed) in continuation of the note dated October 10, 1941. Observation that except in one instance the notes are similar in tone and that the general comments expressed in previous report apply to both.
923
Nov. 25 (1846) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that a personal letter was addressed to Foreign Minister on November 22, 1941, informing him that the language of the Foreign Office replies was in some respects unusual; that the abrupt denial of carefully prepared reports of U.S. officials would seem to imply that Japanese officials placed no credence in such reports; and concluding with a request for the removal of transportation interferences.
924

Statements by the Secretary of State of the Policy of the United States To Relinquish by Agreement Extraterritorial Rights in China

Date and number Subject Page
1940 July 19 Statement by the Acting Secretary of State
Comments to the effect that, although discussions in regard to U.S. extraterritorial rights in China have been halted by Sino-Japanese hostilities, the United States yet adheres to its announced policy of relinquishing such rights as rapidly as possible by orderly processes.
927
1941 May 26 From the Appointed Chinese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Farewell message and affirmation that China’s policies are in full harmony with the views of the Government of the United States.
927
[Page XC]May 31 To the Appointed Chinese Minister for Foreign Affairs
Expression of gratitude for the Minister’s letter of May 26, 1941; statement of the profound interest of the United States in the progress of China and of the U.S. Government’s intention, when peace again prevails, to move rapidly toward the relinquishment of all U. S. special rights in China.
929