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List of Papers

[Unless otherwise specified, the correspondence is from or to officials in the Department of State.]

CHINA

Continued Civil War in China and Elimination of Communists From Power in the Nationalist Regime

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Feb. 21 (941) From the Minister in China
Opinion that any immediate improvement in general situation in China is unlikely; dissension in the forces of the opposing military leaders; unsuccessful attempts of Chiang Kai-shek to eliminate the Communist influence from the Kuomintang.
1
Mar. 18 (965) From the Minister in China
Description of military engagements between Northern and Nationalist forces during February; Nationalist capture of Hangchow.
2
Mar. 22 (239) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Conclusion that to send Counselor of Legation to Hankow as Minister’s personal representative and special observer with the Nationalist regime would be inadvisable at present, and that it is preferable to maintain contact through the consular officer there; suggestion that American representation in China by a High Commissioner rather than a Minister would be desirable if conditions were favorable for such a change.
3
Mar. 24 (100) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Concurrence in views expressed in Minister’s telegram No. 239, March 22; belief that a change now from Minister to High Commissioner would be unwise.
6
May 7 (528) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, May 4: Request for general indication of American policy with regard to Nanking Government and the local governments alined therewith.
To Foochow, May 7: Information that American policy remains unchanged as to entire neutrality and avoidance of alinement with or against any faction.
6
May 9 (212) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of instructions to Foochow set forth in Minister’s telegram No. 528 of May 7.
7
May 10 (1036) From the Minister in China
Antiforeign demonstrations in Yangtze Valley in March; Nationalist occupation of Shanghai native city; emergence of Chang Tso-lin, of the Northern forces, and Chiang Kai-shek, of the Southern Nationalist forces, as the two dominant military leaders; precarious situation for foreigners in Nanking after occupation by Southern forces on March 24; gradual collapse of vigorous antiforeign agitation after raid by Peking Government, April 6, on properties adjacent to Soviet Embassy, and capture of Communist leaders; split in Kuomintang over anti-Communist stand taken by Chiang Kai-shek and the moderate groups.
7
[Page VIII]June 22 (1099) From the Minister in China
Tense situation in North China in May as a result of advance of military forces opposing the Ankuochun; activity of nine separate factions engaged in struggle for military control of China; continued Soviet influence in Kuomintang; American Minister’s request to commander of U. S. Asiatic Fleet, May 31, for dispatch of marines from Shanghai to Tientsin for the protection of American lives and property in North China.
11
July 18 (1135) From the Minister in China
Assumption by Chang Tso-lin, June 18, of virtual dictatorship over North China, after apparent collapse of peace negotiations between Chiang Kai-shek, Yen Hsi-shan, and himself; improvement in general situation at Canton with regard to foreigners.
15
Aug. 17 (1161) From the Chargé in China
Continuance of the relative stability in military situation; continuance of peace conferences; mounting dissension between conservatives and radicals in Hankow regime, and gradual disintegration of the Communist organization, including departure of Borodin, Soviet adviser.
19
Sept. 22 (1204) From the Chargé in China
Resignation of Chiang Kai-shek from Nanking Nationalist regime, August 11; advances by Ankuochun and allies; contemplated removal by Hankow regime and central Kuomintang of capital to Nanking.
22
Oct. 20 (1247) From the Chargé in China
Disturbed conditions in South China as a result of disintegration of Nanking regime; continued clashes between Northern and Nanking Nationalist forces; outbreak of Fengtien-Shansi conflict in North China; anti-Japanese agitation in Manchuria; incompleted amalgamation of Hankow and Nanking regimes; review of the generally unfavorable situation at Hankow.
25
Nov. 21 (1278) From the Chargé in China
Increased instability of politico-military situation during October; potential danger of renewed Communist activity; opinion that the struggles of the past few months have reverted to the character of Chinese civil wars prior to active Russian intervention; greater confusion over question of Hankow-Nanking amalgamation; continued Fengtien-Shansi engagements; absence of any significant anti-Japanese agitation in Manchuria.
30
Dec. 22 (1327) From the Minister in China
Lack of amelioration of general conditions during November; unsettled state of Fengtien-Shansi war; usurpation by Chang Fa-kwei of military control of Canton; intention of Chiang Kai-shek to resume activities with Nationalists; orderly occupation of Hankow by Nanking troops; Japanese efforts to advance economic interests in Manchuria.
34
[Page IX]1928 Jan. 26 (1366) From the Minister in China
Summary of politico-military situation during December 1927; severance by Nationalist regime of relations with Soviet Government, following destructive Communist uprising at Canton, December 11; expected reinstatement of Chiang Kai-shek as Generalissimo of Nationalist forces; continued limitation of serious fighting to North China; inactivity of Fengtien and Shansi forces.
38

Measures Taken by the United States for the Protection of American Lives and Property in China

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Jan. 10 (20) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, January 8: Recommendation that, in order to give adequate protection to foreign life and property and to prevent seizure of Settlement by mob violence, landing forces at Shanghai be increased to available maximum immediately upon initial defeat of Sun Ch’uan-fang by Southern forces or indications of local disorders.
(Repeated by commander of U. S. S. Asheville to Admiral Williams, commander in chief of the U. S. Asiatic Fleet.)
44
Jan. 11 (9) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for opinion whether the U. S. Government should urge its nationals to withdraw to places of safety, and for information as to protective measures to be taken at Shanghai by other powers. Inquiry whether Minister continues to recommend the landing of all forces necessary and cooperation with other powers to protect Settlement, and whether Americans in the interior would be unfavorably affected by such cooperation.
45
Jan. 13 (26) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, January 11: Opinion that naval forces should not be landed unless disorder or violence is unquestionably imminent; request for authorization to advise Americans to proceed to treaty ports from which they may be evacuated if necessary; intention to communicate this information to commander in chief.
To Shanghai, January 13: Concurrence in views concerning landing of naval forces; authorization for warning to Americans if trouble becomes imminent, and information that other American consuls have been advised likewise; instructions to communicate this information to commander in chief.
45
Jan. 15 (32) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion that trouble at Shanghai can best be avoided by obvious preparation of the powers to cooperate in defending Settlement; probability that immediate situation of Americans in interior would be unfavorably affected by such cooperation but that in the long run their situation would be improved; information that British have advised their nationals in the interior to concentrate at ports where protection can be given, and that American Minister is considering a similar warning; advice that the powers have not definitely decided on protective measures for Shanghai; recommendation that Department secure assurances concerning attitude of British and Japanese.
47
[Page X]Jan. 16 (35) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, January 15: Decision by foreign consuls that patrol or cordon around Settlement will be unnecessary until Sun Ch’uan-fang suffers a defeat in Chekiang, that available naval forces could put down any local disorders prior to such defeat, that landing of additional forces is not required at present, and that the adequacy of the planned patrol or cordon system depends on result of Hankow affair.
49
Jan. 16 (36) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Confidential portion of the telegram quoted in telegram No. 35 of January 16: Advice from commander in chief that if Chiang Kai-shek appears before Shanghai with intention of taking possession of Settlement, the naval landing forces would be inadequate, and that 20,000 troops would be required to ensure inviolability of the Settlement.
50
Jan. 18 (50) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Suggestion that consideration should be given to the advisability of augmenting American naval forces in Chinese waters because of serious rioting at Foochow and looting of American premises there by Nationalist soldiers.
51
Jan. 20 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation between the Secretary of State and the Chinese Minister concerning the purpose of American naval forces in China, the Foochow incident, and the possibility of trouble at Shanghai.
51
Jan. 24 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation in which Chinese Minister informed Secretary of State of Chinese Government’s concern over press reports of dispatch of additional American and British forces to China and presented appeal for U. S. initiative in breaking away from old unequal treaties; informal remarks by the Secretary concerning U. S. views.
52
Jan. 25 (413) To the Minister in China
Instructions to inform vice consul at Changsha that the use of naval armed guards for the protection of American property which has been closed and vacated, is neither feasible nor warranted.
55
Jan. 25 (26) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Navy message to Admiral Williams (text printed) requesting opinion as to the course to be followed at Shanghai, and inquiring whether discussions with Cantonese for neutrality of the Settlement would be advisable and whether British have entered into such negotiations.
Instructions to Chargé to furnish similar information.
56
Jan. 26 (56) From the British Embassy
Intention to protect British interests at Shanghai at all costs; disinclination of Japanese to discuss protective measures; dispatch of reinforcements to the East as a precautionary measure; information that American assistance is invited and welcomed; continuance of conversations at Hankow and Peking in the hope of reaching a friendly agreement which will obviate the need for use of force.
(Footnote: Information that a reply was drafted but never sent.)
56
[Page XI]Jan. 27 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation in which the Secretary told the British Ambassador that he was unable to say what the American position would be in the event of attack at Shanghai, and that naval commander had instructions to do everything he could to protect American lives and property anywhere in China and especially in Shanghai.
58
Jan. 28 (31) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Identic message (text printed) for Chang Tso-lin, Chang Tsung-ch’ang, Sun Ch’uan-fang (Northern military leaders), and Eugene Chen (Nationalist Foreign Minister), proposing that international Settlement at Shanghai be excluded from the area of armed conflict, and expressing willingness to participate in negotiations to consider whole question of changes in status of the Settlement. Instructions to advise when action has been taken.
59
Jan. 28 (32) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Navy message to commander in chief at Shanghai (text printed), giving reasons why it would be unwise to send a large force of the Regular Army to Shanghai, and advising that efforts are being made to communicate with the military leaders through the American Minister at Peking concerning an arrangement to guarantee neutrality of the Settlement.
61
Jan. 28 (61) From the British Ambassador
Belief of Chinese Minister that military leaders will give guarantees of security if the dispatch of troops be abandoned, troops at Shanghai withdrawn, and promises given by the powers to agree to abolition of special rights and treaties within the concession; British Ambassador’s request to his Government for opinion on American plan to communicate with factional leaders.
62
Jan. 29 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the British Ambassador, in which the Secretary stated that Chinese Minister had not told him that abolition of special rights and treaties within the concession would be made a condition for neutrality of the Settlement; information concerning the message to factional leaders.
63
Jan. 29 (93) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that British are stipulating that Shanghai must be left in statu quo.
63
Jan. 30 (96) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Suggestion that proposed message to factional leaders be reconsidered, because any assurances given would be merely illusory, and because such an appeal would encourage Chinese in an aggressive mood; opinion that an offer to consider changes in status of the Settlement without previous consultation with the other powers would be an act of bad faith and would also incite Cantonese faction to force the issue; recommendation that no further action be taken on the proposed message.
64
Jan. 31 (35) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Considerations which Department feels warrant the sending of the proposed message; approval of British and Japanese Ambassadors; amendments to meet Minister’s objections; instructions to telegraph any further comments.
65
[Page XII]Jan. 31 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation in which the Secretary informed the British Ambassador of naval forces available for use at Shanghai; Ambassador’s belief that his Government would instruct its Minister in China to urge the American Minister to send the proposed message.
66
Jan. 31 (37) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval by British and Japanese Ambassadors of proposal set forth in telegram No. 31, January 28.
67
Feb. 1 (105) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Suggestion that message be addressed to Chiang Kai-shek and Chang Tso-lin only, and that Sun Ch’uan-fang be advised orally by consul general at Shanghai.
67
Feb. 1 (41) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of suggestions in telegram No. 105 of February 1.
68
Feb. 5 (113) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Hankow: Transmittal of message to be delivered to Chiang Kai-shek through his military representative; instructions to deliver copy to Chen.
To Shanghai, February 4: Instructions to deliver copy of message to Sun Ch’uan-fang personally.
Information that messages will be given to the press February 7 and that copies have been sent to the Minister’s colleagues, to the Senior Minister, and to the Prime Minister of the Peking Government.
Delivery of the message to Chang Tso-lin and his approval of proposal.
68
Feb. 7 (117) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that American Minister told British Minister that he perceived no danger to Americans in the interior because of the dispatch of considerable British forces to Shanghai.
70
Feb. 7 (119) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, February 6: Delivery of the message to General Chiang’s Chief of Staff, who stated it would be telegraphed to the General at Nanchang; delivery of the message to Chen, who denounced the procedure of presenting it through military rather than diplomatic channels; doubt that Chen will support the proposal.
70
Feb. 8 (121) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, February 7: Information from Chief of Staff that message has been referred to Chen.
71
Feb. 11 (131) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, February 9: Information from Chen that no definite action has been taken on message, and his belief that Nationalist Government will not approve the proposal, particularly because to neutralize Shanghai would release Sun’s troops to fight against the Nationalists elsewhere.
72
Feb. 11 (56) To the Minister in China (tel.)
For transmission to Hankow: Instructions to inform Chen orally that message did not propose neutralization of Shanghai but proposed that “the International Settlement at Shanghai be excluded from the area of armed conflict.”
72
[Page XIII]Feb. 15 (143) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, February 14: Information that Chen correctly understood that proposal was limited to Settlement at Shanghai but believed that in effect it meant neutralization of the entire port, and reiterated public statements that Nationalists do not contemplate any military operations against the Settlement.
73
Feb. 15 To Representative Stephen G. Porter
Assurance that there are no secret understandings between officials of the American and other Governments for joint use of military and naval forces in China in the event of violation of treaties by China.
73
Feb. 19 (153) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reuters despatch from Shanghai, February 16 (text printed), containing a statement by Sun Ch’uan-fang protesting the neutralization proposal as failing to recognize Northern ability to maintain peace at Shanghai and overcome the opposing forces.
74
Feb. 19 (154) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, February 18: Protest to Sun regarding publication of statement in Shanghai press without making official reply through consulate.
75
Feb. 22 (164) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Hope that commander in chief may be authorized to exercise full discretion in regard to employing his forces at Shanghai in conjunction with the other foreign forces; need for urgent action by Department because of strike situation and Sun’s defeat.
75
Feb. 23 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Decrease in Sun’s effectiveness because of political combination against him; lack of any great military pressure by Southern forces and possible delay in their arrival before Shanghai; report that minor disturbances have occurred, but that strike situation is improved and public utilities and postal service partially restored.
76
Feb. 24 (178) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Announcement by diplomatic body (text printed) of expectation that status of the International Settlement and French Concession at Shanghai will be respected, and that foreign authorities will not be obliged to take measures to protect life and property of their nationals.
Information that the announcement has been telegraphed to the consular body at Shanghai and will be released for publication February 25.
77
Feb. 25 (72) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Explanation that it is not intention that withdrawal of American forces or evacuation of American citizens from Shanghai should take place except as a possible last resort. Copy of telegram to commander in chief authorizing him, in his discretion, to utilize in the protection of American life and property all forces under his command (text printed).
78
[Page XIV]Feb. 25 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Municipal Council’s request for military assistance of neutral countries in defending Settlement, on account of presence of large Chinese forces in vicinity; establishment by British of defense line outside Settlement boundary; disinclination of Japanese to land forces and establish defense line at present; information that plan is to use American forces to suppress disorders within Settlement, but that as no state of emergency has been declared, American consul general has not requested landing of American forces.
79
Feb. 28 (188) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, February 27: Removal by U. S. warship of Chinese soldiers of 10th Army and their arms and ammunition from Standard Oil Co. vessel commandeered at Ichang a week previously; information that protest against the commandeering has been lodged with Nationalist authorities.
79
Mar. 1 (5101) From the Consul General at Shanghai to the Minister in China
Opinion that the Municipal Council’s request for military assistance was made at instance of British, who promptly took up defense line. Attitude of other members of consular body that emergency did not as yet justify landing of forces.
80
Mar. 3 (193) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 1: Return of arms and ammunition to officer of 10th Army upon request of Minister of Foreign Affairs; renewal of protest against seizures of American vessels by military authorities.
83
Mar. 7 (448) To the Minister in China
Instructions to keep Department advised of any progressive relinquishment by American missionary organizations to Chinese citizens of control over such organizations.
83
Mar. 8 (200) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Suggestion that Admiral Williams be instructed to cooperate with his foreign colleagues concerning the prevention of factions’ naval fighting on the Whangpoo only to the extent of protecting American lives and property, and that Minister be authorized to adopt a similar attitude.
84
Mar. 9 (84) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Navy Department’s authorization to Admiral Williams to exercise his personal judgment in accordance with instructions repeated in State Department’s telegram No. 72 of February 25; State Department’s authorization to Minister to use own discretion to decide with Admiral Williams on the protective measures necessary at Shanghai and on the Whangpoo.
85
Mar. 10 (207) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, March 9: Disorder and antiforeign riot at Wuhu following arrival of Cantonese troops; removal of foreigners to hulks for safety; request to consul general at Hankow that protest be lodged with Minister for Foreign Affairs.
Minister’s instructions to consul general at Hankow to lodge protest and report results.
85
[Page XV]Mar. 14 (214) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 12: Chen’s instructions to Wuhu for maintenance of order and noninterference with foreigners or their property; consul general’s protest against further depredations just reported at Foochow.
86
Mar. 14 (218) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 13: Chen’s instructions to Foochow authorities, March 12, for protection of American lives and property.
86
Mar. 14 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation in which the Secretary informed the Chinese Minister that he was unaware of any appointment of an American commission to investigate conditions in China, or any agitation by Americans in Shanghai for an increase in armed forces; inability of Secretary to accede to Minister’s suggestion that he use influence to restrain the activity of British at Shanghai.
86
Mar. 18 (7268) From the Ambassador in France
Emphasis by Foreign Ministry official on France’s maintenance of complete neutrality in China, and information that French forces at Shanghai have been ordered to remain within the concession.
87
Mar. 18 From the Consul General at Hankow to the Secretary in Chargé of the Bureau for Foreign Affairs at Hankow
Protest against unjustified attack on U. S. S. Preble by Nationalist forces near Wuhu, March 11.
88
Mar. 21 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Arrival of Nationalist forces in Shanghai area; demonstrations but no disorder within Settlement; landing of American, Netherlands, and Japanese forces following declaration of a state of emergency by Municipal Council.
(Footnote: Information that the commander of Northern troops in the Shanghai area surrendered Shanghai to the Nationalists on the evening of March 21.)
89
Mar. 22 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Maintenance of quiet inside Settlement, disorders in adjoining native sections; peaceful evacuation of foreigners from area north of Settlement now being occupied by Nationalist troops.
89
Mar. 23 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Improvement in immediate situation by surrender of 4,000 Northern soldiers to foreign forces guarding Settlement; spread of the general strike; designation of Nationalist general as defense commissioner of Shanghai and his declaration of intention to maintain order; maintenance of quiet and order within Settlement by volunteers and foreign forces.
90
Mar. 24 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation in which the Chinese Minister, while not denying the Secretary’s assertion that the need for foreign naval forces in Shanghai had been demonstrated, stated that he believed the Cantonese would protect the foreigners.
91
[Page XVI]Mar. 24 (246) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Apprehension over press report from Washington, March 21, that American marines at Shanghai will not join British forces extending into Chinese city but are cooperating with British for protection of American lives; request for authorization to advise various American, foreign, and Chinese authorities that no change has been made in instructions to commander in chief to do whatever he deems necessary to protect American life and property.
92
Mar. 25 (101) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice that no basis exists for press report and that no change has been made in the orders issued to Admiral Williams.
93
Mar. 26 (12) To the Chargé in Haiti (tel.)
For Secretary of War Davis: Information that after consultations between State, Navy, and War Department officials, the Assistant Secretary of War is sending a message to Admiral Williams (text printed) stating that 1,500 marines will arrive in Shanghai in about 30 days and that an infantry regiment from Manila can reach Shanghai within 7 days if required.
93
Mar. 27 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Continuance of tense situation in Shanghai, with street demonstrations and antiforeign agitation in Chinese city; willingness of American and British representatives to supply temporary reinforcements for French Concession; possibility that Chiang Kai-shek will not be able to carry out his reported intention of maintaining order.
93
Mar. 29 (277) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Military and political eventualities likely to result in danger to Americans; strong recommendation for dispatch of the Army brigade in the Philippines to Shanghai to relieve marines for patrolling duty to Tientsin; consideration of the expediency of starting additional troops to the Philippines, prepared for quick dispatch to China.
94
Mar. 30 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Hope that consul general may be instructed to repudiate press report from Washington (text printed), which states that the U. S. Government considers the China situation more promising, that it is not believed necessary to join in any unified demand for punishment in connection with the Nanking incident, and that it is not felt necessary to send additional forces to China.
96
Mar. 31 To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Explanation that the statement as published has no basis of truth, and authorization to repudiate it at own discretion.
97
Mar. 31 (310) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Increasingly grave situation at Peking and possibility of antiforeign crisis in the near future; Minister’s advice to American institution heads to evacuate women and children; concurrence in recommendation of U. S. Army commandant at Tientsin that transport carrying reliefs be diverted from Manila to Tientsin and if possible that additional reinforcements be brought from Hawaii; recommendation that entire War Department “plan yellow” for protection of Americans be put into effect.
98
[Page XVII]Mar. 31 (311) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To the commander in chief: Recommendation that naval vessel be dispatched to Tientsin, in view of increasingly dangerous situation.
100
Undated [Rec’d Apr. 2] (0002–2345) From the Commander in Chief of the Asiatic Fleet to the Office of Naval Operations, Department of the Navy (tel.)
Recommendations for the evacuation of Americans and removal of Legation to Tientsin; plans for the use of the marines due at Shanghai April 28, and suggestions as to additional Army and Marine reinforcements.
100
Apr. 4 (123) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Inquiry whether Tientsin situation will be satisfactorily provided for by the arrival of marines about April 28 and the holding of a regiment in the Philippines available for use at Tientsin within 7 days; availability of troops on the Pacific Coast; approval of plans for evacuation to Tientsin; request for details regarding foreign reinforcements.
101
Apr. 5 From the Chief of Staff of the War Department General Staff to the Acting Secretary of War
Estimate of the situation in China and detailed information as to troops available for possible dispatch to China; belief that by refraining from interfering with Chinese leaders and their forces, no serious menace will exist to American nationals; estimate of American share in possible combined expedition by the foreign powers.
102
Apr. 6 (359) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Recommendation for immediate dispatch of Philippine brigade to Tientsin, diversion to Tientsin of marines due at Shanghai April 28, furnishing to Army commandant of the reinforcements requested, as well as airplane detachment, starting of a division to the Philippines ready for call to Peking, and the putting into operation of remainder of “plan yellow.”
104
Apr. 6 (364) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Japanese plan to defend their concession at Hankow and have a small naval force there.
105
Apr. 8 (388) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Recommendation to the respective Ministers by the foreign commandants at Tientsin conference, April 6, that garrisons in North China be increased to 25,000 men; American Minister’s concurrence.
106
Apr. 10 (398) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Identic statement by representatives of the foreign powers, urging their governments to adopt measures to guarantee security of foreign community at Peking and Tientsin and assure freedom of communication between Peking and the sea.
106
Apr. 12 (146) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion that preparations should be made to remove Legation from Peking to Tientsin, at Minister’s discretion as to time; unwillingness to send large force of land troops to the Philippines, to be held there for use in China; willingness to send more marines to Tientsin if powers desire to hold it temporarily as a place of safety for concentration of foreigners; instructions not to take initiative in regard to holding of Tientsin.
107
[Page XVIII]Apr. 14 (262) From the British Ambassador
Intention to evacuate both Peking and Tientsin, if necessary, unless effective international cooperation for defense can be secured; request for U. S. views regarding present situation at Peking and Tientsin and the measures which should be taken to meet it.
108
Apr. 20 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the British Ambassador, in which the Secretary stated U. S. disinclination to send troops to Peking and Tientsin but willingness to send additional marines to protect Legation and nationals against mob violence; consideration by Americans, British, and Japanese of advisability of evacuating Peking and Tientsin rather than going to the loss of life and expense of defending both cities.
109
Apr. 22 (473) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Agreement with British view that arrangements for evacuation of Peking and Tientsin will have to be made unless effective international cooperation can be secured; political and military developments which have relieved pressure for a decision respecting Peking; opinion that if withdrawal from Peking becomes necessary, all American diplomatic and consular officers must be withdrawn and relations broken off.
110
Undated [Rec’d Apr. 23] From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
To the Legation: Discussion with Chen concerning the chaotic state of business in Hankow and the increase of American naval strength there.
112
Apr. 26 To the British Ambassador
Reply to British note of April 14, giving figures as to available American forces and expressing opinion that in event of grave danger evacuation of Peking and Tientsin would be preferable to the expense and loss of life necessary to maintain Legation and nationals by force at Peking and Tientsin.
113
Apr. 26 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Statement by Chen (text printed) reporting that he outlined to American businessmen, April 23, the measures Nationalist Government is taking to restore conditions for the conduct of foreign business and trade.
(Legation informed.)
115
Apr. 26 (188) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information as to the American forces available in China and the Philippines, disinclination of both American and Japanese Governments to send more troops, and authorization to convey this information to colleagues.
Inability of Department to understand the necessity for withdrawing all American diplomatic and consular officers if Legation is evacuated.
(Instructions to repeat to commander in chief.)
(Footnote: Information that Minister read the portion authorized to his colleagues on April 29.)
116
Apr. 26 From the Consul at Tientsin (tel.)
Information that British negotiations were concluded April 22 for the purpose of placing the British concession area in Tientsin under joint control by British, Chinese, and Americans.
117
[Page XIX]Apr. 27 (190) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Department was hitherto unaware of plan for joint British-Chinese-American control of British Concession at Tientsin; instructions to advise consul at Tientsin that U. S. Government has no desire to interest itself in the matter.
118
Apr. 27 (192) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Extracts from speech by the President, April 25 (text printed), with reference to the Chinese situation, including the Nanking incident, and general statement of American policy toward China.
118
Apr. 30 (507) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from British Minister that negotiations concerning British Concession at Tientsin were of a purely preliminary character and that it had been suggested that an American serve on the municipal council; American Minister’s statement to British Minister of U. S. preference to stand aloof from question; assumption that the matter is now disposed of.
(Footnote: History of “American Concession” at Tientsin.)
119
May 1 (1029) From the Minister in China
Suggestion that claims for losses due to looting by Nationalist troops be presented to the local authorities concerned rather than to the Peking regime.
120
May 18 (569) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Statement by the foreign military attachés to the heads of their delegations (substance printed), outlining military contingencies which would constitute emergencies requiring reinforcement of foreign forces in North China in case the powers decide on such a policy.
122
May 21 (576) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, May 13: Suggestion that protest be lodged against recent firing upon passing American naval vessels by Nationalist soldiers.
To Nanking, May 21: Opinion that filing protest would be ineffective without intention to back it up, and that matter had best be left to the discretion of naval authorities under their existing instructions.
122
May 28 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Firing upon U. S. S. Pigeon by Southern troops near Chenglingki; information to the Legation.
123
May 28 (236) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Statement by the Japanese Ambassador (text printed), explaining that his Government has decided to dispatch land forces to Tsingtao as a precautionary measure and that the troops will be immediately withdrawn upon the removal of danger.
123
May 31 (601) From the Minister in China (tel.)
British intention to participate in defending Peking-Tientsin area in view of changed Japanese attitude; opinion that altered Japanese attitude removes the need for considering removal of the Legation from Peking; recommendation that the 1,700 marines in Shanghai be dispatched to Tientsin, and request to commander in chief.
124
[Page XX]June 2 (452) From the American Legation to the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Advice that American reinforcements have been dispatched to Tientsin to protect American lives and property because of recent events in South China, and that they will be withdrawn as soon as no longer required.
126
June 2 (608) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Shanghai: Instructions to advise Nationalist Foreign Minister at Nanking that reinforcements to the American forces in North China are for the protection of American life and that they will be withdrawn as soon as no longer required.
127
June 3 (243) To the Minister in China (tel.)
For Admiral Williams: Request for opinion whether the military situation makes necessary the immediate removal of Legation from Peking, and whether removal should be to Tientsin or to Shanghai.
127
June 3 (615) From the Minister in China (tel.)
British advice, in view of possible disturbances and changes in regime at Peking due to Nationalist military successes, that British nationals living outside Legation Quarter withdraw from Peking; Minister’s consideration of making similar suggestion to American nationals.
128
June 3 (244) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Desire for all possible information regarding justification for withdrawal from Peking and comment on the effect upon Chinese of such withdrawal; approval of warning to Americans along lines of British warning, but inability to see reason for such action in view of probable evacuation.
129
June 7 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the American Legation
Protest against the dispatch of additional forces to North China on grounds that such action is unwarranted by existing situation and is also contrary to the protocol of 1901.
130
June 7 (623) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Admiral Williams: Opinion that any decision for the removal of Legation from Peking must be made by the Minister, that the military situation is threatening, and that any removal of Legation would be preferably to Tientsin.
Information that Minister has requested additional details from Admiral Williams.
131
June 8 (626) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion that withdrawal of Legation would have far reaching, disastrous effects on American position in China; information that, in compliance with Department’s wishes, unobtrusive steps are being taken with a view to possible removal of the Legation.
132
June 8 (627) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Belief that the Chinese protest against the reinforcements at Tientsin reaffirms the validity of the protocol.
133
[Page XXI]June 14 (459) From the American Legation to the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Reply to Chinese protest, stating that the reinforcements are considered necessary, under the existing circumstances, to carry out the provisions of the protocol.
133
June 18 (659) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Recommendations to Admiral Williams, after conferences with U. S. Army and Marine commandants, that the marines should not cooperate in any program to reassert certain of the protocol rights now in abeyance, that existing conditions do not necessitate the withdrawal of the Legation, and that the additional Marine reinforcements at Shanghai be sent to Tientsin to insure open communication between Peking and the sea.
134
June 21 To President Coolidge
Transmittal of copy of Minister’s telegram No. 659 of June 18; concurrence in opinion that the United States should not participate in any action to reassert the protocol rights in their entirety.
137
June 23 From President Coolidge
Approval of the Minister’s suggestions, subject to the Secretary’s judgment.
138
June 25 (671) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, June 23: Request for dispatch of U. S. S. Asheville to Foochow because of threatened antiforeign disturbances.
(Repeated to commander in chief, expressing approval of the request.)
138
June 27 (575) To the Minister in China
Approval of procedure for submitting to local authorities claims for losses sustained at the hands of Nationalist soldiers.
138
July 26 (758) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Desire for a definite statement by Department as to U. S. attitude toward the protection of American property rights in China.
139
July 28 (298) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Disposition of the U. S. Government to extend military protection to American property wherever practicable, but inability to guarantee immunity for property rights, and possibility that claims for damages may have to be presented.
139
July 28 (603) To the Minister in China
Instructions that consular officers should file official protest in every case of violation of American property rights, unless it appears that some other course would result in greater actual benefit to the injured party.
140
Sept. 8 (862) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Foreign Ministry’s note of September 6 (text printed), asserting that conditions in North China are tranquil and do not necessitate American reinforcements at Tientsin, which it requests be withdrawn.
141
[Page XXII]Sept. 10 (341) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Instructions merely to send a third-person note of acknowledgment stating that the Chinese note has been referred to the U. S. Government.
143
Sept. 15 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation in which the Secretary assured the Chinese Minister that there had been no change in the American policy toward China and advised that the question of American forces in China was under consideration.
143
Nov. 21 (1016) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From the commander in chief: Report that a small disturbance occurred at Yeungkong, Kwangtung, on November 18, but that the Presbyterian mission was not attacked and that all Americans were safe.
145
Dec. 30 To Mr. William B. Tower, Recording Secretary, Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church
Advice that Department accedes to Board’s request that no action be taken toward presenting claims against China on behalf of the Board without previous consultation with the Board; reservation by the U. S. Government of substantive rights to enter protests against the destruction of mission property and to include a further reservation of its right to file claims therefor.
145

Attacks by Chinese Nationalist Troops Upon Foreign Lives and Property at Nanking, March 24, 1927, and Efforts of the Powers to Secure Amends

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Mar. 24 (244) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking: Evacuation of 175 women and children from Nanking, March 23; entrance of Cantonese troops into the city; establishment at consulate of a small naval guard.
146
Mar. 25 (255) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Telegrams from Yangtze Patrol commander and commander in chief, U. S. Asiatic fleet (texts printed), describing plight of foreigners in Nanking during the disturbances of March 23–25 and action of American and British naval forces to effect their rescue.
Minister’s instructions to consuls in Nationalist territory to urge withdrawal of Americans, in view of inability or unwillingness of Nationalists to protect foreign lives.
146
Mar. 25 (256) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Hankow: Instructions to protest to Chen, Nationalist Foreign Minister at Hankow, against the attacks upon and killing of American citizens by Nationalist forces at Nanking, and to emphasize that he is expected to afford relief for the Americans still remaining in Nanking.
148
[Page XXIII]Mar. 25 (257) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, March 24: Information concerning the escape of Consul Davis and party from Nanking under gunfire of Nationalist soldiers.
148
Mar. 26 (264) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Résumé of latest naval reports regarding Nanking: Loss of one American life, evacuation of foreigners, Consul Davis on board Isabel, looting and burning of American homes and missions, and destruction of official and personal property in American consulate.
149
Mar. 27 (266) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Substance of telegram from Consul Davis, March 26: Evacuation of Americans to Shanghai; evidence that outrages were organized and prearranged; conviction that outrages will be repeated elsewhere and that foreigners will be forced to leave Yangtze Valley unless strong steps are taken at Nanking.
150
Mar. 28 (270) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 26: Chen’s regret for loss of American life, regardless of whether the acts were committed by Nationalist or Northern troops, and his intention to issue statement when the facts have been established.
150
Mar. 28 (272) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, March 27: Evidence that the outrages were worse than at first realized; suggestion that Americans withdraw from Nationalist territory and that drastic action be taken to prevent similar occurrences elsewhere.
151
Mar. 28 From the Consul at Nanking
Official report of the outrages at Nanking.
151
Mar. 28 (41) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information from Foreign Minister that his Government has not changed its policy toward China as a result of the Nanking incident, and that it does not consider the sending of troops to China necessary or advisable.
164
Mar. 29 (275) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Concurrence of American and British Ministers in Japanese Minister’s view that satisfactory, prompt action for punishment of those responsible for the Nanking outrages is most likely from Chiang Kai-shek rather than from Chen, and recommendation to their Governments of terms to be presented (text printed); belief that Americans in Nationalist territory should withdraw to places of safety.
164
Mar. 29 (285) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, March 28: Additional proof that the outrages were planned; conclusion that the American policy of conciliation toward the Nationalist Government has failed and that unless a strong attitude is taken promptly all foreign lives and property in China will remain in increasing jeopardy.
168
Mar. 29 (289) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Dispatch to their Governments by the French and Italian Ministers of the recommendation quoted in telegram No. 275 of March 29.
169
[Page XXIV]Mar. 31 (300) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from Consul Davis, March 30, that the Nanking consulate is gutted, but safes are unopened and some books and correspondence remain; that soldiers disregard police guarding property; and that looting of foreign houses continued through the 28th.
169
Mar. 31 (303) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Patrol commander, March 30: Advice that while conditions at Nanking are becoming more normal, truculence and arrogance of Nationalists toward foreigners are increasing daily.
From Nanking, March 30: Belief that the unfavorable developments have been caused by lack of definite action since March 25, and suggestion that demands be presented immediately, reserving the right to take whatever action deemed necessary in case of noncompliance.
169
Mar. 31 (111) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request to commander in chief for advice and comment on the action proposed in Minister’s telegram No. 275, March 29; doubt that an ultimatum would be desirable at the present time but supposition that formal demand for reparation and apology should be made either jointly or alone; request for information concerning a decision by the other powers; approval of warning to Americans to withdraw from danger zones.
170
Apr. 1 (312) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Japanese Government’s instructions to its Minister (text printed) approving the terms to be presented to Chiang, except for the specification of a time limit for compliance.
171
Apr. 1 (317) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Recommendation by the five interested Ministers that time limit for compliance be deleted and that demands be presented simultaneously to both Chen and Chiang; agreement that it would be calamitous to make demands if the powers were not resolved to follow them up; withholding of action pending receipt of instructions by American Minister.
172
Apr. 1 (318) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for immediate instructions concerning attitude of the American Government; further explanation of need to be prepared to enforce compliance if powers make demands for apology and reparation; opinion that only alternatives are either to participate promptly and wholeheartedly in joint action or to pursue an independent course.
173
Apr. 2 From the British Embassy
Hope that the American Government will cooperate wholeheartedly in defending common interests in China.
174
Apr. 2 (117) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization, if Minister considers immediate action essential, to instruct consul at Shanghai to join the other interested consuls general in a joint or identic note to Chiang; instructions as to content of note and insistence that it contain nothing in the nature of an ultimatum fixing a time limit.
175
[Page XXV]Apr. 2 (319) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, April 1: Information concerning the present condition of American property at Nanking; report that the city is more quiet but that there is great administrative confusion.
176
Apr. 2 (118) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Outline of the demands Minister is authorized to present to Chiang and Chen (text printed), provided the other interested powers join; instructions to inform Chiang at the time of presentation of the demands that the powers will be compelled to take appropriate measures unless he demonstrates intention to comply promptly; reservation by American Government of opinion with respect to sanctions in case their use becomes necessary.
176
Apr. 2 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Warning by Chen that any note must be addressed to him as Nationalist Foreign Minister and must not be sent to any other government purporting to represent the Chinese; consul general’s view that responsibility may appropriately be placed solely on the Nationalist Government, and that note may be worded so as not to denote any act of recognition.
177
Apr. 4 (0003–2355) From the Commander in Chief of the Asiatic Fleet to the Office of Naval Operations, Department of the Navy (tel.)
Approval of demands and ultimatum to Chiang and the Cantonese Government and of cooperative action by the powers; outline of specific military measures which might be taken if the demands should be rejected.
178
Apr. 4 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Advice to the British Ambassador, April 2, of authorization to the American Minister to join with the other powers in making demands, omitting any ultimatum with a time limit.
179
Apr. 5 (225) From the British Ambassador
Acceptance by the British Government of the demands in the form now recommended by the Ministers, except for desire that presentation be made to Chen, with a copy to Chiang; concurrence in omission of time limit on the understanding that the other powers accept in principle the application of sanctions in case of noncompliance; suggestion that the various naval authorities in China formulate a plan for sanctions; hope that American Minister may be instructed to proceed.
179
Apr. 5 (127) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to emphasize that the American Government is under no obligation to use sanctions and is not ready as yet to confer on the subject.
181
Apr. 5 (351) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Acceptance by the powers of minor change in demands at Japanese request; delay occasioned by Japanese desire to make effort through representative at Shanghai to induce Chiang to take the initiative in offering a settlement.
181
[Page XXVI]Apr. 6 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation in which the Secretary informed the British Chargé that the American Government was under no obligation to endorse sanctions and at present was not in favor of applying them.
(Footnote: Information that the American Minister in China was advised of this conversation in telegram No. 134, April 7.)
182
Apr. 6 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation in which the Japanese Ambassador advised the Secretary of State of his belief that his Government was entirely in accord with the U. S. view that no sanctions should be agreed to or applied at the present time.
183
Apr. 7 To the British Ambassador
Inability to accept in principle the application of sanctions or to confer on the question.
184
Apr. 9 (247) From the British Ambassador
Willingness to waive insistence on prior acceptance in principle of the application of sanctions, but hope that the American naval authorities in China will be authorized to join in examining the question.
185
Apr. 9 (392) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Hankow and Shanghai: Instructions to join colleagues in a simultaneous presentation of the demands on April 11.
Public statement to be issued at the same time (text printed).
To Shanghai: Authorization to present the demands to Chiang’s local representative, General Pei, if reports of Chiang’s departure for Nanking are correct.
186
Apr. 11 (399) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, April 10: Chen’s refusal to receive consuls general for joint presentation of identic notes, and their plan to go separately at half-hour intervals.
To Hankow, April 10: Instructions to the various representatives at Hankow from their Ministers to present demands in the form of collective note to be handed to Chen by the senior of the consuls general.
Information that the Shanghai consuls are being instructed to present to General Pei identic notes communicating the text of the revised collective note to Chen.
188
Apr. 11 (405) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, April 9: Departure of Chiang for Nanking the morning of April 9.
188
Apr. 11 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Simultaneous presentation of the demands to General Pei for transmission to Chiang.
189
Apr. 11 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Information that identic notes were presented to Chen practically simultaneously by the consuls general.
189
Apr. 11 From the Consul General at Hankow to the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Nationalist Government
American note on the Nanking outrages.
189
[Page XXVII]Apr. 11 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation in which the Chinese Minister informed the Secretary of State that the general in charge at Nanking had been instructed to protect Americans and their property.
190
Apr. 12 (422) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Explanation that Chen had refused to receive a joint note, but that he had been persuaded to receive the identic notes.
190
Apr. 14 (263) From the British Ambassador
British Government’s instructions to its Minister in China to secure agreement among the other Ministers on the acceptability or otherwise of Cantonese reply to the identic notes, character of the sanctions to be applied if the reply is unsatisfactory, and the time limit to be allowed for compliance; reservation of right to take appropriate action if agreement among the powers is not reached on the measures to be applied in the event of refusal of redress by the Cantonese Government.
191
Apr. 14 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Chen’s reply (text printed), to American Government’s note of April 11.
192
Apr. 14 (160) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Summary of press comment on the identic notes, indicating approval of action but feeling that in taking action the U. S. Government should do so independently.
194
Apr. 15 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Textual differences (extract printed) between Chen’s replies to the various Governments as compared with reply to American Government; general opinion of foreigners that the notes are unresponsive and unsatisfactory.
195
Apr. 15 (164) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to cable comments and any information as to textual differences in Chen’s replies to the several powers.
196
Apr. 15 (440) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Comments on the variations in Chen’s replies; Ministers’ decision to send identic recommendation to their Governments (text printed), requesting authorization to direct the presentation to Chen of identic notes (text printed) which declare that unless Nationalist authorities state unequivocally and without delay that they intend to satisfy the demands, the Governments will be obliged to consider such measures as may be necessary to obtain compliance; reservation by the American Minister of freedom with regard to sanctions.
196
Apr. 17 (454) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Agreement of the powers on the impracticability of suggestion in Chen’s reply for the establishment of five separate international commissions to investigate the same facts and the resultant recognition of the Nationalist regime as a consequence of the Nanking outrages.
198
Apr. 17 From the Consul at Nanking (tel.)
Observations on specific inaccuracies and evasions of Chen’s reply; need for firm, prompt action to avoid further antiforeign uprisings.
199
[Page XXVIII]Apr. 18 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Information to French Ambassador that the U. S. Government is not ready to consider the question of sanctions and has not yet come to a decision on the nature of the reply to be made to Chen.
200
Apr. 18 (268) From the British Ambassador
Observation by the British Government that the last sentence of the suggested identic reply to Chen’s note presupposes that the powers are prepared, if necessary, to enforce their demands by the application of sanctions; information that the British Minister has been instructed to join in the identic reply, and expression of hope that American Minister will be instructed similarly.
201
Apr. 19 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Information from the British Ambassador that he had received telegraphic instructions from London to suspend action in regard to his note of April 18.
203
Apr. 20 (462) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Readiness of British, French, and Italian colleagues to proceed with the contemplated action; nonreceipt by Japanese Minister of instructions as yet; hope of American Minister that he may receive instructions immediately.
203
Apr. 20 (176) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Disapproval of Minister’s joining in the identic note, because the pressing of demands now might further drive the moderates in the Nationalist Party to the side of the radicals, and because the note contains a threat to use sanctions.
Opinion that each power should make a separate reply, because Chen’s notes to each power are different.
203
Apr. 20 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation in which the British Ambassador agreed with the Secretary’s view that the political situation in the Nationalist Party made it advisable to await developments before replying to Chen’s note or taking up the matter of sanctions.
204
Apr. 20 (277) From the British Ambassador
Information that the British Minister has been instructed to concert with the other Ministers in the presentation of joint or identic notes, with any minor modifications required to secure agreement, and that the question of the eventual application of sanctions will be put aside for the present.
206
Apr. 22 To the British Ambassador
Reiteration of opinion as to inadvisability of pressing demands at this time and of the fact that the American Government is not prepared at the present time to apply sanctions or to consider the question.
206
Apr. 22 (474) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Decision of the other four Ministers to recommend that their Governments act on the recommendations quoted in American Minister’s telegram No. 440 of April 15.
208
[Page XXIX]Apr. 23 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State
Conversation in which the Italian Ambassador stated that the Italian Minister in Peking had been authorized to join with the other powers in presenting the identic note, with or without reference to sanctions; expression of American attitude as stated in note to the British Ambassador of April 22.
208
Apr. 23 (479) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Hope that Department will give serious consideration to the eventualities and far reaching consequences of American refusal to join in common action in China.
209
Apr. 25 (187) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Explanation that Department’s telegram No. 176 of April 20 was directed solely to the question of the draft note and not to U. S. policy with regard to the powers and China; reasons for Department’s opinion that the sending of a note to Chen is inadvisable.
210
Apr. 25 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation in which the Japanese Ambassador stated unwillingness of his Government to join in the proposed note or to apply sanctions; objections by the Secretary to the substitute note offered by the Japanese Minister (text printed), but willingness to give it consideration; Secretary’s suggestion that the powers might await the result of the split in the Nationalist Party.
211
Apr. 26 (488) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Decision of the Minister’s colleagues to send to their Governments a joint recommendation (text printed), advising of Japanese proposal, of modified draft note to be accompanied by a declaration which they hope will bring the American Government back into line, of intention to proceed without American Government if obliged to do so, and of renewal of discussion of questions of negotiations with Chiang and the application of sanctions at Hankow.
214
Apr. 28 (194) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information to Japanese Ambassador that the note in modified form is unacceptable, and reasons for belief that the wiser course would be to refrain from action pending developments; inability to understand Japanese agreement to sanctions, because of contrary information from the Japanese Ambassador in the past; instructions to use influence with the other Ministers against drastic action.
215
May 3 (304) From the British Ambassador
Decision of British Government against sanctions and conclusion that no useful purpose will be served by addressing any further note because the demands are unsupported by a unanimous determination to carry out joint concrete effective measures in case of refusal; reservation of full liberty of action as to the future.
216
May 3 From the Consul at Nanking (tel.)
Suggestion that the cultivation of as good relations as possible with Chiang group, as the best of the Nationalist movement, is advisable, providing Chiang group will promise satisfaction for the Nanking outrages and will respect American rights.
217
[Page XXX]May 4 (516) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Meeting, April 13, of British, French, and Italian Ministers and their report to their respective Governments (text printed), stating the uselessness of trying to seek a reconciliation at Peking of the viewpoints of the five powers.
218
May 6 (526) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, May 4: Information that C. C. Wu, who has been offered Foreign Ministry by Nanking Government, may wish to confer concerning a further note to be sent by the powers and a suitable answer for the Nanking Government; inquiry as to action to be taken.
To Shanghai, May 6: Instructions that no objection appears to arise against the adoption by Consul General Gauss or Consul Davis of a receptive attitude toward any initiative taken by Wu; instructions to make no commitments.
Minister’s request for instructions.
219
May 9 (211) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of instructions to Shanghai; authorization to inform colleagues, if thought advisable; disapproval of any new note on the Nanking affair.
219
May 12 (547) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, May 11: Continued occupation by military of American mission buildings as barracks and hospital.
220
May 26 (589) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, May 21: Receipt of note of May 20 from Quo Tai-chi, Commissioner of Foreign Affairs, advising that Wu wishes to confer informally to effect a settlement of the Nanking incident (text printed).
From Shanghai: Information that other nationalities have been or will be approached in the same manner.
To Shanghai: Advice that sufficient authorization has already been given to receive any offers of settlement; instructions to keep in close touch with colleagues.
220
May 27 (235) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of instructions to Shanghai; instructions to direct consul general at Shanghai to inform Wu of readiness to receive any proposal made by Wu on behalf of Chiang and to report same to U. S. Government.
221
May 28 (598) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, May 27: Informal proposals by Wu (substance printed) and American inquiries for clarification, pointing out that the proposals do not meet demands of the Nanking note.
222
May 28 To the British Ambassador
Appreciation for assistance rendered by British naval officers to Americans during their escape from Nanking.
223
[Page XXXI]July 6 (699) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, July 2: Nanking Government’s belief that the next move lies with the United States, and its desire that representatives be appointed on joint commission of investigation to determine guilt and amount of damage.
Minister’s reiteration of recommendation stated in telegram No. 650, June 16.
(Footnotes: Information that the recommendation was to maintain a receptive attitude and to wait for such advantages as might come from British conversations with Wang Chung-hui, who became Minister of Justice in the Nanking Government on July 15.)
224
July 22 (752) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Substance of telegram from Shanghai, July 13: Proposals by Wu, July 12, for settlement of Nanking incident (text printed); possibility that informal conversations might result in amendments to make the proposals reasonably satisfactory.
To Shanghai: Opinion that the terms do not constitute adequate basis of amends, and that there is no need for haste in negotiations.
225
July 25 From the British Embassy
Hope that no settlement of the Nanking incident will be made until the terms have been fully discussed by the representatives of the powers at Peking.
227
July 28 To the British Embassy
Information that the American Minister has been instructed to keep in touch with his colleagues. Opinion that after a complete discussion each Government should reserve complete liberty of action if agreement with the others is impossible.
228
Sept. 26 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Paxton at Chinkiang, September 24: Report that a few missionaries have returned to the interior, and that there is some improvement in conditions at Nanking; request for instructions to return to Nanking on board Standard Oil Co. vessel; desirability of having an American warship at Nanking for communications.
To Paxton, September 26: Instructions to return to Nanking but not to go ashore unless so directed by Legation; advice that further information will be sent with regard to stationing a naval vessel at Nanking.
228
Oct. 26 (954) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Reasons for conclusion that time is not opportune for negotiations with Nanking regime or continuance of the informal conversations between Consul General Cunningham and Wu; recommendation that no action be taken now toward settlement of the incident.
From Cunningham, October 24: Assumption that authorization is given to point out to Quo objections to the Nanking proposals.
Chargé’s intention to instruct consul general, if Department approves recommendation, to reply to Quo in conformity therewith.
229
[Page XXXII]Oct. 27 (959) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Refusal of British consul general at Shanghai to resume negotiations with Wang for settlement, and information that French and Japanese Minister will similarly refuse any overtures.
231
Nov. 1 (967) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Attempt by Wang to reopen negotiations with British with an offer more nearly to meet British Minister’s original terms; and British Minister’s recommendation to his Government that no steps be taken toward settlement now.
Information that safe in American consulate at Nanking has been rifled, despite Nanking authorities’ promise of protection.
232
Nov. 3 Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State
Comments on the basis for settlement of Nanking incident presented by Wu in July; hope that the incident may be settled so far as the United States is concerned, and that consulate at Nanking may be reopened; hope that Minister will seek to bring about such a settlement at the earliest favorable opportunity.
(Footnote: Information that memorandum was evidently prepared for transmission to the Minister in China over the signature of the Secretary of State.)
232
Nov. 8 (980) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Approval by British Government of its Minister’s recommendation that no action be taken toward settlement; adoption of similar position by Japanese Government; understanding that French and Italian Ministers are recommending a like course to their Governments.
234
Dec. 10 (1079) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Desire of Japanese Government to seek an expression of regret from Ch’eng Ch’ien for his part in Nanking affair before entering into direct relations with him at Hankow. Minister’s belief that American Government should not join in the proposed action.
235
Dec. 10 (405) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Concurrence in Minister’s view.
236

Evacuation of American Citizens From Places of Danger in China

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Jan. 6 (13) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 5: Critical antiforeign situation; assumption by military of control over British Concession; possibility that women and children may have to be evacuated; need for authorization to make transportation arrangements and to incur expense in case of evacuation.
Minister’s authorization to Hankow as requested.
From Hankow, January 5: Increasingly grave situation; withdrawal of women and children from British Concession, and evacuation of many American women.
236
[Page XXXIII]Jan. 6 (16) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 5: Information that almost all women and children have withdrawn from British Concession, that many of the British men remaining are concentrated, and that evacuation of all women and children seems inevitable.
Advice from British Legation that it has received warning of an attack planned on British Concession at Kiukiang.
Suggestion to Admiral Williams, commander in chief, U. S. Asiatic Fleet, that he or a senior officer proceed to Shanghai to command naval forces there.
237
Jan. 8 (18) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 6: Report that the situation is considerably relieved but that much confusion and uncertainty exist; evacuation of some American and British women and children to U. S. S. Kutwo; readiness of remaining American women and children to leave on short notice; confidence of Chen, Nationalist Foreign Minister, that every precaution will be taken to protect foreign lives and property.
237
Jan. 9 From the Consul at Foochow (tel.)
Possibility of danger to Americans at Shaowu from lawless Nationalist soldiers; information that representations have been made locally and that consul general at Hankow has been requested to protest to Nationalist commander in chief, insisting that effective measures for protection be taken.
238
Jan. 10 (21) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 7, 8, and 9: Reports that situation has generally eased, but that great uncertainty prevails; departure of the Kutwo and plans of additional women and children for immediate departure; information that the British Concession at Kiukiang was taken over by the Chinese, and that Americans have either been evacuated or are safely aboard U. S. S. Penguin; departure of American women and children from Ichang; intention to warn missionary organizations to withdraw their representatives from interior points; improvement in situation and withdrawal of soldiers from British Concession and its administration by Nationalist Government Committee.
238
Jan. 11 (23) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 10: Dispatch by missionary organizations, at consul general’s request, of telegram to their interior missions (text printed), advising of consul general’s suggestion that if they feel themselves in danger they should go to a large port where transportation facilities are good; quiet situation but no resumption of business by British firms, and departure of a few more American women and children.
240
Jan. 11 (10) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of Minister’s action reported in telegram No. 13 of January 6.
241
Jan. 13 (25) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow: Belief that Americans in Shaowu are in danger, and suggestion that the women and children at least be sent to Foochow providing a safe conduct can be arranged; advice to Americans in the interior to be prepared to leave on short notice.
241
[Page XXXIV]Jan. 14 (29) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 12: Information that daily incidents disclosing disregard of foreigners’ rights demonstrate the new Government’s lack of control over the labor group.
241
Jan. 16 (34) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, January 15: Report of serious rioting at Spanish Dominican Orphanage, escape of the Spanish sisters and priests, and potential danger to American Dominican fathers; suggestion of consul and colleagues that a foreign warship be dispatched to Foochow to aid in possible evacuation of foreigners.
Communication of this information to the commander in chief, with approval of the suggestion.
242
Jan. 17 (38) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Dispatch of the U. S. S. Pillsbury to Foochow.
242
Jan. 17 (42) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Nanking, January 16: Suggestion that Americans be withdrawn immediately from Cantonese-controlled areas, and that Department request home organizations to order their workers’ withdrawal.
To Nanking, January 17: Assumption that consul is acting on previous authorization and is advising Americans in his district to withdraw from such areas; request for further, specific comment on Minister’s plan to warn all Americans to withdraw from the areas under Nationalist control.
Suggestion that Department take up with heads of mission boards the question of making preparations for the eventuality that missionaries in Central and South China will be compelled to withdraw.
243
Jan. 18 (47) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow: Systematic rioting by Nationalist soldiers and looting of foreign mission property; conviction that the rioting was deliberately planned as a first step to drive out foreigners; arrangements for immediate evacuation of American citizens in cooperation with Pillsbury.
243
Jan. 18 (49) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to consul general at Hankow to protest to Nationalist authorities and to inquire what assurances they will give for protection of American life and property at Foochow; instructions to consul at Foochow approving his action and authorizing him to incur any expenses actually necessary to evacuate Americans; Minister’s request for approval of his instructions to Foochow; plan to file formal protest with Foreign Ministry at Peking.
244
Jan. 19 (16) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of instructions to Hankow and Foochow; authorization to use own discretion with regard to a possible discontinuance of protests to Peking Government against acts of forces not under its control.
245
Jan. 19 From the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs to Mr. A. L. Warnshuis, Secretary of the International Missionary Council, New York
Request that the interested American missionary organizations be advised of necessity for their representatives in Yangtze Valley or South China to make preparations for evacuation if such action becomes necessary.
245
[Page XXXV]Jan. 20 (53) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Amoy, January 19: Anti-Catholic agitation; agreement of consular body that presence of a foreign war vessel is desired in addition to the Japanese cruiser expected January 21.
Repeated to commander in chief.
246
Jan. 20 (54) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Suggestion that the Department advise American mission boards to instruct their missionaries to withdraw promptly when directed to do so by American diplomatic or consular officers, in view of past difficulties in this regard.
247
Jan. 20 (56) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Foochow, January 19: Departure of Pillsbury for Manila with evacuees, other steamers to Shanghai, Hongkong and other ports; departure for Foochow of Americans in the interior.
Chargé’s request to Governor General, Manila, for assistance to Americans aboard Pillsbury; suggestion that American Red Cross be advised of likelihood of need for aid at Hongkong, Manila, and Shanghai in the near future.
247
Jan. 20 (57) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 19: Information that demands of labor are becoming increasingly unreasonable and that the tense situation is in no way relaxed; departure of additional foreigners.
248
Jan. 22 (60) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Foochow, January 20: Probability of further attacks on foreign mission property shortly; request for confirmation of the expected dispatch of naval vessel to replace the Pillsbury; information that the evacuation is progressing.
Information that the Parrott is proceeding to Foochow.
248
Jan. 22 (21) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Advice that American missionary bodies have been warned to make preparations for immediate evacuation of their representatives in Central and South China if it is necessary.
249
Jan. 22 (61) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 20: Foreign Minister’s intention to order protection of foreign life and property at Foochow and elsewhere and to investigate Foochow incident at once, and his request that Minister refrain from suggesting that Americans evacuate Nationalist-controlled areas; consul general’s belief that the promised protection may be difficult to provide, and that no improvement in conditions is in prospect.
Chargés intention to withhold any general warning to evacuate Nationalist territory, pending developments; instructions to Chungking and Hankow to expedite evacuation from inaccessible districts as quickly and quietly as possible.
249
Jan. 23 (63) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 22: Governing council’s instructions to commander in chief and Fukien provisional political conference, January 21, for protection of missions and foreign residents, and for investigation of recent attack on American missions and residents; information to Foochow.
251
[Page XXXVI]Jan. 24 (73) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Chungking, January 18 and 21: Consul’s warning to Americans for immediate evacuation of his district, in view of inadequate transportation facilities; progress of evacuation from interior points to Chungking.
Instructions to Changsha to expedite a quiet evacuation; report that missionaries passing through Chungking are telegraphing those remaining in the interior to leave immediately.
251
Jan. 26 (83) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Canton: Discreet advice to Americans in the interior to leave for places of safety.
253
Jan. 26 (85) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 25: Circular instructions through Hankow representatives of missionary organizations that Americans in inaccessible places withdraw to places where transportation is good and be prepared to withdraw immediately in case of threatened antiforeign outbreaks; report that conditions are quiet in Hankow since the resumption of business in the British Concession.
253
Jan. 27 (88) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Amoy, January 26: Desire for dispatch of foreign war vessel to Amoy because of departure of Japanese cruiser January 23; warning to Americans in inaccessible places of advisability of coming to Amoy.
253
Jan. 28 (90) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From the commander in chief: Belief that, in view of indications that British intend to defend Shanghai Settlements and may take more drastic action elsewhere, Americans should not remain in territory evacuated by the British.
To the commander in chief: Information concerning the progress of withdrawal of Americans from various districts in China.
254
Jan. 31 (38) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to inform the consuls concerned that authorization to incur expenses for the evacuation of American citizens covers only such additional expenses as demurrage for vessels, and does not include steamship fares, but that funds may be advanced for such expenses on citizen’s written undertaking to refund the amounts.
254
Feb. 1 (103) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Changsha, January 31: Withdrawal of 170 Americans, preparations for remainder, except for 25, to leave.
255
Feb. 3 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation in which the Chinese Minister requested reassurances that American naval forces in Chinese waters were not being increased, and was advised by the Under Secretary and the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs that the additional vessels were merely part of the fleet in Asiatic waters.
255
Feb. 4 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information that consul general has made no suggestion that Americans withdraw from Shanghai to Manila, but that he has advised the quiet withdrawal of women and children from the interior to Shanghai, and has advised all Americans to be prepared for immediate withdrawal to ports of protection or, if necessary, evacuation.
257
[Page XXXVII]Feb. 4 (47) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for information, in view of mission headquarters’ advice that consul at Changsha has “ordered” Americans to depart but that Standard Oil employees have not left Hunan or Hupeh, whether consulate has differentiated between Americans engaged in different pursuits or has couched the advice in the form of orders.
257
Feb. 6 (115) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, February 5: Firing upon American commercial vessels en route from Chungking to Ichang with American refugees aboard.
258
Feb. 10 (129) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, February 8: Improvement in local situation and consul’s expectation of definitive assurances from local authorities for protection; request for opinion as to any change in policy concerning the remaining Americans or the return of those who have left.
To Foochow, February 10: Inadvisability of return of Americans, and opinion that the present evacuation might be suspended if local conditions permit.
To Hankow, February 10: Authorization to express to Chen satisfaction over improved conditions at Foochow and the hope that he will continue to assist in the stabilization of conditions in that area.
258
Feb. 15 (144) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that the Legation’s instructions made no differentiation between Americans engaged in different pursuits, and that consul at Changsha was advised January 28 that there was no objection to the remaining there of a limited number of Americans, provided they could be given asylum if necessary on the Villalobos.
From Changsha, February 10: Assurance that no Americans have been “ordered” to withdraw, but that they have been advised and urged to do so.
259
Feb. 17 (149) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, February 16: Hope that the Department will intervene through mission headquarters to prevent the return of missionaries to their interior stations.
Concurrence in suggestion, and instructions to consul at Canton to urge Americans to refrain at present from returning to interior points.
(Footnote: Information that the substance of this telegram was communicated to A. L. Warnshuis on February 28 for transmission to the mission organizations concerned.)
260
Feb. 19 (157) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Chungking, February 11: Opinion that if the present crisis passes indeterminately and Americans return to their stations in Szechuan feeling that their withdrawal was unnecessary, it will be difficult, if not impossible, to clear the field during any new crisis.
To Chungking, February 16: Belief that the present evacuation is fully justified; inability to foresee that return to Szechuan can be sanctioned until effective guarantees of protection are received.
260
[Page XXXVIII]Mar. 9 (203) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion of commanding officer, U. S. S. El Cano, at Ichang, in report of February 18 (extract printed), that a strict boycott will soon develop against everything British which will cause difficulty in evacuation of British subjects in American ships and will eventually include all Americans; Minister’s comment on this possibility in connection with withdrawal of Americans from Szechuan and above Hankow.
261
Mar. 22 (235) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Chungking, March 19: Information that, excluding Batang, there are 30 Americans remaining in Szechuan.
262
Mar. 22 (240) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To consuls in Nationalist territory, including Shanghai: Reminder, in view of Nationalist capture of Shanghai and possibility of incidents leading to antiforeign reaction, of previous instructions to urge the withdrawal of Americans and to incur necessary expenses; possibility that Shanghai may not be available as a place of refuge or transshipment.
Repeated to Admiral Williams with inquiry as to feasibility of arranging an evacuation point other than Shanghai; similar inquiry to consul at Nanking regarding feasibility of Nanking as concentration point.
262
Mar. 24 To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Readiness of Red Cross to take prompt and appropriate action when consul general advises that an emergency exists and furnishes details of the plan for administering relief and estimate of the amount necessary.
263
Mar. 24 (247) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 23: Information that the critical state of affairs due to possible antiforeign reaction from incidents at Shanghai, the closing of foreign banks and newspapers, and the general feeling of uncertainty, have caused consul general to request the withdrawal of American women and children; inadequate transportation facilities, but arrangements for departure of 200 women and children on the Sui Wo.
263
Mar. 24 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information that the serious situation at Nanking, tension at Hankow, and indications of possible radical outbreaks in Shanghai, have caused consul general to broadcast a radio warning in code to Americans in his district to withdraw to Shanghai.
264
Mar. 25 (253) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Tsinan: Advice concerning Nanking situation and belief that it would be expedient to initiate the withdrawal of Americans in the southern part of district to Tsinanfu or other suitable places.
264
[Page XXXIX]Mar. 25 (254) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Changsha and Chungking: Instructions to urge immediate withdrawal of Americans and to inform those who refuse to withdraw that they remain at their own risk; Legation’s consideration of closing consulate and recommending withdrawal of gunboat; authorization, in case of acute emergency, to close consulate and withdraw with other Americans.
Instructions to Hankow to speed withdrawal of Americans; instructions to Amoy, Canton, Foochow, and Swatow to concentrate Americans at those places for immediate evacuation with the assistance of naval vessels at or now proceeding thereto; Minister’s request for authorization to use own discretion to direct closing of consulates at Changsha and Chungking and to recommend withdrawal of the gunboats, following a final opportunity for the remaining Americans to withdraw.
265
Mar. 25 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Request for $10,000 appropriation for relief of refugees due to arrive at Shanghai.
266
Mar. 26 To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Authorization to draw upon Department up to $10,000, the sum appropriated by the Red Cross.
266
Mar. 26 (259) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 24: Imminent departure of Sui Wo for Shanghai; arrangements for additional vessel; intention to concentrate American forces at consulate if emergency demands.
266
Mar. 26 (102) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization as requested in Minister’s telegram No. 254 of March 25, and inquiry whether he sees any objection to making this public.
267
Mar. 26 (262) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, March 25: Telegraphic warning to the remaining 20 Americans in the interior to withdraw to Foochow; arrangements for concentration of Americans at evacuation points, and urgent suggestion that they depart on vessels leaving the 27th and 28th; anti-Christian and antiforeign demonstrations on March 25.
267
Mar. 26 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Tense situation and continuance of radio warning to Americans in the interior; dispatch of destroyer to evacuate missionaries at Kiangyin, Taichow, and Kiaotowchen near Chinkiang.
267
Mar. 26 (263) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Existence of serious situation at Chinkiang, where American and British refugees have concentrated in Socony plant and Asiatic Petroleum, respectively; looting and firing in the concessions; and preparation of Americans to leave for Shanghai on the Wenchow.
268
[Page XL]Mar. 27 (267) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Changsha and Chungking: Instructions for closing consulate and reporting to Hankow, after sufficient time has been given for the remaining Americans in district to withdraw; repetition of previous authorization to close consulate at once and withdraw with other Americans in an acute emergency; discussion with commander in chief regarding withdrawal of gunboat simultaneously with closing of consulate.
Recommendation that full publicity be given to the proposed action; and intention to inform Chinese press March 28.
268
Mar. 28 From the Consul at Mukden (tel.)
Suggestion that publicity be given to the fact that Americans in Manchuria are in nowise affected by the events in the Yangtze Valley.
268
Mar. 28 (268) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Amoy, March 27: Notification to Americans to concentrate at Amoy; belief that settlement is safe so long as the foreign naval forces are present.
269
Mar. 28 (269) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, March 26: Warning to Americans in Canton and suburbs to be prepared for immediate evacuation, and to those in the interior to proceed to Hongkong; promise of local authorities to protect foreigners.
269
Mar. 28 (273) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Hankow: Information that Legation has urged the American missions, companies, and individuals concerned to withdraw from all districts of Honan south of the Yellow River.
269
Mar. 29 (276) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To American missions, companies, and individuals in northern Anhwei and northern Kiangsu, March 26: Advisability of evacuation, and doubt that departure via Yangtze is practicable.
270
Mar. 29 From the Vice Consul at Tsinanfu (tel.)
Progress of evacuation from southern Shantung; endeavors to withdraw 16 Americans from Hwaiyuan, Anhwei.
270
Mar. 29 (282) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 25: Telegram to consul general at Shanghai (text printed) suggesting that arrangements be made for arrival of refugees on the Sui Wo; evacuation of remaining American women to the Loongwo; opinion that in spite of Chen’s promises of protection, it is advisable to place the remaining women and children aboard steamers.
270
Mar. 30 (295) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report from Hankow, March 27, of the number of Americans who have been withdrawn, plans for evacuation of those remaining, and of the deposit of consulate general’s official papers aboard naval vessels for safekeeping.
271
Mar. 30 (297) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 26 and 29: Information that practically no American women remain ashore at Hankow and Wuchang, that the Loongwo will sail the next day, that arrangements have been made for complete evacuation of remaining Americans in case of emergency, and departure of a number of American businessmen and missionaries, including women, on the Shasi for Shanghai.
271
[Page XLI]Mar. 31 (302) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Chungking, March 29: Commencement of antiforeign agitation; information that no Americans reside in Chungking City; intention of moving consulate to gunboat on March 30 for communication and precautionary reasons.
272
Mar. 31 (305) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Protest of Standard Oil Co.’s Shanghai office, March 30 (text printed), against contemplated closing of Chungking and Changsha consulates and withdrawal of gunboats; Minister’s reply restating his instructions to Changsha and Chungking and the fact that the press in Peking was. informed on March 28.
272
Mar. 31 (112) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Protest by National City Bank and Standard Oil Co. against reported issuance by consul general at Hankow of complete evacuation order covering all American businessmen, and their hope that unless military necessities imperatively require it, complete evacuation will not be ordered. Instructions to obtain information from consul general at Hankow.
273
Mar. 31 (307) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Swatow: Concentration in Swatow of Americans from outlying districts, and warning to six Catholic missionaries in outlying district to leave.
273
Mar. 31 (308) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, March 30: Report that 112 Americans are now in consular district, that 20 who will not leave their stations in the interior could not be evacuated in an emergency, that the same number are expected to leave shortly, and that the remainder intend to stay until it becomes necessary for all to withdraw.
273
Apr. 1 (313) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Closing of Chungking consulate March 30, and presence of consul and vice consul aboard Monocacy, expected departure of British gunboats on March 31, plan of American consul to wait at Chungking for word from persons in outlying districts as to their intentions concerning withdrawal, and development of worse conditions at Chungking.
274
Apr. 1 (314) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 31, repeated to commander in chief: Request for additional naval forces to convoy passenger ships to Shanghai, as many Americans are refusing to leave without such convoy.
274
Apr. 1 (113) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information to Standard Oil Co. and Texas Co. that in view of grave situation existing at Changsha and Chungking, Department authorized the action recommended by Minister’s telegram No. 254 of March 25; request for information concerning action of British and Japanese in this regard.
275
Apr. 1 (315) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 31: Departure of Shasi and plans for departure of Tungwo with additional Amerioans.
[Page XLII]Apr. 2 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Information that evacuation of Americans from Nanchang, Kiukiang, Wuchang, and Ichang is almost complete, and expectation that after departures the following day, less than 100 Americans, mostly men, will remain in Hankow, and can be easily evacuated in emergency.
275
Apr. 2 (321) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Hankow, April 1: Information that the Legation’s instructions applied to all Americans, including men; willingness to withhold objection to a few American men remaining in Hankow if absolutely necessary, providing their number is small and the gunboats are prepared to evacuate them if necessary; information that they remain at their own risk.
From the commander in chief, April 1: Concurrence in opinion of Patrol commander that regardless of the policy adopted by the U. S. Government, complete evacuation of nationals must take place. Minister’s concurrence in this view.
275
Apr. 2 (322) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Spread of uneasiness among Americans in Peking; encouragement by Legation to the evacuation by missionary institutions of their women and children.
276
Apr. 2 (324) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Chungking, March 31: Anti-American and anti-British demonstrations; concentration of Americans on American gunboat and Standard Oil Co. vessel; delay in departure because of necessity to await word from Americans in the interior.
276
Apr. 3 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Rioting in Japanese Concession; hurried evacuation of Japanese in great numbers; notification to Americans to go to ships for the night preparatory to leaving; information that a large number are sailing that night, and that the city is greatly excited.
277
Apr. 4 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Maintenance of order in Japanese Concession by armed Japanese volunteer and naval forces, and their intention to defend at all costs; information that no disorders occurred elsewhere but that the situation is problematical.
277
Apr. 5 (339) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Tsinan: Instructions to expedite withdrawal of Americans to seacoast treaty ports, except those Americans in Tsinan, who may be directed to leave at consul’s discretion.
278
Apr. 5 From the Consul at Tientsin (tel.)
Information that, while Tientsin is quiet, apprehension prevails; issuance of advice to Americans in district, except those at Peking, to come to Tientsin as soon as possible.
278
Apr. 5 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Continued evacuation of Japanese women and children, and patrol of Japanese Concession; reports of growing unrest among coolie element and belief that local situation is full of serious possibilities.
278
Apr. 5 From the Consul at Chefoo (tel.)
Concentration at Chefoo of practically all foreigners in that district.
279
[Page XLIII]Apr. 5 (344) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Withdrawal of British consul and gunboats from Chungking on March 31 and intention to withdraw from Changsha on April 5; information that Japanese have not withdrawn consuls and gunboats from either place.
279
Apr. 5 (345) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Issuance by British of instructions to nationals to withdraw from the interior of North China to treaty ports.
(Footnote: Japanese Minister’s recommendation to his Government that all Japanese in Nationalist territory be withdrawn.)
279
Apr. 6 (352) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Firing upon Chinese by Monocacy armed guards to prevent attack on American steamer Chinan at Chungking, April 3, but settlement of matter by steamship company and non-expectation of reaction; information that no Americans are leaving Yachow and Chengtu, and that Monocacy will escort Chinan and Socony steamer withdrawing on April 4 with all remaining Americans and British.
280
Apr. 6 (353) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, April 4: Consul general’s intention to prevent the return of missionaries to Hankow by asking colleagues to have shipping companies refuse them transportation.
Approval of consul general’s attitude.
280
Apr. 6 (354) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Patrol commander: Preparations for the evacuation of Changsha by Palos, probably on April 7, because of developing labor agitation.
281
Apr. 6 (357) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, April 4: Information that additional Americans have departed, and that 89 men, 19 women, and 12 children remain, most of them sleeping aboard ships.
281
Apr. 6 (360) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Patrol commander, April 5: Progress of evacuation of foreigners from Hankow, and expectation that within a week only 35 to 40 Americans, businessmen remaining at their own risk, will be left; opinion that evacuation will not be desirable until British leave.
281
Apr. 6 (361) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Patrol commander, April 5: Understanding that Japanese will evacuate Chungking as soon as steamer is available; information that 19 Americans remain in Szechuan; declaration at Changsha, April 4, of general strike and boycott against American firms and goods.
282
Apr. 6 (365) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Tsinanfu, April 5: Urgent recommendation to Americans to withdraw immediately to Tientsin; information that by April 10 only 6 American men will remain, except 11 members of Catholic mission; absence of any pronounced antiforeign feeling or need for anxiety over local conditions at present.
282
Apr. 7 (367) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Chungking, April 4: Departure from Chungking.
282
[Page XLIV]Apr. 7 (370) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Patrol commander, April 7: Increasingly grave situation at Hankow; information concerning evacuation of Germans, Japanese, and Russians; pressure on Americans to evacuate and on those remaining to base upon Para.
283
Apr. 7 (372) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, April 5: Request for opinion whether developments at Hankow and elsewhere necessitate the complete evacuation of Americans from Foochow.
To Foochow, April 7: Information that the question of complete evacuation is primarily a matter for consul’s discretion.
283
Apr. 7 (374) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Changsha, April 4: Change in date for closing consulate to April 6, in view of strong anti-American agitation; information that most Americans in west Hunan will withdraw with consul, that American businessmen have moved aboard Standard Oil Co. vessel, and that missionaries will remain in city until evacuation.
284
Apr. 7 (376) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, April 4: Increase in antiforeign feeling; advice to missions in Canton and suburbs to withdraw women and children.
284
Apr. 8 (381) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, April 7: Information that after the latest departures, 76 men, 6 women, and 5 children remain, and that some will depart in the next 2 days.
284
Apr. 8 (383) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to all women and children of the Legation to leave China at an early date.
285
Apr. 8 (385) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Americans in Kalgan have been instructed to withdraw; recommendation that the consulate there be closed as soon as Americans are evacuated.
(Footnote: Information that the consulate was temporarily closed April 23, permanently closed September 30, and the consular district incorporated into Tientsin district.)
285
Apr. 8 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Information that 86 Americans remain, but that more will depart in a few days; receipt of urgent appeals for the chartering of a merchant ship to be retained in harbor as a temporary refuge for Americans; consul general’s intention to make such arrangements if situation does not improve, and that businessmen and missionaries would bear part of the cost; request for a prompt reply.
285
Apr. 8 From the Consul at Tientsin (tel.)
Information that consular district remains quiet, but that Chinese police raided Soviet institutions in Tientsin; convergence upon Tientsin of Americans from the interior.
286
Undated [Rec’d Apr. 9] From the Consul at Chefoo (tel.)
Advice that all Americans have now come to Chefoo and that none remain in the interior, that Chefoo is quiet, but doubt that provincial authorities could handle situation if occasion demanded it; presence of U.S.S. Preston.
286
[Page XLV]Apr. 9 (389) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Tsinan, April 8: Continuance of quiet local situation; successful evacuation of foreigners, and information that only five American men, except for six members of American Catholic mission, remain in Tsinanfu.
287
Apr. 9 (391) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Tsingtau, April 8: Inquiry as to possibility of arranging passage on Government transports for persons who desire to go to the United States but cannot secure accommodations, as it is reported is being done at Shanghai.
To Tsingtau, April 9: Reply that Minister has no information concerning arrangements for transports at Shanghai, but will try to keep consul informed.
287
Apr. 9 (393) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Vice Consul Vincent on board U. S. S. Palos, April 7: Closing of Changsha consulate on April 7; withdrawal of all Japanese and all Americans except 12 Catholics in west Hunan who were unable to depart, presumably because of bandits.
288
Apr. 10 (12) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Charter of Kiangwo as a refuge for Americans, at urgent request of Admiral.
288
Apr. 11 (404) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Tsingtau, April 10: Information as to the number of Americans evacuated and those in Tsingtau and due to arrive there.
289
Apr. 11 To the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Willingness of Government to pay its share of ship charter cost for accommodation of consul general and staff; information that the Government has no funds to charter ship for use as a place of refuge for Americans at Hankow for an indefinite time.
289
Apr. 12 From the Consul General at Canton (tel.)
Continuance of tense situation, and little result from protests to local authorities against strike situation; information that few Americans remain in district, and that consul general will endeavor to induce women and children to remain at Hongkong.
289
Apr. 13 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Termination of charter, in view of Department’s telegram of April 11; concentration of almost entire American community at consulate at night.
290
Apr. 16 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information that missionaries contemplate returning to Soochow in open defiance of advice and objections of consulate general; request for representations to home office of mission organization.
290
Apr. 16 (171) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for consideration and comment on telegram of April 14 from Hongkong office of Standard Oil Co. to American office (extract printed), stating intention to return their men to Kongmoon and Wuchow and opinion that it is a mistake to create ill will by the withdrawal of Americans from ports where conditions are peaceful, and that presence of one naval vessel at each port should be adequate to protect essential men in case evacuation should become necessary.
290
[Page XLVI]Apr. 17 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Information that 73 Americans, including 2 women, now remain in Hankow, and that their evacuation should be accomplished without difficulty in case of further emergency; opinion that weeks of terrorism have produced a growing anti-Communist faction.
291
Apr. 17 (443) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Evacuation by Americans of northern Honan south of Yellow River, except for two Catholic fathers at Kaifeng.
291
Apr. 18 (455) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice, in reply to Department’s telegram No. 171 of April 16, that Legation would view with concern any tendency on the part of American citizens to disperse to the interior and to smaller ports.
292
Apr. 20 (461) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Conference with heads of American missions and educational institutions, in which they agreed that the withdrawal of Americans both from Nationalist territory and from Northern China had had a profound and sobering effect upon thoughtful Chinese.
292
Apr. 25 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
To the Legation: Advice that there is a noticeable improvement in conditions and attitude toward foreigners, and that Hankow Government is taking measures to relieve the situation.
293
Apr. 25 From the Consul at Amoy (tel.)
Information that all Americans have come in from the interior and that conditions throughout the district are quiet except for activities of bandits.
294
Apr. 26 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Reasons for adoption of changed attitude toward foreigners, and efforts by Nationalist Government to regain popular support among both Chinese and foreigners.
294
Apr. 28 (493) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Hankow: Commendation of consul general’s actions in carrying out his difficult duties.
295
Apr. 29 To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Instructions from mission to its representatives to conform with the recommendations in consul general’s telegram of April 16.
295
May 4 (207) To the Minister in China (tel.)
From L. C. Gillespie and Sons, New York, May 3: Understanding that Navy is assisting Standard Oil Co. to remove their stocks above Hankow under convoy; request that Department authorize that permission be granted for American steamers to proceed above Hankow to bring down under convoy stocks of wood oil at Wanhsien and Ichang, and also to permit business to be carried on in the future in this manner.
Instructions to repeat to Admiral Williams for his consideration.
295
May 6 From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
Report that few foreigners are left above Hankow, and that there are 61 Americans at Hankow; information concerning military activities of Hankow Government.
296
[Page XLVII]May 9 (532) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From commander in chief: Disapproval of any attempt to carry on trade above Hankow until consulates above that port are reopened; information that Standard Oil steamer was escorted to and from Chenling to remove valuable stock of gasoline and that no further operations are contemplated or recommended.
Concurrence in recommendation.
296
May 9 (533) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Vice Consul Vincent at Hankow, May 7: Looting and burning of American Catholic property in western Hunan, flight and disappearance of priests; safety of American property at Changsha.
To Vincent, May 9: Assumption that all practicable steps are being taken with local authorities for protection of American lives and property involved.
(Footnote: Telegram from Hankow, June 9, reporting arrival of the priests at Kweiyang, Kweichow.)
297
May 11 (216) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Interest of Department in any attempts of other nationalities to continue or reopen commerce where Americans have evacuated.
297
May 14 (220) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request of Gillespie and Sons that they be granted same privilege accorded Standard Oil Co., i. e., that they be permitted to evacuate stocks at Ichang and Wanhsien under escort.
Instructions to repeat to Admiral Williams for his consideration.
297
May 15 (557) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Yunnanfu, May 11: Reluctance of Americans in Yunnan and at Batang in Szechuan to withdraw; desire for further instructions to assist in inducing Americans to leave, in view of increasingly bad conditions; preparation of British and French consuls and remaining foreigners to leave.
298
May 16 (560) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Yunnanfu: Instructions to advise all Americans to withdraw either to Yunnanfu or from the province entirely; instructions, in case of emergency, to close consulate and proceed to Hongkong; authorization to use own discretion in taking measures for the safety of Americans and own self.
298
May 17 (564) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, May 16: Failure of mission of a German sent to Changsha by Asiatic Petroleum Co. to dispose of stocks there; assurance that company will not reopen at Changsha so long as present conditions prevail.
299
May 18 (224) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of instructions to Yunnanfu reported in Minister’s telegram No. 560 of May 16.
299
[Page XLVIII]May 18 (226) To the Minister in China (tel.)
From Standard Oil Co.: Report from Shanghai office of presence of French consuls and gunboats at Chungking, Ichang, and Changsha, and noninterruption of business of French merchants; recommendation that business be resumed at these points; request for cooperation of Navy with commercial interests by returning gunboats to their customary stations.
Instructions to repeat to Admiral Williams with inquiry for any further comments.
299
May 23 (580) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice from commander in chief of the physical impracticability of removing Wanhsein stock under naval protection during summer season, and from Patrol commander that military situation makes evacuation of Ichang stock inadvisable; information that if the situation permits of the evacuation of Ichang stock, Gillespie and Sons will be given the same assistance accorded Standard Oil Co.
300
May 25 (588) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From commander in chief: Reply from Patrol commander (extract printed), correcting information concerning reported presence of French consuls, businessmen, and gunboats at Changsha, Chungking, and Ichang; inadvisability of resumption of business by Standard Oil Co. above Hankow.
From Hankow, May 23: Advice that French business interests are practically nil and that the gunboats are principally for evacuation of nationals; inadvisability of resumption of business at Ichang and Chungking by Standard Oil Co.; possibility that the military situation on the upper river will require evacuation of Standard Oil stock under naval protection; views of naval authorities concerning impracticability of naval protection to commercial vessels or the maintenance of naval vessels at Changsha and Ichang.
Minister’s concurrence in the views expressed.
300
May 27 (593) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from Hankow that two Standard Oil vessels departed May 26 for Ichang, escorted by U. S. S. Pigeon, to evacuate oil stocks.
302
June 3 (1071) From the Minister in China
Transmittal of copies of memoranda from British, French, Italian, and Japanese Legations showing measures taken for the evacuation of their nationals from various parts of China, and of copy of American Minister’s memorandum on the same subject (text printed), transmitted to the interested missions on May 24.
302
June 16 (646) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Yunnanfu: Capture of the city by Hu Jo-yu, and his promise of protection to foreigners; inability of foreigners to leave because the railway has been cut.
Request for authorization to instruct consul that, after advising Americans to withdraw from Yunnan and warning that if they remain they do so at their own risk, he should close consulate and proceed to Hongkong as soon as able to do so.
304
June 16 (257) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization to instruct consul at Yunnanfu as requested.
304
[Page XLIX]June 18 (656) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions to consul at Yunnanfu, June 17, in accordance with Minister’s telegram No. 646 of June 16.
304
June 25 (679) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Hankow, June 21: Request for further information concerning official permission for British and Japanese women and children to return to Hankow.
From Hankow, June 23: Information that British and Japanese women and children are being allowed to return; telegram to Shanghai (text printed), stating that no objection will be made to the return of women and children to Hankow if they wish to assume the risk.
To Hankow, June 25: Approval of instructions to Shanghai; belief that consulates should discourage the premature return of nationals to places where they cannot be assured adequate protection.
305
June 27 (680) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, June 25: Firing upon Yangtze Rapids vessel near Ichang, June 22, killing one Chinese passenger and injuring another; consul general’s protest to Chinese authorities.
Attempt by Yangtze Rapids Co. to resume operations between Ichang and Chungking in disregard of Minister’s strong advice to the contrary.
306
June 27 (681) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Yunnanfu, June 23: Belief that in view of improved conditions and in the interest of American prestige, the consulate should remain open and continue to be guided by the instructions quoted in Minister’s telegram No. 560 of May 16.
To Yunnanfu, June 27: Authorization to proceed as outlined.
306
July 21 (749) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Occupation of foreign buildings at Nanking, in spite of proclamations by Chiang and Wu against such action; seizure and looting of mission buildings elsewhere by advancing Nationalist troops.
307
July 25 (447) From the British Ambassador
Appreciation for cooperation rendered by U. S. S. Paul Jones in the protection and evacuation of foreigners at Chinkiang.
307
Aug. 15 (808) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hankow, August 13: Suggestion that Department confer with organizations to discourage reported intentions of Americans to return to the interior.
Chargé’s concurrence in suggestion.
To Canton, August 12: Instructions to continue to discourage the return of Americans to places where they may not be protected or readily evacuated.
308
Aug. 17 (812) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Information that the Yangtze Rapids Co. is the only American business enterprise endeavoring to resume operations at interior points, and that no pressure is being brought on Hankow consulate general to resume business permanently at interior places.
309
[Page L]Aug. 17 (317) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Advice that the Department is informing the interested mission organizations in the sense of Chargé’s telegram No. 808 of August 15; belief that business firms can be reached more advantageously through the Legation and consulates in China.
309
Aug. 19 To the British Ambassador
Appreciation for assistance rendered by the acting British consul general at Yunnanfu in evacuation of Americans from the province in April.
309
Aug. 24 (830) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hankow, August 23: Information that no objection will be offered to the return of a limited number of women missionaries to Hankow, provided they reside in concession areas.
Concurrence in this attitude.
310
Oct. 31 (38) From the Consul General at Hankow (tel.)
To the Legation: Report of visit to Ichang and Changsha; futility of resumption of business and missionary activities in Szechuan, even with naval protection, under the present unsettled conditions; inadvisability of stationing a consular officer at Ichang; belief that an unmarried officer might be sent to reopen consulate at Changsha in about 30 days, and that business and missionary organizations might send a few essential men; inadvisability of general return of Americans to Changsha.
310
Nov. 16 (684) To the Chargé in China
Disapproval of the issuance of travel certificates for use in the interior of China except in cases of the most pressing need and where no undue risks are involved; instructions to circularize consular officers in this regard.
312
Nov. 19 (1013) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Concurrence of Legation, consular, and naval authorities in recommendation that thought of consular representation at Chungking and Ichang be abandoned at present, and that the reestablishment of representation at Changsha be left to the discretion of consul general at Hankow; information that the reestablishment of British representation at Chungking is regarded as an experiment.
313
Dec. 20 From the American Minister in China to the British Minister in China
Appreciation for assistance of H. M. S. Moorhen in the recent evacuation of foreigners from Canton.
314
Dec. 29 (1132) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, December 23: Plan of naval authorities to send two vessels to Ichang in January, possibly one of them to Chungking; belief that if American naval vessels should return to Szechuan and the consulate at Chungking reopened, Americans will return to the interior, and that reopening of Chungking consulate will require instructions defining attitude toward the extension of protection to Yangtze Rapids steamers.
Opinion that it is inadvisable to send consular officers at present either to Chungking or Ichang.
315
[Page LI]1928 Jan. 4 (3) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Concurrence in opinion that it is inadvisable to send consular officers permanently to Ichang or Chungking at present; authorization, if Minister deems it wise, to send a consular officer on one of the vessels to Ichang or Chungking to report on conditions.
316

Taking Over of the Russian Defense Sector of the Peking Legation Quarter by Legation Guards of Other Powers

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Apr. 7 (366) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization by Senior Minister to the competent Chinese local authorities to enter Legation Quarter to search certain private properties believed to be headquarters of subversive Soviet agitation; report that Chinese police, assisted by troops, raided not only the properties designated but also the adjacent compound of the former Russian Legation guard, seizing Russians and Chinese Communists, propaganda, firearms, etc.; Senior Minister’s intention to protest against disregard of the scope of authorization.
316
Apr. 8 (377) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Further details of the raid.
317
Apr. 9 (390) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Disclosure by the raid of the fact that the former Russian sector of the defense system of the Legation Quarter is not only undefended but is also occupied by an active antiforeign group; recommendation by the commandants of the five Legation guards that they be permitted to take over the defense of that sector; request for approval of Minister’s joining with colleagues in formula (text printed) authorizing commandants to take action on their recommendation.
318
Apr. 11 (141) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization to act with colleagues in the manner suggested.
319
Apr. 21 (469) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that detachments from American, British, Italian, and Japanese Legation guards have taken over defense of the former Russian sector.
319
Nov. 9 (1268) From the Chargé in China
Chargés gratification that new additions to the defensive works are almost completed.
319

Protection of Swiss Citizens in China

Date and number Subject Page
1926 Dec. 31 (394) To the Minister in China
Request from Swiss Legation that the U. S. Government authorize protection by its diplomatic and consular officers of Swiss citizens in China; authorization to extend unofficial good offices in behalf of Swiss citizens, and to so inform consular officers in such places as the Swiss Government has no representation.
320
[Page LII]1927 Mar. 23 (243) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from French Legation that it is charged with protection of Swiss interests in China; Minister’s request for instructions.
321
Mar. 26 (103) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization to Minister and consular and naval officers to extend to Swiss citizens the benefit of safety measures taken for American citizens, when French protection is not available.
321
Nov. 29 (1291) From the Chargé in China
Request from consul at Harbin, November 17, for instructions whether or not to make representations to Chinese authorities on taxation matters and other protection questions on behalf of Swiss citizens; Chargé’s reply, November 26, that in his opinion Department did not intend to authorize intervention on their behalf in taxation matters.
321
1928 Jan. 31 (760) To the Minister in China
Approval of Legation’s instruction of November 26 to consul at Harbin.
322

Continuation of the Embargo on Shipments of Arms to China

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Mar. 2 (938) From the Minister in China
Despatch No. 587, January 26, from the consul general at Canton (text printed), advising that Canton Government has granted a monopoly on certain articles classed as explosives, such as sulphur, saltpeter, etc., and requesting the Legation’s views. Minister’s reply of February 23 (text printed), authorizing protest against the restrictions placed on the transportation and sale of these commodities when they are destined for ordinary industrial or commercial purposes.
322
Apr. 6 (983) From the Minister in China
Despatch No. 616, March 16, from the consul general at Canton (text printed), transmitting protest of March 7 to Canton Foreign Minister and Foreign Minister’s reply of March 14 (texts printed) which states that the creation of a monopoly is an internal affair and not subject to the intervention of foreigners. Minister’s instructions to consul general to take no further action in the matter until instructions have been received from the Department.
324
May 4 (518) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton: Information that many foreigners believe cancelation of the arms embargo agreement to be much fairer to all concerned than is the existing situation, which adversely affects the political groups most friendly to them.
326
June 21 (559) To the Minister in China
Opinion that no further action need be taken in regard to the monopoly for the present.
327
[Page LIII]Dec. 23 (1122) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that American tear gas firm is sending a representative to Canton and will appreciate any courtesies or assistance rendered him by the consulate; opinion that tear gas is included in arms embargo, but desire for Department’s instructions before replying to consul at Canton.
327
Dec. 23 (429) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Concurrence in opinion that tear gas comes within scope of arms embargo, and authorization to instruct consul at Canton accordingly.
327

Refusal by the United States To Discontinue Wireless Station on Warship on the Yangtze River at Request of Chinese Nationalist Authorities

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Mar. 16 (223) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 14: Protest by Nationalist authorities against the continuance of the wireless station on the U. S. S. Isabel, stationed near Hankow; information that at one time an unsuccessful effort had been made to arrange an allotment of time between the ship station and the Wuchang station.
Information that comments of Yangtze Patrol commander will be forwarded.
328
Mar. 21 (233) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 19: Concurrence in Patrol commander’s message (text printed), which states that the present disturbed conditions make the continuance of the radio service an absolute military necessity.
Minister’s concurrence in these views, and proposal to instruct consul general at Hankow to attempt to arrive at a satisfactory schedule with Nationalist authorities for transmission of radio messages on the part of the Navy.
329
Mar. 22 (97) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of the proposed instructions to consul general at Hankow.
329
Apr. 8 (379) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, April 5: Request for authority to defer effort to arrange radio schedule because the time is not propitious and unrestricted radio facility is urgently needed.
Authorization to consul general at Hankow as requested.
330

Disinclination of the United States To Join in International Action To Suppress Piracies in Chinese Waters

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Jan. 19 (891) From the Chargé in China
Concurrence in opinion of consul general at Canton that to continue to present to the Chinese Government claims for losses on account of piracy for which that Government or its agents are not responsible, would serve no useful purpose; authorization to him to await decision of the Department before further pressing claims of this nature
330
[Page LIV]Apr. 4 (479) To the Minister in China
Approval of Legation’s instruction to the consul general at Canton.
331
Nov. 17 (1004) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Draft note (text printed) for presentation to Canton regime by the foreign powers, calling attention to piracy in Chinese waters, offering cooperation for its suppression, and declaring that, failing early and effective action, the powers will hold the Chinese authorities responsible for loss or damage and will take appropriate measures for their own protection. Request for authorization to join in the matter.
(Repeated to commander in chief, U. S. Asiatic Fleet.)
331
Nov. 23 (386) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Doubt that proposed note would be conducive of any good, and that it would only serve notice that the powers were ready to combine military and naval forces for suppression of piracy; request for opinion of commander in chief whether such cooperation would be warranted, since American vessels appear not to have suffered; inquiry whether shipping companies might examine Chinese passengers and luggage to prevent embarkation of pirates in guise of passengers.
334
Nov. 29 (1045) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From the commander in chief, November 25: Belief that representations by the U. S. Government should be concerned with American interests in particular; opposition to any joint international patrol for purpose of suppressing piracy.
Ineffectiveness of past efforts to guard ships against piracy by examining passengers and luggage.
Report of further meeting of drafting committee, at which British, Italian, and Japanese Governments’ approval of note was expressed by the respective Ministers and arrangements were suggested to meet desire of Japanese Government for extension of patrol area to Haichow and for communication of a similar note to Peking authorities.
335
Dec. 6 (1069) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Japanese Government’s agreement to the suggested arrangements; French Government’s authorization to Minister to join in the proposed plan for dealing with piracy.
338
Dec. 6 (402) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Reasons for inability of Department to authorize Legation to join with other powers in either identic or joint note on subject of piracy.
339
Dec. 16 (1106) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton: Opinion that the present military-political situation is inauspicious for the presentation of a note on piracy; information that since July 26 five Standard Oil Co. boats have been pirated; opinion that American naval authorities could not deal effectively with situation unless equipped with launches suitable for pursuit use in shallow waters.
339
[Page LV]

Proposals for Revision of Chinese Treaties Regarding Tariff Control and Extraterritoriality

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Undated House Concurrent Resolution 45, 69th Congress, 2d Session
Requesting that the President undertake negotiations to render the treaty relations between the United States and China equal and reciprocal.
(Footnote: Information that the resolution was introduced on January 4, 1927, but not acted upon; that House Concurrent Resolution 46, substantially the same, was introduced on January 24, and passed in amended form on February 21; that it was referred to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on February 22, but that no action appears to have been taken on it.)
341
Jan. 19 (41) From the British Ambassador
Summary of terms which the British Government is prepared to offer to the Nationalist Government at Hankow; information that the concessions set forth are in the nature of a waiver of treaty rights which the British Government will carry out in return for settlement of the events at Hankow and Kiukiang and assurances for the future, especially with reference to the situation at Shanghai.
(Footnote: Information that a copy of this note was transmitted to the Minister in China in telegram No. 17, January 20.)
344
Jan. 24 (64) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 22: Information that the British presented their proposals to the Foreign Minister of the Nationalist Government at Hankow on January 21.
Intention of British Minister to deal similarly with the Peking Government with regard to the British Concession at Tientsin.
345
Jan. 24 (72) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hankow: Issuance by Chen, Nationalist Foreign Minister, of a statement on January 23 (text printed), expressing Nationalist Government’s intention to liberate China from the yoke of foreign imperialism, and its readiness to negotiate separately with the powers to settle treaty and related questions on an equal and reciprocal basis.
346
Jan. 25 (79) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hankow, January 24: Conversation in which Chen expressed apprehension over possible attempt of the U. S. Government to negotiate a new treaty with the Peking Government, and stated the opinion that if the powers do not yet feel warranted in dealing with his Government in the matter of new treaties, they should hold aloof for the present and await developments.
349
Jan. 25 (28) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Statement by the Secretary of State, for publication January 27, regarding U. S. Government’s policy concerning China, expressing readiness to enter into negotiations on subject of tariff and extraterritoriality with any Government of China or delegates who can represent or speak for China, and declaring U. S. duty to protect lives and property of its citizens (text printed).
(Instructions to repeat to Shanghai and Hankow.)
350
[Page LVI]Jan. 27 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation between the Secretary of State and the Chinese Minister concerning the Secretary’s statement of U. S. policy toward China; Minister’s belief that he could not now obtain credentials from both sides for conduct of negotiations with U. S. Government and that both sides could not agree on representatives.
353
Jan. 28 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Far Eastern Affairs
Conversation in which the British Ambassador stated the opinion that the United States could not go further than to express willingness to consult the powers with a view to discovering their attitude toward negotiations for a change in the status of the International Settlement at Shanghai.
355
Jan. 29 (11) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Favorable reaction of Japanese press and Foreign Office to the Secretary’s statement on policy toward China.
355
Jan. 31 (98) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that the British proposals were presented to Wellington Koo, of the Peking Government, on January 28.
356
Jan. 31 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
From American Chamber of Commerce: Endorsement of Secretary’s statement on policy toward China and appreciation of assurances of protection of American life and property.
356
Jan. 31 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation in which the Japanese Ambassador presented a memorandum (text printed) endorsing the Secretary’s statement on policy toward China and expressing the conviction that cooperation between the two powers to maintain conjointly a sound attitude will aid in ameliorating the general situation in China.
356
Feb. 3 (107) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that the British negotiations at Hankow are not intended to be concluded in a treaty, and that the Hankow negotiations have been suspended because of opposition of Soviet element in the Nationalist Party.
357
Feb. 4 From the British Embassy
Readiness to support any efforts of the U. S. Government to bring the various Chinese leaders together with a view to obtaining assurances for the safety of foreigners at Shanghai and elsewhere in China and to rendering possible the formal negotiations for treaty revision.
(Footnote: Copy transmitted to Minister in China in instruction No. 447, March 3.)
358
Feb. 5 Memorandum by the Acting Secretary of State
Conversation in which the British Minister presented his memorandum of February 4 and described his conversations with the Chinese Minister concerning treaties, the presence of British troops in China, and the movements of American warships in Far Eastern waters.
359
Feb. 10 (128) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Summary of foreign and Chinese opinion on the Secretary’s statement of policy concerning China.
360
[Page LVII]Feb. 12 (58) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from Geneva, February 11, that a statement of British policy toward China, which was circulated to League members, contains regret that League assistance cannot be invoked to settle the difficulties in China; possibility, however, that the matter might be brought up at the March session of the League under article 11 of the Covenant.
362
Feb. 15 (140) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Canton, February 13: Lack of interest among Chinese or foreigners regarding Department’s declaration of policy toward China.
362
Oct. 21 Memorandum by Mr. J. V. A. MacMurray, the Minister to China
Suggestion that American Minister at Peking might be authorized to hold informal discussions with the several factions, in the hope of persuading them to act together for the purpose of establishing and empowering a committee or group of negotiators to act for all in a partial revision of the “unequal” treaties; opinion that the abandonment of extraterritoriality would be premature, and that the partial revision should be confined to the question of tariff restrictions.
(Footnote: Information that MacMurray was temporarily in the United States.)
363
Nov. 28 (1042) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, November 26: Issuance by Foreign Minister of Nanking Government of a statement, November 24 (text printed), declaring intention to abrogate unequal treaties and agreements concluded by former Chinese governments and asserting that no treaty or agreement relating to China to which the Nationalist Government is not a party will be deemed binding on China.
365
Dec. 18 (418) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Frank W. Lee, Nationalist Government representative, has unofficially approached the Department, stating that his Government would authorize Sze, David Yui, and Lee to conduct negotiations for treaty revision on the basis of the Secretary’s statement of January 27; belief that if a joint Peking-Nanking commission is formed spontaneously and American Government announces willingness to negotiate with it, the general political, military, and foreign situation in China would improve.
366
Dec. 22 Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State
Conversation in which Lee was informed that when China appoints a delegation which will be representative of the Chinese authorities, the Secretary of State stands ready to fulfill the promises made in his statement of January 27.
367
Dec. 28 (1127) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Reasons for the inadvisability of carrying on negotiations in Washington with regard to tariff restrictions and extraterritoriality; recommendation that the Secretary reaffirm his oral instructions to the Minister to seek an opportunity to negotiate informally with the several regimes in regard to customs restrictions and the treatment of American trade.
368
[Page LVIII]

The Special Conference on the Chinese Customs Tariff

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Mar. 23 From the Belgian Ambassador
Declaration of right to participate in Peking Tariff Conference on the basis of Sino-Belgian treaty of 1865, which Belgium considers valid despite its denouncement by the Peking Government, and the Washington treaty of 1922.
371
Apr. 14 To the Belgian Ambassador
Advice that, since the Conference is in suspension because of lack of delegates qualified to represent China, the question of the constitution of the Conference needs no settlement with the Chinese Government for the present.
372

Efforts of the United States To Meet Situation Created by Imposition in China of Taxes in Conflict With Treaty Provisions

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Jan. 13 (27) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Promulgation by new Peking Cabinet of mandates providing that (1) tariff law autonomy will become effective January 1, 1929, (2) Washington surtaxes will be levied for February 1, 1927, through Maritime Customs, and Foreign Office will take up question of resuming Tariff Conference immediately, and (3) the new revenues will be applied to sinking fund for abolition of likin, funding of unsecured debts, and urgent administration and construction expenses.
372
Jan. 18 (43) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Comments on the three mandates; opinion that the best course would be for the powers to take unilateral action by individual notes signifying assent to the immediate and unconditional levying of the surtaxes upon the trade of their nationals; probability that Japan will stand alone in disapproving levy of surtaxes; request for instructions.
373
Jan. 18 (14) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of action suggested.
375
Jan. 21 (58) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Considerations which prompted Chargé to suggest at meeting of the interested Ministers that formal reply be avoided and that powers agree upon a draft declaration (text printed), assenting in general terms to the imposition of the Washington surtaxes at all treaty ports throughout China and stating the assumption that collection will be made through Maritime Customs; request for instructions.
375
Jan. 24 (23) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Apparent impossibility of securing Japanese agreement to the putting into effect of Washington surtaxes and the proposed declaration; Department’s desire for unified action of the powers and request for comments prior to authorizing Chargé to join in a declaration which would not include the Japanese.
377
Jan. 25 (80) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Report that Nationalists threaten to seize all customhouses if the Northerners put collection of the surtax under Customs; Chargé’s proposal to join British Minister in eliminating from declaration the reference to Maritime Customs.
379
[Page LIX]Feb. 7 (116) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion that divergent viewpoints of the powers and evident disposition of the less interested powers to let surtax question go by default make a tacit acquiescence advisable; evidence that foreign trade is now absolutely without treaty protection.
379
Feb. 11 (132) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Foochow, February 10: Establishment by Customs, under direction of Chinese Navy, of surtax bureau whose collections are paid over to the Navy; probability that Nationalists will retaliate by setting up their own surtax bureau; request for instructions.
381
Feb. 12 (137) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Decision of Nationalist Government at Hankow, January 25, that customhouses in Hupeh, Hunan, and Kiangsi shall collect a surtax of 1 percent on imports for construction of dikes; instructions to consul general at Hankow to lodge a formal written protest.
382
Feb. 15 (61) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Opinion that a policy of patience and watchfulness is the only course to follow; belief that while protests against the imposition of taxes in direct violation of treaties are likely to be futile and in general should not be made henceforth, Legation and Consulates should take up with de facto authorities any cases where American citizens or interests have been subjected to discriminatory treatment; instructions to so inform consul at Foochow; request for comment on general policy with regard to payment by American citizens of local municipal taxes such as police, fire protection, street maintenance, etc.
382
Feb. 19 (158) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Inquiry whether Department’s attitude toward discriminatory treatment applies to discrimination as among foreign nationals as well as between Americans and Chinese.
383
Feb. 24 (71) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of tacit acquiescence in surtaxes; information that in treaties of commerce and amity now being negotiated by the United States the question of nationality of ownership of goods originating in or delivered to the United States is not material in determining customs treatment.
384
Mar. 14 (217) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, March 12: Establishment by Nationalist Government of a stamp tax, effective March 12, and levy of fines for failure to pay; request for instructions.
To Hankow, March 14: Instructions to advise Americans informally that Legation does not feel that a protest is warranted in the absence of discriminatory features, and that they must determine their own attitude as to compliance.
385
Mar. 16 (94) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of action reported in telegram No. 217 of March 14.
385
Mar. 16 (963) From the Minister in China
Comments on general policy with regard to the payment by American citizens of local municipal taxes; suggestion that the policy to be followed be adapted to the different circumstances encountered.
386
[Page LX]May 18 (568) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, May 16: Information that the 1 percent surtax for dike construction became effective May 10, collections being made independent of Customs, and that the 5 percent surtax on luxuries is also being collected.
389
June 2 (546) To the Minister in China
Approval of Minister’s suggestion in despatch No. 963 of March 16; observation that, in regard to taxation of American citizens in foreign concessions or in former foreign concessions now controlled by the Chinese, consular officials should avoid any commitment as to the enforcibility of municipal regulations and taxes in consular courts; concurrence in view that in Chinese municipalities Americans be advised to pay, as a voluntary contribution, the rates levied on Chinese and other foreign citizens, when reasonable and when appropriate municipal services are rendered; instructions to advise consular officers.
390
June 29 (684) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai: Notification by Nationalist Government at Nanking that effective July 1, 1927, it will collect a surtax on exports of one-half the existing customs export duty, and that rate of surtax on luxuries will be promulgated.
391
July 1 (689) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, June 30: Communication from Superintendent of Customs (text printed) advising that, effective July 1, all taxes on cigarettes, except the customs import and export duties and surtaxes, will be abolished and a single tax of 50 percent of value will be substituted therefor; request for further instructions, in view of drastic nature of the new tax.
Minister’s request for instructions.
391
July 1 (270) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions for Legation and consulate at Shanghai to exercise their judgment in following out procedure as to protests outlined in Department’s telegram No. 61 of February 15.
391
July 3 (691) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, July 2: Information that formal protest is being filed against cigarette tax because of its drastic nature, its violation of previous agreements between Wine and Tobacco Administration and American firms, and resultant hardship on American firms in China and American producers of tobacco for use in China trade.
Instructions to Shanghai to refrain from filing protest until further instructed.
392
July 6 (698) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai: Receipt of notification that, effective July 10, surtax will be collected on incoming foreigners’ baggage and on imported luxuries; informal advice from Wu, Foreign Minister of Nanking Government, that on August 1 likin will be abolished and land tax substituted therefor, and that uniform ad valorem duty of 15 percent on general imports and 30 percent on luxuries will be collected.
Opinion that this extreme taxation is equivalent to a denunciation of the treaty system as regards tariffs, and should be protested, even if protest produces no result.
392
[Page LXI]July 7 (278) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Belief that protest at Shanghai against tobacco taxes should not include reference to private agreements between companies and the Wine and Tobacco Administration.
393
July 9 (708) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Belief that the only protest of value against the illegal exactions would be one from the U. S. Government itself; draft statement of protest (text printed).
393
July 11 (720) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, July 9: Summary of duties and surtaxes now being levied on imports and exports at Shanghai; information that Nanking Government’s intentions have apparently been modified, that likin will be abolished September 1, a national tariff put into effect 18 months hence, and in the interim customs duty will be raised to 12½ percent on ordinary goods and a graduated scale on luxuries adopted; probability that special tax on imported coal will make necessary an increase in municipal tax rates.
395
July 12 (724) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Shanghai: Information that the luxury surtax has been collected for some time in Northern ports under Nationalist control, and that Department has favored tacit acquiescence in the collection of what is in substance equivalent of the Washington surtaxes.
397
July 12 (283) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Inadvisability of issuing suggested statement in the name of the U. S. Government at this time; belief that American interests will be served better by continuing to file formal protests locally with the de facto authorities and advising merchants, if compliance is necessary to continue business, to pay taxes under protest.
397
July 20 (748) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, July 19: Request of American tobacco companies for definite statement with reference to the 50 percent cigarette tax as apart from all other surtaxes.
Inquiry whether Department’s attitude as expressed in telegram No. 283 of July 12 is the same toward the tobacco taxes as toward other surtaxes.
399
July 21 (292) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Department’s telegram No. 283 of July 12 applies to the tobacco taxes, and authorization to instruct consul general at Shanghai accordingly.
399
July 26 (756) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, July 25: Receipt of communications from Nationalist Government at Nanking, transmitting official proclamation concerning increased tariff rates, abolition of likin, excise taxes, etc., and referring to application of customs revenues to foreign loans; intention to make no reply unless Legation instructs otherwise.
400
[Page LXII]July 27 (765) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai: Summary of tariff proclamation, to be put into effect September 1; urgent suggestion that U. S. Government announce to all de facto Governments in China that it will not permit disregard of treaty rights.
400
July 28 (297) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Appreciation of seriousness of situation, and inquiry as to measures recommended in case U. S. Government makes the announcement and it fails to produce the desired result.
402
July 30 (776) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Recommendation of procedure outlined in Minister’s telegram No. 773 of July 29. (For abstract of telegram No. 773, see page lxxi.)
402
Aug. 17 (816) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai: Desire of American, British, French, and Japanese consuls general for authority to initiate informal conversations with the local Chinese authorities to secure abandonment or at least postponement of the taxation proposals, and their proposal to test by court proceedings whether foreign-owned warehouses have the right to detain in bond cargo on which the legal duties have been tendered and refused; information that test suits are being filed in French and Japanese courts.
To Shanghai: Tactical inadvisability of the proposed conversations; opinion that consul general should not encourage the taking of legal action by Americans.
Chargé’s request for instructions.
402
Aug. 18 (318) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Approval of Chargé’s action outlined in telegram No. 816 of August 17.
403
Aug. 18 (817) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, August 17: Interview with Wu, at his request, which indicated an apparent weakening in determination to force through illegal taxes at Shanghai; inquiry whether to inform colleagues.
To Shanghai, August 18: Opinion that no objection exists to informing colleagues, unless consul general promised Wu to the contrary.
404
Aug. 19 (819) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Request from consul general at Shanghai, August 17, for authorization to protest individually against all the September 1st taxes, and Chargé’s request for Department’s approval.
To Shanghai: Authorization to make protest, either individually or jointly with colleagues, if consul general considers such action would have a salutary effect.
405
Aug. 19 (320) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Approval of reply to Shanghai set forth in telegram No. 819 of August 19.
405
Aug. 29 (838) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, August 28: Information that Japanese and French courts granted injunctions prayed, and that Japanese godown keeper released wine upon court order; judgment of British court in favor of plaintiff and issuance of order for delivery of goods.
405
[Page LXIII]Aug. 31 (846) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, August 30: Issuance by Nanking authorities of order that holders of National Loan Bonds register them at office at Shanghai before September 30, subscribing at the same time for 10 percent of their value in salt surplus Treasury bonds, and providing that all unregistered bonds will be declared null and void; decision of consular body to protest.
Concurrence in view that protest is necessary.
406
Sept. 1 (331) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Information that U. S. Government does not admit efficacy of proposed action to render null and void bonds issued by Chinese Government, that it intends to insist that contractual rights of American bondholders be respected, but that bondholders will have to determine their own attitude toward notice requiring registration and subscription of salt bonds.
407
Sept. 1 (850) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Receipt by consul at Shanghai of Foreign Ministry communication (text printed) advising that Nationalist Government has decided, in view of existing circumstances, to postpone temporarily the enforcement of the new taxation; like information from Canton and Swatow.
407
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 10] (868) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, September 9: Information that the court decisions are being construed to apply to all nontreaty taxes; procedure followed by British and Japanese consulates general to release goods; request of Tobacco Products Co. that American consul general follow similar procedure and accept on deposit the treaty duty, wharfage and conservancy dues, and Washington surtaxes, in order that they may obtain delivery of goods, and consul general’s refusal on the ground that such action would contravene Department’s instructions; filing of suit in U. S. Court for China by American firm against American shipping company for release of cargo.
408
Sept. 17 To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Instructions to advise whether other consulates are actually receiving treaty duties and other charges, and if so, the procedure for final accounting to Chinese Government; whether American consulate could feasibly perform such service for American citizens; and whether, since U. S. Government does not regard the Washington surtax as authorized, the British authorities would release American goods stored in British godowns on American consul’s certificate that treaty duties, wharfage and conservancy dues had been deposited with him; inquiry as to status of the suit filed in American court.
410
Sept. 20 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Acceptance by the various consulates of import duties and other charges, and procedure for final accounting; feasibility of performing similar service for American citizens; information that British authorities would require deposit with the foreign consulates concerned of the Washington surtaxes in addition to the other charges; advice that case in American court has not yet been decided.
(Repeated to the Legation.)
410
[Page LXIV]Sept. 23 To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Instructions to wire essential facts of the court case, and, after decision is rendered, to advise its effects and grounds on which predicated.
411
Sept. 24 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Essential facts of the case; court’s decision, September 24, that it had no jurisdiction and that petition be dismissed, because the principal question involved is the violation of treaties, which is a purely political rather than a legal question, and that decision rests with Department.
(Repeated to the Legation.)
412
Sept. 26 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information that court’s decision continues a handicap on American shipping which makes it unprofitable to operate at Shanghai; urgent suggestion that, in order to place Americans on an equal basis with other nationals, consul general be allowed to receive the treaty duties, to so advise the Customs, and to inform American shipping companies and warehousemen that the merchandise may be released.
(Repeated to the Legation.)
414
Sept. 28 (893) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Recommendation that Department approve suggestion of consul general at Shanghai or authorize some other equally effective steps for the relief of American business interests.
416
Sept. 28 To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Request for further information as to the contingencies likely to arise if consul general’s suggestion is put into effect, and whether American firm will appeal from court’s decision.
416
Sept. 29 (896) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Probable reintroduction of the one-half of 1 percent surtax on imports and exports for famine relief for 1 year; request for authorization to join colleagues in any proposal which may be approved by all powers concerned.
417
Sept. 30 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Advice that American shipping companies and warehousemen have agreed to release cargo in accordance with procedure outlined in consul general’s telegram of September 26, and that American firm has appealed from court decision but will not pursue it if Department authorizes consul general to accept the duties.
(Repeated to Legation.)
417
Oct. 1 (354) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Authorization to interpose no objection to the proposed surtax mentioned in telegram No. 896 of September 29, provided other interested Legations take similar stand.
417
[Page LXV]Oct. 1 To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Instructions that the Department will not object to the consul general’s taking, on his own responsibility, the action suggested in his telegram of September 26, on condition that in each case the treaty duties are tendered to and refused by Customs, and that usual form of duty memorandum is delivered to him; instructions to telegraph confirmation of this understanding and preparation to undertake the action suggested.
418
Oct. 3 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Readiness to carry out recommendations of telegram of September 26, and information in this sense to American warehousemen and importers in American ships.
(Repeated to the Legation.)
418
Oct. 4 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Advice from British consul general that American importers may obtain release of cargoes from British godowns on deposit with American consul general of only the treaty duty and wharfage and conservancy dues, and that they need not deposit the two surtaxes.
(Repeated to the Legation.)
418
Oct. 4 To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Advice that it is not clear whether consul general intends to accept from importers of goods stored in American godowns, surtaxes in addition to treaty duties; request for explanation.
419
Oct. 5 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Intention to accept only treaty duties of 5 percent in addition to wharfage and conservancy taxes.
419
Oct. 7 (914) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Canton, September 30: Announcement by local authorities of collection of 10 percent of the 2½ percent surtaxes originally assessed to pay Canton-Hongkong strikers but later abolished.
Decision of British, French, and Japanese Ministers to instruct their consul generals to make strong representations against arbitrarily altering import tariff without prior consent of the powers, and Ministers’ intention to recommend to their Governments that if the action taken is unsuccessful they should fall back on the procedure adopted at Shanghai; inability of American Minister to join in the instructions.
To Canton, October 7: Authorization to join colleagues in protest against arbitrary alteration of import tariff, but not to join in any representations which would threaten or imply use of force by the United States in support of treaty rights; instructions to comment on feasibility of using consular clearance procedure at Canton.
419
Oct. 11 (358) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Approval of instructions to Canton; inquiry whether the 2½ percent surtax is the so-called consumption and production tax imposed October 11, 1926, and inquiry as to date it was abolished; inquiry whether Department correctly understands tax to be 10 percent of 2½ percent, i. e., one-fourth of 1 percent.
421
[Page LXVI]Oct. 11 (927) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, October 11: Nanking Government’s notification to tobacco companies directly that new regulations provide that tobacco, after paying Customs duty and 2½ percent surtax, will be taxed at 20 percent ad valorem, and be free from any other tax.
421
Oct. 13 (926) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Canton, October 12: Information that consul general joined colleagues in protest against imposition of new tax, that General Li plans to discontinue the tax, and that the consular procedure adopted at Shanghai would be impossible at Canton.
422
Oct. 20 (937) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Canton, October 14: Information that the surtax is the tax imposed in October 1926 and has never been abolished, and that the new tax is 10 percent of that tax, which in specific instances amounts to 2½, 5, and 7½ percent.
422
Oct. 22 (943) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hankow, October 17: Request for instructions as to course to follow in the event Chinese authorities refuse to release goods because American concerns decline to pay the $1 per unit special tax on kerosene and the 2½ and 5 percent surtaxes on liquors and tobacco.
To Hankow, October 19: Request for opinion on practicability of applying Shanghai procedure.
From Hankow, October 20: Unfeasibility of applying Shanghai procedure; understanding that it has resulted in litigation in Shanghai; request for specific instructions concerning the $1 per unit special tax on kerosene.
Chargé’s request for Department’s instruction.
423
Oct. 26 (369) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Request for information concerning any litigation at Shanghai; suggestion that with regard to taxes imposed contrary to treaties, Chargé instruct consul general at Hankow in accordance with Department’s telegram No. 270 of July 1; inability of Department to make a decision on the $1 per unit special tax on kerosene without further information, particularly as to whether this tax is the result of private arrangement between the oil companies and local authorities.
424
Nov. 2 (968) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai: Advice that no litigation other than test cases has resulted from the clearance of vessels or the acceptance of the treaty import duties by consular officers.
424
Nov. 7 (979) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hankow, November 5: Advice that the tax under discussion is a Nationalist Government tax collected on all oils moving out of Hankow installations, that Standard Oil Co. now seeks to obtain reduction of tax, that all companies ceased shipments on October 30 and intend to fight tax if companies can be induced to continue cessation of shipments; opinion that consulate can properly protest only the applicability of tax to transit pass shipments and bring informally before Chinese authorities injurious effect upon consumer of high oil taxation.
Information to Hankow that the proposed action is approved.
425
[Page LXVII]Nov. 22 (1022) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, November 18: Surtax bureau’s announcement that 1¼ percent surtax on native goods imported to Shanghai from other Chinese ports amounting to one-half of the present coast-trade duty will be collected; desire of American Chamber of Commerce to pay recognized coast-trade duty on American-owned native products into consulate general or to be afforded some other form of relief; request for instructions.
Chargé’s request for instructions.
425
Nov. 28 (391) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Belief that method of payment proposed by the American Chamber of Commerce could not be put into effect; request for additional information with respect to treaty rights involved.
426
Nov. 29 (1044) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, November 17: Promulgation by Nanking Government of special kerosene-tax laws similar to those previously enforced by Canton and Hankow Governments; request for instructions.
To Shanghai, November 19: Instructions to protest on general treaty grounds if tax is direct levy on American products in American hands or is in any way discriminatory, but if tax is indirect levy and affects only native dealers and consignees of American firms, to take no action and request further instructions.
From Shanghai, November 22: Assurance by local authorities that tax is not in contravention of treaties because it is a consumption tax; comment that tax appears to be direct levy on American products but not discriminatory against American firms.
Chargé’s request for instructions.
426
Dec. 1 (1055) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, November 29: Receipt of notification that, apart from transit dues, a surtax of an additional one-half of present customs transit dues will be collected on December 1; request for instructions.
Chargé’s suggestion to Department that protest be made against the application of Washington Conference principle in respect of customs dues.
427
Dec. 2 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Advice that Nationalist Government has now suspended collection of the 50 percent special tobacco tax, that American importers are clearing their cargo by the payment of the treaty duty and so-called Washington surtaxes, and that consul general is no longer accepting payment of the treaty duty on tobacco.
428
Dec. 2 (1061) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, November 23: Establishment by Bureau of Duty Stamps for Kiangsu of office for the sale of stamps to be affixed to insurance policies, and consul general’s advice to an American citizen that American companies must decide whether on grounds of expediency Chinese brokers and agents should be given permission to purchase and affix the stamps required.
Information that Chargé approved consul general’s statement and transmitted for his information an extract of a communication in similar vein from Senior Minister to Senior Consul at Chefoo (text printed).
428
[Page LXVIII]Dec. 3 (1063) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, November 30: Advice that Standard Oil Co. plans to conclude direct agreement with Kerosene Tax Bureau of Nanking Government, providing that a 60-cent direct tax be substituted for the $1 indirect tax, but that it is also preparing a formal protest at levy of direct tax on American goods in the hands of American company, for transmission through the consulate.
Authorization to Shanghai to enter formal protest but to refrain from transmitting Standard Oil Co. protest until instructed by Department; suggestion that Department take the action recommended in Legation’s telegram No. 131 of March 16, 1926 [i. e., to discuss with Standard Oil Co. inadvisability of having American interests undermine U. S. Government’s efforts to prevent illegal taxation of American trade in China].
429
Dec. 3 (396) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that the tax referred to in Legation’s telegram No. 1044 of November 29 is a violation of treaty when collected on American goods re-exported from one open port to another or shipped to the interior under transit pass, and instructions to be guided by Department’s telegram No. 270 of July 1 with regard to question of protest.
430
Dec. 5 (400) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that surtax referred to in Legation’s telegram No. 1055 of December 1 appears contrary to the British treaty of 1858 and Washington Conference treaty; instructions to be guided by Department’s telegram No. 270 of July 1 with regard to question of protest.
430
Dec. 6 (403) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Standard Oil Co. approached the Department on November 21 with regard to its proposed oil tax arrangement, that the Department has refrained from comment, considering it a matter for private negotiation, and that oil companies believe payment of tax under protest is in accord with policy suggested in Department’s telegram No. 283 of July 12; belief that consul general should support company’s protest if based on treaty infraction.
430
Dec. 7 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information as requested in Department’s telegram No. 391 of November 28 to the Legation; advice that the new surtax is in violation of treaty provisions, but that neither British nor other consular officers have yet protested.
(Repeated to the Legation.)
431
Dec. 12 (1080) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, December 9 (apparently prior to receipt of Department’s telegram No. 403 of December 6, repeated by the Legation): Information that revised draft of Standard Oil Co. agreement is less favorable than earlier agreement, and that consul general has protested petroleum tax along general lines but is holding company’s protest in abeyance pending further instructions.
432
[Page LXIX]Dec. 12 (1082) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, December 9: Protest by American Chamber of Commerce, December 2, against the surtax on grounds of contravention of treaties, requesting that protest be recorded with Minister and State Department at Washington, and suggesting that it be filed with local Commissioner of Foreign Affairs.
To Shanghai, December 12: Transmittal of Department’s telegram No. 400 of December 5 and reference to Department’s telegram No. 270 of July 1, transmitted to consul general on December 8; information that the surtax will be discussed by the interested Ministers and that in the meantime consul general should withhold action.
432
Dec. 21 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Suspension by Nationalist Government of the 30 percent special tax on wines, and clearance of cargoes by payment of treaty duty and so-called Washington surtaxes; information that consul general is no longer accepting payment of treaty duty on wines.
(Repeated to Legation.)
433

Consular Clearance of Foreign Vessels To Avoid Imposition by Chinese Authorities of Surtax on Tonnage in Excess of Dues Fixed by Treaty

Date and number Subject Page
1927 May 13 (551) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Foreign Office desire that tonnage dues be increased to raise funds to cover Chinese diplomatic and consular expenses; inclination of the Ministers of treaty powers to recommend such an increase provided Peking regime can assure that collection by the Customs will not be used by Southern factions as an excuse for hostile action; request for authorization to assent to increase.
433
May 20 (227) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Desire of Department to support any measure calculated to promote unity in China; observation that, although the taxes are fixed by Sino-American treaty of 1858 and cannot legally be altered by the Department, on Minister’s recommendation no objection will be raised to an additional tax.
434
July 8 (705) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, July 7: Announcement by Nanking Government that on July 11 it will collect surtax on tonnage of one-half of the existing Customs tonnage dues; information that consul general has protested on grounds of inadequate notice and absence of sanction by diplomatic body; recommendation that Customs be advised that American ships will pay only the existing treaty tonnage dues, and if such payment is refused, that they will proceed without Customs clearance: request for instructions.
To Shanghai, July 8: Advice that protest should not be made without obtaining Legation’s instructions.
434
July 9 (711) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for authorization to approve consul general’s recommendation; information that the surtax will be discussed by the diplomatic body on July 11.
435
[Page LXX]July 9 (280) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authorization as requested in telegram No. 711 of July 9, if American shipping companies desire to follow that course; advice, however, that if they prefer to pay surtax under protest, the U. S. Government should not order them not to do so; unwillingness to use military or naval forces to protect shipping against excess taxes.
435
July 11 (717) From the Minister in China (tel.)
To Shanghai: Opinion that the only defense against imposition of illegal tonnage dues will be of an economic character, and that plan set forth in telegram from Senior Minister to Senior Consul seems worthy of consideration.
From the Senior Minister to the Senior Consul at Shanghai: Request that consular body consider possible economic measures, especially diplomatic body’s suggestion that foreign trade be redistributed to ports where there would be no fear of illegal imposts.
436
July 11 (718) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Minister reserved U. S. Government’s position at the diplomatic body meeting; identic message from the other Ministers to their consuls at Shanghai (text printed), instructing them to protest individually unless situation warrants a few days’ delay in the expectation that the United States might join.
437
July 12 (282) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Inability to understand necessity for reserving U. S. position at diplomatic body meeting, when Department’s telegram No. 280 of July 9 advised its nonobjection to protest.
438
July 15 (733) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, July 14, for the Senior Minister from the Senior Consul: Decision of consular body to send protest (text printed) which reserves right to take suitable steps to protect shipping from illegal levy; preliminary opinion that diversion of shipping would not be feasible but that if naval protection could be afforded at principal ports affected, tonnage dues might be at treaty rates with consulates and ships might proceed with consular instead of Customs clearance.
From Shanghai, July 14: Information that consul general distinctly advised consular body that the United States would not use force.
438
July 22 (751) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, July 21: Proposal by American shipping interests, July 13, that the first American vessel to arrive with tonnage dues to pay should tender dues at treaty rate, accompanying the tender with a letter from consul general to Customs protesting levy of surtax and objecting to payment; consent of consul general to this plan, although doubtful of its success; information that if plan fails, shipping interests will meet again to consider payment under protest.
To Shanghai, July 22: Approval of consul general’s attitude.
439
[Page LXXI]July 28 (767) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, July 27: Report that proposed plan failed and that Steel Voyager, American vessel, paid surtax under protest; decision of shipping interests to ask Shipping Board for permission to clear Patrick Henry by consular clearance, and intention to make final decision after this attempt.
440
July 28 [29?] (771) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, July 28: Recommendation of American shipping interests that payment of the tonnage surtax be opposed, and their suggestions for accomplishing this intention.
440
July 29 (773) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, July 27, for the Senior Minister from the Senior Consul: Recommendation by consular body, excepting Danish and Japanese representatives, that Hankow, Nanking, and Peking authorities be notified that unless levying of extra-treaty taxes ceases, foreign merchants will be instructed to pay to consulates treaty taxes plus Washington and export surtaxes, that foreign ships and cargo will be protected by small guards at foreign-owned wharves outside Settlement limits and a patrol by naval armed launches; further recommendation that consular body be authorized to enter into informal conversations with Nanking authorities on the subject.
442
July 29 (774) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval by most of diplomatic body of recommendations of Shanghai consular body; American Minister’s desire for instructions; opinion that there is no alternative to Shanghai consular body’s recommendations except complete abandonment of treaty safeguards.
(Repeated to Shanghai.)
443
July 30 (302) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Department’s telegram No. 280 of July 9 advised that the U. S. Government was not prepared to protect shipping companies against tonnage surtaxes by the use of military or naval forces; inability to proceed to the measures suggested in telegram from Shanghai repeated to Department in Legation’s telegram No. 771.
444
Aug. 1 (780) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai: Decision of local representative of Shipping Board to pay tonnage surtax on Patrick Henry under protest; information that American and French consuls called upon Commissioner of Foreign Affairs to press protest against tonnage surtaxes, and were informed that he and Foreign Minister were urging Finance Minister to abolish the surtax.
445
Aug. 1 (781) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Minister’s inquiry, in view of receipt of telegram No. 302 of July 30, whether to await further word from Department before informing colleagues that he cannot participate in action they may take to resist the imposition of extra-treaty dues and duties.
446
[Page LXXII]Aug. 2 (304) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Advice that the Department’s instructions do not preclude Minister’s discussing any form of joint action proposed by colleagues, provided use of military or naval force is not involved; authorization to inform colleagues at own discretion.
446
Aug. 2 (785) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, August 1: Clearance of French steamer under consular clearance after tender of the legal dues was refused by Customs and dues deposited with French consul general; informal advice from Superintendent of Customs, July 30, that tonnage surtax will be suspended shortly.
446
Aug. 8 (795) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, August 6: Announcement that after August 8 the amount of tonnage surtax will be reduced to one-half of the present surtax levy; consular clearance of two more French vessels, with no reprisals by Chinese or necessity for use of force.
447
Aug. 10 (801) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, August 9: Request for instructions in regard to Dollar Co.’s request for clearance of President Taft and other ocean-going vessels with consular clearance only.
To Shanghai, August 10: Instructions to explain to company the limit upon consul general’s ability to extend assistance, that company cannot expect the protection of American military or naval forces, and that company must assume responsibility for any untoward results of its decision.
447
Aug. 11 (314) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Request by Robert Dollar Co., August 9, for clearance of President Taft after deposit of normal tonnage dues if Customs should refuse to accept dues without surtax; Department’s reply (text printed), explaining situation at Shanghai, and suggesting that they may care to consider desirability of paying the surtaxes under protest, at least for the present.
(Instructions to communicate this information to consul general at Shanghai.)
449
Aug. 12 (805) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From the Senior Minister to the Senior Consul at Shanghai, July 29: Request to be informed whether consular body believes consulates could carry out effectively the duties which would be imposed on them, and whether military and naval commanders believe that necessary protection outside Settlement is a practical proposal.
To Shanghai, August 6: Instructions to consul general not to lead colleagues to believe that he could be associated in any plan which would in any way involve use of American military or naval forces.
From the Senior Consul at Shanghai to the Senior Minister, August 9: Affirmative answer of consular body to the two questions in Senior Minister’s telegram of July 29; affirmative answer of foreign naval authorities and senior American naval officers as to practicability of protection outside Settlement.
450
[Page LXXIII]Aug. 14 (806) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai: Clearance of President Taft at request of owners, on consular clearance only.
451
Aug. 16 (316) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Inquiry, because treaty of 1858 makes consul responsible to Chinese authorities for duties and tonnage dues, as to what steps American consul general took to protect himself and U. S. Government before granting consular clearance to the Taft.
452
Aug. 16 (811) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai: Information that additional consular clearances have been requested by American shipping interests; urgent request for instructions.
Minister’s request that Department send direct instructions to Shanghai and repeat to Legation.
452
Aug. 17 To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Instructions that in any case where consul general has satisfied himself that the treaty duties have been paid, that the shipowner has made a legal tender of treaty tonnage dues which has been refused, and that the company desires to take the risk and will adequately guarantee him against any claim for the dues, no objection will be made to the issuance of consular clearance.
(Instructions to repeat to Legation at Peking.)
453
Aug. 26 (832) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai: Information that Dollar Co. gave a written guarantee safeguarding U. S. Government and consul general from any liability under treaty of 1858 arising out of the clearance of vessels by consular clearance only, and that President McKinley has been cleared under this general guarantee.
454
Aug. 26 To the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Information that Shanghai office of American firm has advised that the S. S. Mobile City was cleared without payment of illegal surtax tonnage dues, on the advice of American consul.
454
Aug. 27 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Advice that the report in Department’s telegram of August 26 is incorrect, that the Mobile City was cleared only upon request of Shanghai branch of company, after the instructions of Department’s telegram of August 17 had been complied with.
455
Aug. 31 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Report in vernacular press, confirmed verbally by Commissioner of Foreign Affairs, that surtax tonnage dues will be abolished September 1.
(Repeated to the Legation.)
455
Sept. 2 From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
Clearance of President McKinley by the Customs, September 1, on payment of treaty tonnage dues and without payment of the tonnage surtax, and issuance by Customs of the usual 4– months’ tonnage-dues certificate, dating from August 19, the date of last entry of vessel, when it was cleared by consular clearance only.
(Repeated to the Legation.)
456
[Page LXXIV]Oct. 5 (912) From the Consul General at Shanghai (tel.)
From Shanghai: Offer by Customs to issue new tonnage-dues certificates for 4 months from date of consular clearance, and opinion of consul general and American shipowners that arrangement is satisfactory; information that on October 6 the consular body will discuss question of deducting from tonnage dues the amount of tonnage surtax paid under protest, but that American consul general is not in favor of the proposal.
456
Dec. 17 (416) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Inquiry as to what disposition has been made of tonnage dues deposited with consulate general at Shanghai.
457
Dec. 23 (1119) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, December 21: Information that all certified checks covering tonnage dues have been deposited with Customs or returned to the shipping company upon issuance and presentation to consul general of tonnage-dues certificate expiring 4 months after clearance of the vessel by consular clearance only.
457

Disinclination of the United States To Intervene in Matters Relating to the Administration of the Chinese Maritime Customs

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Feb. 1 (104) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that presidential mandate of January 31 dismissed Sir Francis Aglen as Inspector General of Customs, appointed A. H. F. Edwardes as Acting Inspector General, and made other changes in the administration of the Chinese Maritime Customs and the Revenue Council.
457
Feb. 5 (114) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Explanation by Aglen to interested diplomatic representatives as to circumstances of his dismissal; readiness of British, French, Italian, and Japanese Ministers to cooperate in representations to Peking authorities against Aglen’s dismissal; American Minister’s reservation of judgment for time being; draft memorandum of representations (text printed).
458
Feb. 7 (50) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions not to participate in representations described in telegram No. 114 of February 5.
460
Feb. 8 (122) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Interview, February 7, of American, British, French, Italian, and Japanese Ministers with Peking Foreign Minister, in which they expressed apprehension over inevitable break-up of Customs if Government persisted in present course; surmise that he realizes folly of the action taken and welcomes representations as a basis for asking reconsideration.
Information that Department’s telegram No. 50 of February 7 has just been received; Minister’s regret that he has taken action which proves not to be in accord with Department’s desire.
461
[Page LXXV]Feb. 10 (130) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Report that negotiations among British Minister, Aglen, and Government intermediary have resulted in solution whereby Government will not enforce the order requiring the Customs to collect surtaxes, that Aglen will continue nominally as Inspector General for a year on home leave, and that Edwardes will take charge as Acting Inspector General with responsibility for service of existing loans only; possibility that Nationalists will refuse to recognize Aglen’s successor and will take over customhouses in their territory.
462
Feb. 14 (139) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Aglen made over charge of Customs to Edwardes on February 11; appointment by Nationalist Government of a commission to report on situation created by Aglen’s dismissal; likelihood that Hankow authorities will refuse to recognize change of Inspector General; Nationalist threat to take over certain Salt Administration offices.
463
Feb. 18 (150) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, February 17: Nationalist demand that building occupied by Salt Gabelle be vacated for use of Foreign Ministry.
464
Feb. 19 (156) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Edwardes’ belief that his appointment of a Japanese as chief secretary of Customs is a just move and one likely to save the organization from immediate disruption; Aglen’s personal endeavor to secure acquiescence of Foreign Minister of Nationalist Government at Hankow to Edwardes’ acceptance of office.
464
Feb. 21 (935) From the Minister in China
Observations concerning increased Japanese participation in Customs.
464
June 10 (635) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Nanking authorities advised British Minister that they intend to appoint their own Inspector General of Customs for territory under Nationalist control, who will be given sub rosa authorization to maintain relations with Edwardes, and that the revenues collected will bear their share of existing indemnity and loan charges upon Customs revenues; British Minister’s emphasis to Nanking authorities regarding inexpediency of such action; request for instructions as to whether to join in representations.
465
June 13 (252) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Instructions not to join in any representations in regard to the integrity of the Maritime Customs Administration.
466
[Page LXXVI]

Decision of American Government Not To Exercise Right To Have an Official Watch the Proceedings in Suits by American Plaintiffs Against Chinese Defendants

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Feb. 11 (133) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, February 10: Passage by Nationalist Government of resolution (text printed) providing that trial of mixed cases be removed from Hsiakow’s court to Hankow city court, and that the Peking procedure be disapproved and witnessing of trial by consular representative be rejected; request of Hsiakow magistrate that no action be taken until he has communicated with American consul general directly.
466
Feb. 19 (159) From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Hankow, February 16: Information that Hsiakow magistrate has transferred cases to Hankow city court, thus arbitrarily depriving Americans of a treaty right; request for instructions.
Opinion that if the United States is not to protest against repudiation of treaty rights, the preferable course would be to advise its consuls that, pending a readjustment of treaty relations, it does not intend, except in unusual circumstances, to exercise option of sending consular deputy to watch cases brought by American citizens against Chinese defendants; request for instructions.
467
Feb. 23 (70) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Approval of procedure outlined; authorization to instruct consuls accordingly, requesting them to inform local Chinese authorities; authorization to advise colleagues of U. S. Government’s decision.
468
Mar. 12 (212) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that appropriate instructions have been issued to consuls, and that Minister’s colleagues have been advised in a note (text printed).
From Hankow, March 10: Appointment by Nationalist Government of a committee to investigate and evolve a plan for the immediate establishment of a modern Chinese court to try cases in which foreigners are plaintiffs against Chinese.
468

Embargo by the Chinese Nationalist Government at Nanking on the Shipment of Silver and Gold

Date and number Subject Page
1927 July 23 (753) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Nationalist Government at Nanking has placed restrictions on export of silver and gold from Shanghai; desire of National City Bank at Shanghai that it be permitted to ship silver to Tientsin branch on American warship to avoid heavy premium on exchange between Shanghai and the North and to enable Tientsin branch to pay American forces; request for authorization to instruct consul general at Shanghai to arrange shipment on naval vessel of silver needed by Tientsin branch to pay U. S. disbursements.
469
[Page LXXVII]July 25 (294) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Unwillingness of Department to approve transportation of silver by American naval vessels merely to reduce premiums on exchange; belief that such approval is not necessary for the purpose of facilitating payment of forces at Tientsin, as money can be obtained and transported by naval vessels without utilizing facilities offered by the bank.
471
Nov. 19 (1009) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From the commander in chief, U. S. Asiatic Fleet, November 16: Information that, after consultation with consul general, a shipment of silver to Hankow by destroyer was made at urgent request of National City Bank.
471
Nov. 25 (103) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Shanghai, November 22: Explanation that consul general followed instructions in supporting National City Bank’s application to Superintendent of Customs for shipment of silver to Hankow, and that because Superintendent withheld official action and held himself incommunicado, bank requested direct assistance from Admiral Bristol, who notified consul general of his decision to render desired assistance.
471

Continued Negotiations Concerning the Federal Telegraph Company’s Contract With the Chinese Government

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Jan. 12 (24) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Probability that Chinese will accept invitation to conference in New York but that delay in appointment of a representative has been caused by disorganization in Ministry of Communications and possibly by fear or unwillingness to commit themselves before Japanese have indicated willingness to participate.
472
Apr. 23 (182) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Information that Japanese Embassy is being requested to reply to Department’s memorandum of October 28, 1926; instructions to report present situation and prospects for action by Peking authorities.
472
May 2 (202) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Inability of Radio Corporation of America to consider suggestion of T. Y. Tsiang, Director General of Telegraphs, Peking, concerning new arrangements for short-wave stations, in view of recommendations of Department’s memorandum of October 28, 1926, and the lack of answer thereto by Chinese and Japanese Governments.
Radio Corporation to Director General of Telegraphs: Acknowledgment of communication.
473
[Page LXXVIII]May 6 (524) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Information from Director General of Telegraphs that in December 1926 Chinese Ministry of Communications ascertained that Japanese Government disapproved participation of Mitsui Company in the New York conference, that Japanese Government received favorably the proposals he made to Radio Corporation, and that Japanese are awaiting indication of Radio Corporation’s attitude; assumption of Director General that his proposal is now the only one open for consideration and that if Radio Corporation accepts, details could be worked out at a conference in Peking.
473
July 18 (744) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Director General of Telegraphs to Radio Corporation: Opinion that tripartite conference suggested by Radio Corporation can have no result unless some understanding is reached previously between Chinese Government, Radio Corporation, and the Japanese interest, and information that this is cause of delay in replying to Secretary of State’s memorandum of October 1926; mention of additional terms to be added to Director General’s proposals.
474
July 29 (301) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Radio Corporation to Director General of Telegraphs: Inability to see reason for attempting to reach understanding by an agreement before the conference; suggestion that a reply from Chinese and Japanese Governments to State Department’s invitation of October 1926 should precede any further attempts to negotiate the matter.
475
Oct. 3 To the President of the Radio Corporation of America
Information that the Assistant Secretary of State had declared, in reply to an inquiry by the Japanese Ambassador, that, while a proposal had been made directly to Radio Corporation by Chinese Government, there was no proposal of Chinese Government before the U. S. Government, and that so far as the U. S. Government was concerned the matter waited upon replies from Chinese Ministry of Communications and Japanese company to Radio Corporation’s invitation to a conference in New York.
475
Oct. 20 Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State
Conversation in which the Secretary of State informed the Japanese Ambassador that the Radio Corporation was anxious that representatives of the Chinese Telegraph Administration and Mitsui Company attending Radio Conference in Washington be authorized to meet with Radio Corporation representative; Assistant Secretary of State’s expression of opinion that when the private interests had agreed on a plan, it would be appropriate for the U. S., Chinese, and Japanese Governments to consider whether they would or would not approve of the plan agreed upon, U. S. Government’s interest being limited to seeing radio communications established and preventing monopoly.
476
[Page LXXIX]Nov. 29 (130) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
From the American Minister to China, enroute to Peking: Receipt of confidential memorandum from Vice Minister Debuchi, outlining a basis of negotiation among the American and Japanese business interests and the Chinese Ministry of Communications (text printed); Debuchi’s suggestion that after agreement of the Governments concerned, the business interests confer with Ministry of Communications at Peking or Tokyo.
478
Dec. 3 From the British Embassy
Inquiry whether the U. S. Government is now prepared to endorse a wireless consortium on the part of the various powers concerned.
479
Dec. 19 Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State
Conversation in which the Japanese Ambassador was advised that Vice Minister Debuchi’s memorandum would be referred to the Radio Corporation for comment, and that Department would reply to British Ambassador’s inquiry with an answer along the lines of reply to Japanese of October 1926; explanation that Department felt that consortium proposal would probably be inacceptable to the Chinese, and if so, it would be worthless.
480

Consideration of Informal Proposal for Loan by American Bankers to the South Manchuria Railway

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Nov. 19 (1008) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Inquiry by Peking generalissimo’s headquarters concerning object of recent trip to Japan by Thomas W. Lamont of J. P. Morgan & Co., rumored to be for the purpose of negotiating a loan to Japanese interests for use in developing Manchuria; apprehension of Kuomintang leaders at Shanghai that a loan by American bankers to Japanese interests who would advance funds to South Manchuria Railway would strengthen Japanese grip in Manchuria; request for information concerning Lamont’s trip.
(Repeated to Tokyo.)
482
Nov. 19 (84) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that Department has received an informal inquiry from Lamont whether objection would be made to loan to South Manchuria Railway, the loan to be guaranteed by the Japanese Government; feeling of Department that it would be inadvisable to pass such a loan, for political reasons; request for opinion as to Japanese Government’s reaction if loan should be refused; request for information concerning Lamont’s conversations in Tokyo.
483
Nov. 21 (385) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Information concerning Lamont’s trip to Japan and his subsequent inquiry concerning any objection to a loan to South Manchuria Railway; request for opinion as to reaction in China if such a loan is consummated.
483
[Page LXXX]Nov. 21 (128) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Belief that Department’s refusal to pass loan would be viewed by Japanese Government as evidence of distrust of Japanese intentions in Manchuria and lack of faith in her promises to respect China’s territorial integrity, that if financial assistance is refused cooperation between Japan and Soviet Union will result, and that the time has come to act toward Japanese in a new light; information that Lamont’s conversations were with men representing important financial interests.
484
Nov. 25 (1029) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
Belief that approval of loan would cause Chinese to feel that American Government was favoring a direct loan to Japanese Government which would assist it in exploiting Manchuria in a way calculated to be subversive of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of China, and that serious consequences would be likely.
487
Dec. 3 (1066) From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From the commander in chief, U. S. Asiatic Fleet, December 2: Apprehension of Kuomintang circles over proposed loan; belief that consummation thereof would create difficult situation for Americans in the Far East.
489
Dec. 3 (397) To the Chargé in China (tel.)
Information that there have been no further developments in the loan matter, that the bankers have not yet presented any definite proposal for Department’s decision, and that no press statement has been made on subject; instructions not to comment other than to say that it is understood that no definite proposal has been presented to Department.
489
Dec. 5 From Mr. Frank W. Lee, Representative of the Chinese Nationalist Government (tel.)
Telegram of December 1 from the Foreign Minister of Nationalist Government at Nanking (text printed), expressing hope that American Government will not permit consummation of the proposed loan.
490
Dec. 9 (132) From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Concern of Japanese over rumor that bankers have refused to make the loan, and that the responsibility lies with Department of State; request for summary of developments and statement to be given to press if deemed advisable.
491
Dec. 10 (87) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Similar information as in telegram No. 397 of December 3 to the Chargé in China; informal intimation to Department that bankers have decided, in view of unfavorable market for loan in the United States and the fact that it is so entangled with Far Eastern politics, to postpone any consideration of loan; instructions to refrain from commenting on matter except to state understanding that Department has received no definite proposal.
492
[Page LXXXI]

Arrangement for Payment by American Citizens and Firms of Voluntary Contributions in Lieu of Taxes to the Harbin Municipality

Date and number Subject Page
1926 Oct. 7 (773) From the Chargé in China
Recommendation that consul at Harbin be authorized to advise Chinese authorities that the new municipal regulations are unacceptable. Suggested courses of action.
492
1927 Jan. 28 (92) From the Minister in China (tel.)
Request for authority to approve recommendation by consul at Harbin that American citizens and firms be requested to pay through consulate voluntary contributions at the same rates as those of taxes levied on nationals whose governments adhered to the old 1914 municipal agreement.
494
Feb. 4 (48) To the Minister in China (tel.)
Authority as requested in telegram No. 92 of January 28.
494
Mar. 1 (1448) From the Consul at Harbin to the Minister in China
Assent of American firms to plan of making voluntary contributions equal to taxes paid by other nationals enjoying extraterritorial rights, and desire of all save two to make payment through the consulate; favorable attitude of Chinese Commissioner of Foreign Affairs; information that amount of each firm’s contribution is now being figured.
495
Mar. 29 (470) To the Minister in China
Review of Department’s attitude toward Harbin municipality.
496
Aug. 31 (1175) From the Chargé in China
Opinion of consul at Harbin that because present procedure of making voluntary contributions through the consulate is irritating to Chinese authorities, contributions should be made directly to municipality; expression to consul of opinion that present procedure should be continued for the time being.
497
Nov. 7 (675) To the Chargé in China
Approval of instruction to consul at Harbin that present procedure be continued for the time being.
498

COSTA RICA

Proposed Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Consular Rights Between the United States and Costa Rica

Date and number Subject Page
1926 July 12 (13) To the Chargé in Costa Rica (tel.)
Instructions to ascertain whether Costa Rica is disposed to enter into negotiations for a treaty of friendship, commerce and consular rights.
500
Aug. 18 (790) From the Minister in Costa Rica
Advisability of awaiting a more opportune time to propose negotiation of a treaty; reasons on which this conclusion is based; opinion that the unfavorable conditions are temporary.
500
1927 July 5 (394) To the Minister in Costa Rica
Instructions to take up treaty matter with appropriate authorities if in Minister’s opinion the situation has changed since August 1926 and is now favorable to the negotiation of a treaty.
501
[Page LXXXII]Sept. 16 (1038) From the Minister in Costa Rica
Opinion that the present moment is not opportune; political reasons for this condition of affairs.
(Footnote: Information that apparently no further efforts were made to enter into treaty negotiations with Costa Rica.)
502

CUBA

Proposal by Cuba That the Commercial Convention Between the United States and Cuba, Signed December 11, 1902, Be Revised

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Apr. 11 From the Cuban Ambassador
Proposal that the United States and Cuba begin a joint study of the commercial reciprocity treaty of 1902, with a view to its revision.
503
Oct. 28 (83) To the Chargé in Cuba (tel.)
Instructions to furnish Department with text of communication sent by Ambassador Crowder to the Cuban Government on November 17, 1926, concerning the reciprocity treaty.
504
Oct. 29 (2333) From the Chargé in Cuba
Ambassador Crowder’s informal note of November 17, 1926, to President Machado (text printed), which advised that the U. S. Tariff Commission study of treaty of 1902 had been furnished to Cuban Foreign Office. Letter from the Ambassador to the Cuban Subsecretary of State, November 16, 1926 (text printed), with which had been transmitted translation of the Tariff Commission study.
504
Dec. 2 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the Cuban Ambassador, in which the Ambassador outlined in a general way what his Government desired in the way of revision of the treaty, and the Secretary promised to investigate the matter carefully; table showing trade of the United States with Cuba (text printed).
506
Dec. 15 From the Cuban Ambassador
Outline of two alternative proposals which might serve as a basis for the study of a new commercial treaty between Cuba and the United States.
508
Dec. 23 (1) From the Ambassador in Cuba
Ambassador Judah’s remarks at the presentation of his letter of credence to President Machado and of President Machado’s reply (texts printed), in which reference is made to the possible revision of Cuban-American mercantile relations.
516
1928 Jan. 12 To the Cuban Chargé
Advice that U. S. Government’s views on the proposals contained in the Cuban Ambassador’s note of December 15, 1927, will be communicated as soon as the necessary study of the proposals shall have been completed.
518
[Page LXXXIII]

Passage of Cuban Constitutional Amendment Bill

Date and number Subject Page
1927 May 5 (2017) From the Ambassador in Cuba
Comments, at the Department’s request, on memorandum of conversations between the Chief of the Division of Latin American Affairs and President Machado of Cuba, April 20–22, with particular reference to the provisions of the pending bill to amend the Cuban Constitution.
519
May 13 (970) To the Ambassador in Cuba
Instructions to report occasionally on legality of procedure being followed in connection with consideration of the Constitutional amendments, election of Constitutional Assembly, etc., and whether a condition exists which gives rise to possibility of disorders or revolution; authorization, if consulted by President Machado with regard to the proposed amendments and procedure being followed, to discuss the matters orally and informally, explaining own views, which are understood to agree with those of the Department.
522
June 13 (2112) From the Chargé in Cuba
Discussion among Ambassador, President Machado, and other Cuban officials, at President Machado’s request, of matters pertaining to the Constitutional amendments; information that Senate committee has drafted a new form of the bill, which Chargé believes to be much more acceptable than the old measure.
523
June 30 (2148) From the Chargé in Cuba
Transmittal of Constitutional amendment bill as published in Gaceta Oficial of June 21.
525

Visit of President Machado to the United States

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Mar. 26 To the Cuban Ambassador
Acknowledgment of advice that date of President Machado’s trip to the United States has been fixed for April 20; assurance that he will be accorded a sincere welcome by U. S. Government and people.
525
Apr. 23 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Latin American Affairs
Report of conversation between President Coolidge and President Machado, at which the latter brought up discussion of various problems, including Cuban sugar in American market, Constitutional reforms pending before Cuban Congress, and modification of the Platt Amendment.
525
May 7 From the Cuban Secretary of State
Expression of appreciation of the Cuban Government and people for the courtesies extended to President Machado during his visit to the United States.
528
[Page LXXXIV]

Consent of the United States Government to Conversion of $9,000,000 of the Cuban Public Debt

Date and number Subject Page
1927 June 25 To the Cuban Ambassador
Information that the U. S. Government has offered no objection to a proposed loan by J. P. Morgan & Co. to the Cuban Government for the purpose of funding 9 million dollars of the Cuban public debt.
(Footnote: Information that telegram No. 76 of July 1 from the Chargé in Cuba advised that the Cuban Government had sold to J. P. Morgan & Co. 9 million dollars of 10-year serial 5½ percent bonds.)
528

Suggestion of Cuba That a Meteorological Station Be Erected on Swan Island Jointly by the United States, Cuba, Great Britain, and Mexico

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Oct. 20 (2316) From the Chargé in Cuba
Memorandum from the Cuban Department of State (text printed), suggesting that a diplomatic agreement be entered into providing for joint maintenance by the United States, Cuba, Great Britain, and Mexico of a meteorological station on Swan Island, the expenses to be shared equally by the four Governments and the execution of the agreement to be left to the British Government.
530
Nov. 18 (1107) To the Chargé in Cuba
Information that in an Opinion dated June 24, 1925 (text printed), the U. S. Attorney General advised that dominion of the United States was extended over the Swan Islands by the President, as evidenced by a certificate of Secretary of State Seward, dated February 11, 1863, and that U. S. sovereignty attached to the islands from that date; instructions to hand copy of the Opinion to the Cuban Government, advising that a reply will be made to the memorandum of October 20.
531

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

Proposed Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Consular Rights Between the United States and Czechoslovakia

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Mar. 22 (8) To the Chargé in Czechoslovakia (tel.)
Instructions to ascertain whether Czechoslovakia is now disposed to enter into negotiations for a treaty of friendship, commerce and consular rights.
539
Apr. 1 (12) From the Chargé in Czechoslovakia (tel.)
Information that Czechoslovakia is willing to begin negotiations; that upon initiative of Czechoslovak Minister at Washington, a draft has been prepared along lines of American-German treaty of December 8, 1923; and that an official note has been promised shortly.
540
[Page LXXXV]Apr. 1 (9) To the Chargé in Czechoslovakia (tel.)
Opinion that uniformity in treaties of the United States can best be attained by beginning negotiations on a draft to be submitted by the U. S. Government; instructions to endeavor to obtain consent to this procedure.
540
Apr. 18 (15) From the Minister in Czechoslovakia (tel.)
Receipt of Foreign Office note stating willingness to negotiate a treaty and to learn U. S. point of view on the subject.
540
Apr. 20 (1265) From the Minister in Czechoslovakia
Notes from Foreign Ministry, April 2 and 12 (texts printed), giving the information communicated to the Department in Legation’s telegrams No. 12 of April 1 and No. 15 of April 18, respectively.
541
May 5 (453) To the Minister in Czechoslovakia
Transmittal of draft treaty for presentation to Czechoslovak Government; explanation of general features and various provisions thereof; desire that negotiations be expedited in order that signed treaty may be submitted to the December session of the U. S. Senate; instructions to inform Department when draft is submitted to Foreign Office.
542
June 3 (22) From the Minister in Czechoslovakia (tel.)
Submittal of draft treaty to Foreign Office, June 3.
543
June 4 (1311) From the Minister in Czechoslovakia
Advice that Department must not be hopeful as to early conclusion of treaty, because of complexity of Czechoslovak internal administration and need for critical examination by the various Ministries.
(Footnote: Information that further negotiations did not result in the signing of a treaty.
543

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Prolongation of the Presidential Term From Four Years to Six Years

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Feb. 28 (20) From the Minister in the Dominican Republic (tel.)
Information that President Vasquez is considering a plan for prolonging his term of office to 6 years; Minister’s intention to limit action to informal representations, making U. S. attitude clear.
545
Mar. 3 (10) To the Minister in the Dominican Republic (tel.)
Approval of informal representations based on Plan of Evacuation of 1922.
545
Mar. 8 (419) From the Minister in the Dominican Republic
Report of conversation with President Vasquez in which Minister made informal representations and the President explained his attitude, stating that while he was personally not anxious to remain in office after 1928, he was being pressed by different groups to continue until 1930; advisability of discouraging 6-year term proposal by action limited to friendly advice and counsel.
545
[Page LXXXVI]Mar. 31 (29) From the Minister in the Dominican Republic (tel.)
Probability that Congress will soon adopt a resolution expressing opinion that presidential term is for 6 years; apparent intention of President Vasquez to remain in office until 1930 if possible; suggestion that Department informally impress on Dominican Minister in Washington the possible serious consequences to his country through prolongation of presidential term or choice of an unsuitable successor and emphasize that the responsibility lies with President Vasquez.
547
Apr. 2 (13) To the Minister in the Dominican Republic (tel.)
Preference that Department’s views not be conveyed to President Vasquez through Dominican Minister, because of latter’s strong approval of 6-year term; authorization to express orally and informally to President Vasquez views in the sense of suggestion in Minister’s telegram No. 29 of March 31.
547
Apr. 12 (439) From the Minister in the Dominican Republic
Information that plans are being made to call a Constituent Assembly to modify the Constitution so that terms of Vice President and Deputies will be extended to 1930, in order that they, as well as the President and Senators, may |be elected at one general election; informal conversation with President Vasquez; informal conversations with Vice President Velasquez and a Dominican citizen, in which they expressed disapproval of the prolongation of Presidential term; probability that resolution now pending in Senate will be amended to prohibit reelection of the President upon completion of 6-year term, in order to meet objections to the new program.
548
May 2 (39) From the Minister in the Dominican Republic (tel.)
Passage of prolongation law by Congress and approval by the President; provision for election of Constituent Assembly and meeting thereof 10 days later; report that there is considerable excitement, but no disorder.
551
Aug. 26 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Latin American Affairs of a Conversation With Señor Federico Velasquez y Hernandez, Vice President of the Dominican Republic
Discussion of Dominican political situation, in which the Department’s attitude toward recent and possible future political events in the Dominican Republic was expressed, in response to the Vice President’s remarks alleging illegality of extension of presidential term, and probability of political disturbances.
551

EGYPT

Correspondence Relating to Equality of Representation as Between the Capitulatory Powers on the Egyptian Mixed Courts

Date and number Subject Page
1926 Apr. 9 (12) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Information that a Mixed Court judgeship will become vacant and Egyptian Government proposes to appoint another British subject to the post; belief that such action is not in conformity with equality of representation provided by agreement between the powers and the Egyptian Government at the time of establishing Mixed Courts; inquiry whether it is desirable that any representations be made.
555
[Page LXXXVII]Apr. 9 (793) From the Minister in Egypt
Note to Foreign Minister, April 9, 1926 (text printed), referring to Mixed Court vacancy and reported intention to appoint another British judge, and stating that the question is raised to record the fact that the United States recognizes that such action is not in conformity with agreement entered into between the powers and the Egyptian Government. Information that the American Minister took this action because of imminence of an appointment and his desire to apprise Foreign Ministry that the United States is taking note of the situation.
555
May 17 (824) From the Minister in Egypt
Foreign Ministry note of May 16, 1926 (text printed), citing precedents for freedom in the appointment of judges and declaring in the closing paragraph that the United States must have recognized the justice of the Egyptian Government’s action in the past, because it did not formulate any protest and in 1916 renewed the mandate of Mixed Tribunals without making objection to the action of the Egyptian Government.
556
June 8 (271) To the Minister in Egypt
Opinion that the U. S. Government’s previous silence would not debar it from formally taking exception to the present unequal representation; desire that no further action be taken except under instructions.
558
1927 Jan. 22 (306) To the Minister in Egypt
Summary of considerations which lead Department to instruct Minister to file with the Foreign Office an exception to closing paragraph of the note of May 16, 1926; desire that Minister discuss the note orally with appropriate authorities in detail; belief that further observations on the Egyptian Government’s position would require more evidence from that Government as to the arguments which lead it to the conclusions expressed in the note; information that Department does not desire that any written communications with respect to the matter be addressed to the Egyptian Government.
560
Mar. 10 (10) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Inquiry whether the directions of Secretary’s instruction No. 306 of January 22 regarding written communications are to be interpreted as not applying to filing the exception noted.
565
Mar. 11 (8) To the Minister in Egypt (tel).
Instructions that for the time being representations should be limited to an oral discussion with Foreign Office, during course of which Minister should take particular exception to closing paragraph of the note of May 16, 1926.
566
Mar. 28 (980) From the Minister in Egypt
Information that oral representations have been made to the Foreign Minister, who will reply in due course.
566
June 8 (1018) From the Minister in Egypt
Advice that no reply has been received to representations of March 28, probably because of existing political tension.
567
[Page LXXXVIII]Sept. 19 (63) From the Chargé in Egypt
Information that, with regard to Mixed Courts, Egyptian Government is most anxious for independence of action and a larger and more important Egyptian representation; memorandum of conversation of March 28 between American Minister and Foreign Minister (text printed); advice that no reply or reference to the conversation or representations has been made by the Egyptian Government.
567

Representations Concerning Alleged Discrimination Against American Companies in the Enforcement of Regulations on Storage of Petroleum at the Port of Alexandria

Date and number Subject Page
1926 July 19 (17) To the Chargé in Egypt (tel.)
Understanding that Greek companies are being allowed to store and handle petroleum in Alexandria Harbor in disregard of existing Egyptian regulations; instructions to confer with Vacuum Oil Co. representative and report the facts to Department.
570
July 20 (28) From the Chargé in Egypt (tel.)
Information that several conferences have been held with company representative, and that Chargé will press further for reply from Egyptian Government to Legation’s written and oral representations of June 8 and 29 and July 10.
570
July 20 (855) From the Chargé in Egypt
Intention of Chargé to arrange for interview with Prime Minister, and to discuss matter with British Residency because of participation of a British company in oil companies’ protest of May 12 to the Egyptian Government; oil companies’ representations of May 12 and Legation’s representations of June 8 and July 10 (texts printed).
570
Sept. 30 (886) From the Chargé in Egypt
Foreign Minister’s note of August 26 (text printed), setting forth reasons why it is not believed that the use of floating oil barges injures the companies in question or threatens the security of their installations. Chargé’s opinion that Egyptian Government, by granting special privileges and immunities to small competing firms, discriminates against the old established companies and permits existence of a menace to safety of American property.
574
Oct. 22 (898) From the Minister in Egypt
Note to Acting Foreign Minister, October 12, transmitting a further protest by the Vacuum Oil Co. against the floating storage of kerosene and benzine in Alexandria Harbor (texts printed); request for instructions as to further procedure.
576
1927 Feb. 3 (4) To the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Instructions to ascertain views of British and Rumanian colleagues, the nature of any representations they may have made, whether they would be in favor of joint or concurrent representations, and, if so, on what arguments they would base such action.
578
[Page LXXXIX]Feb. 23 (7) From the Minister in Egypt (tel.)
Information that no direct action has been taken by colleagues, that Belgian colleague, representing Rumanian interests, is favorable to joint action, and that British colleague is considering what steps if any should be taken; recommendation that no further action be taken until reply is received to memorandum left with British High Commissioner.
578
Mar. 8 (968) From the Minister in Egypt
Note from British High Commissioner, March 3 (text printed), stating that, because of improvement in harbor conditions and feeling of Egyptian Government that the floating depots are advantageous to the country and that reasonably adequate steps have been taken to safeguard shipping, no combined action is required. Chargé’s doubt that any further steps should be taken at the present time.
July 25 (14) From the Chargé in Egypt
Conference, July 16, between Acting Financial Adviser to Egyptian Government and representatives of American and British diplomatic and commercial interests, in which it was agreed that the best plan would be for the old established oil companies to present jointly to the Public Security Department a report and appeal, pointing out danger of present system and showing that space is available for land installations. Information from Acting Financial Adviser that no further permits for floating storage will be issued, nor will a company now holding such a permit be allowed to increase its stock.
Nov. 25 (343) To the Chargé in Egypt
Memorandum by Department official of a conversation with representatives of the Vacuum Oil Co., November 7 (extract printed), in which the latter stated that the petroleum storage matter was on the way to satisfactory settlement and that it was believed for the time being no further representations by the U. S. Government were necessary.
582

ETHIOPIA

Reestablishment of American Diplomatic Representation in Ethiopia

Date and number Subject Page
1926 May 22 (4) From Mr. Ralph J. Totten, Consul General Detailed as Inspector
Extracts from official report on investigation of desirability of reestablishing American diplomatic or consular representation in Abyssinia: recommendation that a representative be sent to Addis Ababa, preferably with the rank of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
584
1927 Feb. 7 To the Vice Consul at Aden
Letter for Ras Tafari Makonnen, Prince Regent of Ethiopia, from President Coolidge, dated February 3 (text printed), advising that Congress has been asked to appropriate funds for the salary of a Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary to Ethiopia, to be available July 1.
590
[Page XC]May 11 (220) From the Vice Consul at Aden
Letter for President Coolidge from Ras Tafari, dated April 30 (text printed), acknowledging with pleasure the news that an American Legation will be established at Addis Ababa.
591
Aug. 6 To the Vice Consul at Aden
Letter for Ras Tafari from President Coolidge, dated July 26 (text printed), advising that Congress failed to take favorable action on request for appropriation of funds for salary of a Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary to Ethiopia because of a strict economy program; but stating that it is planned to appoint, with the consent of the Senate, a Foreign Service officer to act as Minister Resident and Consul General.
592
Oct. 17 To the Vice Consul at Aden (tel.)
Instructions to send telegram to Ras Tafari (text printed), notifying him that Addison E. Southard has been appointed to act as Minister Resident and Consul General and inquiring whether the appointment is agreeable; instructions to telegraph substance of Prince Regent’s reply.
594
Oct. 22 From Ras Tafari Makonnen, Prince Regent of Ethiopia, to President Coolidge
Acknowledgment of letter of July 26, expressing confidence that Congress will soon take favorable action and that a representative will be sent to Addis Ababa.
594
Oct. 24 From the Vice Consul at Aden (tel.)
Information that Ras Tafari has advised that he is greatly pleased with the appointment of Mr. Southard.
595
Dec. 1 To the Appointed Minister Resident and Consul General in Ethiopia
Transmittal of commission and letter of credence, together with instructions as to the conduct of the Legation.
595

Project for Construction of a Dam at Lake Tsana

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Sept. 14 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Conversation between the Secretary of State and Dr. Martin, head of a special Ethiopian mission, in which the former stated, in response to inquiry, that no objection would be made to attempts to interest appropriate American concerns in a project for the construction of a dam at Lake Tsana.
599
Nov. 4 (214) To the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.)
Press reports of negotiation by J. G. White Engineering Corp. of New York of a 20-million dollar contract with Ethiopian Government for construction of Lake Tsana Dam, and resulting surprise in British official circles; information concerning Dr. Martin’s conversations at Department September 14 and October 19, at which latter interview he stated that he had succeeded in interesting the White Company, which was disposed to undertake the necessary financing and construction work provided Ethiopian Government could conclude a satisfactory agreement with British and Egyptian Governments; departure of Dr. Martin for England, October 29.
601
[Page XCI]Nov. 7 (8) From the Chargé in Egypt (tel.)
Information that alleged contract of White Company has aroused great local interest and anxiety.
601
Nov. 8 (28) To the Chargé in Egypt (tel.)
Outline of Ethiopian proposition to White Company; understanding that, pending necessary agreement of Ethiopian Government with British and Egyptian Governments on price for added irrigation water made available, no final contract will be signed.
602
Nov. 8 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs of a Conversation Between the Secretary of State and the Egyptian Minister
Secretary’s explanation, in response to Egyptian Minister’s inquiry, that so far as Department was aware, no contract had been signed for the construction of Lake Tsana Dam.
602
Nov. 8 (2258) From the Chargé in Great Britain
Advice that Foreign Office gave Chargé to understand that no anxiety was felt as to possibility of the construction of Lake Tsana Dam by an American firm without a satisfactory arrangement having been reached with Great Britain, in view of the pertinent provisions of the treaty of Addis Ababa of 1902.
603
Nov. 11 (2267) From the Chargé in Great Britain
Excerpts from London press, November 9 and 10 (texts printed), setting forth remarks of Dr. Martin explaining status of his negotiations and remarks of Sir Austen Chamberlain, Foreign Secretary, in the House of Commons with regard to British interest in the Lake Tsana Dam matter.
604
Nov. 12 (114) From the Chargé in Egypt
Subsidence of interest and anxiety over Lake Tsana Dam matter, as a result of official and press cables giving assurance that treaty rights will be regarded and that England and Egypt will be consulted before Ethiopia concludes an agreement or signs a concession or contract.
606
Nov. 25 (2294) From the Chargé in Great Britain
Further remarks by Chamberlain in the House of Commons (excerpt printed), concerning British interest in Nile and Lake Tsana concession.
608
Dec. 9 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
Conversation in which the president of J. G. White Company explained that Dr. Martin has in his possession an additional, detailed proposal from the company which might be described as a contract to enter into a contract subject to certain conditions which would make British cooperation essential.
608
[Page XCII]

FRANCE

Briand Proposal for Pact of Perpetual Peace Between the United States and France; Counterproposal for Multilateral Treaty Renouncing War

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Apr. 6 Statement Made to the Associated Press by the French Minister for Foreign Affairs
Remarks on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of entry of the United States into the World War, expressing France’s desire for accomplishing maintenance of peace and declaring that France would be ready publicly to subscribe with the United States to any mutual engagement tending, as between those two countries, to “outlaw war.”
611
May 27 (217) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Briand’s desire to discuss his suggested pact between France and the United States.
613
June 2 (231) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Information from Briand that his Government has authorized him to inquire whether American Government would be willing to enter upon diplomatic conversations respecting a possible agreement of the nature proposed in his statement of April 6.
613
June 10 (172) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Press report that Briand has made his proposal in definite form and on June 3 gave American Ambassador a note explaining his idea of how the pact should be framed; instructions to advise whether such a note has been received, and if so, to telegraph summary.
614
June 11 (246) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Information that no note has been received, and that telegram No. 231 of June 2 reports the only overture which has been made.
614
June 11 (174) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Instructions to inform Briand orally that the American Government will be pleased to enter into diplomatic conversations with respect to his proposal; suggestion that at first the conversations be of an informal nature and be carried on through French Ambassador in Washington, due to imminent return of American Ambassador to the United States on leave.
614
June 14 (248) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Report that substance of telegram No. 174 of June 11 has been conveyed to Berthelot, Secretary General of the Foreign Ministry, because Briand is in Geneva.
615
June 21 To President Coolidge (tel.)
Information that the Root arbitration treaties of 1908 with France, Great Britain, and Japan expire in 1928; suggestion that it might be advisable to sound out British and Japanese Governments as to their disposition to take up negotiations similar to American negotiations with France; inquiry as to approval of suggestion.
615
June 22 (260) From the Chargé in France (tel.)
Information that American reply was pleasing to Briand; but that because French Ambassador will not reach Washington until late August and the delay would be too great, Briand has drafted a suggested text of pact (translation printed), the French text of which will be delivered by American Ambassador Herrick.
615
[Page XCIII]June 22 From the Secretary to the President (tel.)
Suggestion by the President that the Secretary of State talk informally with Great Britain and Japan without commitment.
616
June 24 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Western European Affairs
Objections to French proposition and draft text; opinion that the only answer seems to be that so far as relations with France are concerned adequate guarantees are contained in the Bryan treaty and that if any step further than this were required, it should be in the form of a universal undertaking not to resort to war, to which the United States would be happy to become a party.
617
June 26 (265) From the Chargé in France (tel.)
Desire of Briand to make statement on July 4 about proposed pact and to receive an expression of Secretary’s views on the draft submitted, as he will make no statement not in entire accord with Secretary.
618
June 27 (196) To the Chargé in France (tel.)
Unpreparedness to give opinion now on Briand draft, and belief that a public statement by him would be inadvisable; opinion that the proposal should be discussed informally through regular diplomatic channels.
618
June 27 To President Coolidge
Summary of present situation with regard to Briand proposal; outline of the existing treaty situation with France, Great Britain, and Japan; opinion that the United States cannot go much beyond a renewal of the Root treaties in view of fact that the Bryan treaties go on permanently and could, of course, again ask Japan to enter into a similar treaty; intention to make no answer to France until the President can submit the matter to the Cabinet.
61
June 29 From President Coolidge
Approval of conclusions set forth in letter of June 27.
621
June 29 From the Chargé in France
Communication to Briand’s Chief of Cabinet of substance of Secretary’s telegram No. 196 of June 27, and his acquiescence.
62
July 7 (229) To the Ambassador in Japan
Information that on June 30 the Secretary discussed Briand proposal with the Japanese Ambassador, stating that the United States would make no treaty with France which it would not be willing to offer to Great Britain and Japan, and suggesting that the Japanese Government might consider renewal of the Root treaty and the conclusion of a treaty similar to Bryan treaty.
622
July 13 (209) To the Chargé in France (tel.)
Instructions to inform Briand confidentially and orally that Ambassador Herrick has delivered the draft text, that the Secretary of State is carefully considering the matter but that he still feels that conversations of the nature indicated in telegram No. 174 of June 11 are appropriate and desirable.
623
[Page XCIV]July 15 (1009) To the Ambassador in Great Britain
Conversation with the British Ambassador, July 6, concerning the Briand proposal, in which the Secretary stated that the United States would not make any treaty with France which it would not be willing to make with Great Britain, Japan, or any other country, and also inquired if British Government would be willing to discuss renewal of Root treaty and further treaty provisions which might be considered advisable.
(Sent also to the Chargé in France.)
623
July 20 (235) To the Ambassador in Japan
Information that the Japanese Ambassador inquired on July 7 as to any further information on the Briand proposal, and was advised that there was none, but that he would be kept informed.
(Sent also to the Chargé in France.)
624
July 25 (220) To the Chargé in France (tel.)
Paris press despatch of July 23 (text printed), stating that no reply or acknowledgment has been made to French draft of the treaty abolishing war; advice that the information is incorrect; instructions to ascertain whether Foreign Office gave out information of this kind.
625
July 26 (289) From the Chargé in France (tel.)
Information that Briand has been out of Paris, but that telegram No. 209 of July 13 was communicated to Leger, his Chief of Cabinet; assurance by Leger that Foreign Office had given out no statement of any kind with regard to the proposed treaty.
625
Sept. 14 Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the French Ambassador
Brief discussion of Briand treaty, in which Secretary advised that he would be unable to discuss the matter until about October 1.
626
Dec. 28 To the French Ambassador
Observations on Briand draft; advancement of counterproposal that French and American Governments join in an endeavor to obtain adherence of all the principal world powers to a declaration renouncing war as an instrument of national policy.
(Footnote: Information that a copy of this note was transmitted in telegraphic circular, December 28, to the missions in France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and Switzerland, with instructions not to release to the press until further instructions, that the text of the note was released in Washington for the press on January 4, 1928, and that the missions listed were instructed by telegraph on January 3 to release the text promptly.)
626
Dec. 28 (1218) To the Chargé in Great Britain
Conversation, December 15, in which the Secretary informed the British Ambassador, during discussion of the Briand proposal and its general relationship to the Root arbitration treaties, that there was nothing definite yet.
(Sent also, on January 6, 1928, to the Chargé in France.)
628
[Page XCV]Dec. 30 (378) To the Chargé in France (tel.)
Doubt of French Ambassador that Briand will be willing to consider a multilateral treaty unless it can be explained why the United States would not be able to conclude a bilateral treaty; instructions to see Briand, orally informing him of Secretary’s feeling toward the question, and to cable results of the conversation.
629
Dec. 30 (227) To the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.)
Advice that Secretary has orally and confidentially informed British Ambassador of contents of note of December 28 to the French Ambassador; instructions to read text of note to Sir Austen Chamberlain, British Foreign Secretary, on a confidential basis.
(Footnote: Information in telegram No. 1 of January 3, 1928, that the Chargé read the note to Sir Victor Wellesley, Deputy Under Secretary of State, in the absence of Chamberlain.)
629
Dec. 31 (459) From the Chargé in France (tel.)
Report of conversation with Briand; statement of his views in support of a bilateral condemnation of recourse to war, which he would be willing to have made in preamble to the act renewing the 1908 arbitration treaty; Briand’s sympathetic attitude toward drafting a protocol outlawing war and inviting leading world powers to sign; impression that while Briand is disappointed at the nature of reply, he understands situation and is ready to accept what Secretary has to offer.
630

French Tariff Decree of August 30, 1927, and Proposed Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Consular Rights Between the United States and France

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Mar. 19 (83) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Information that commercial attaché has reported receipt of assurances concerning position of American commerce under proposed new French tariff and has inquired regarding possible release of statement; desire for Ambassador’s report and recommendations.
631
Mar. 22 (128) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Informal advice from Foreign Office that under the proposed new tariff relative position of American commerce will be maintained for the present; Ambassador’s belief that France hopes that negotiations may soon be started for a new commercial treaty with the United States; opinion that no statement should be released.
631
Mar. 24 (130) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Indication by Commerce Ministry official of disposition to begin negotiations with the United States for both a commercial and a consular convention, following entry into force of the new tariff; request that Commerce Department be informed.
631
[Page XCVI]Mar. 26 (92) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Belief that the United States is warranted in proposing a treaty draft as soon as possible; instructions to telegraph opinion and suggestions; inadvisability at present of any further informal discussions with French officials.
632
Apr. 1 (149) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Opinion that, in view of French desire that negotiations not begin until after new tariff becomes law, the question of initiation of commercial negotiations be given further consideration; suggestions as to provisions to be included in treaty draft.
633
Apr. 9 (161) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Considerations which now prompt Ambassador to feel that it might be wise to initiate commercial negotiations; suggestion that, because France is not likely to consent to an agreement which would provide for most-favored-nation treatment de jure, provision as it appears in U. S.-German treaty be redrafted.
634
Apr. 13 (108) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Concurrence in opinion that time is appropriate to initiate negotiations; intention to transmit draft treaty shortly; information that Department will submit article 7, providing for most-favored-nation treatment, in substantially same form as in treaties already concluded with Estonia, Germany, and Hungary.
635
Apr. 14 (7378) From the Ambassador in France
Reiteration of suggestion that, in order to avoid immediate impasse on most-favored-nation question, the text of article 7 be remodeled.
635
May 2 (182) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
From Young, an adviser of American delegation to the World Economic Conference at Geneva: Recommendation for immediate submittal of draft treaty to French Government, and reasons therefor; possibility that most-favored-nation treatment might be obtained if some concessions were made to France.
636
June 10 (2320) To the Ambassador in France
Transmittal of draft treaty of friendship, commerce and consular rights (text printed), providing for unconditional most-favored-nation treatment, for submittal to French Government when Ambassador considers that the time is opportune; instructions to cable Department when draft is submitted.
637
June 10 (7569) From the Ambassador in France
Improbability of prompt enactment of new tariff bill; French intention to continue pending commercial negotiations with various countries, including Germany; opinion that these developments do not make the present time any less favorable for initiation of commercial negotiations.
654
June 28 (2339) To the Chargé in France
Detailed comments on each article of draft treaty.
654
[Page XCVII]Sept. 2 (330) From the Chargé in France (tel.)
Commercial attaché to Department of Commerce: Information that French decree of August 30, effective September 6, provides many tariff increases in certain products which are granted minimum rates in Franco-German commercial treaty signed August 17, that the new minimum rates are considerably higher, the new general rates four times minimum, and that there are many substitutions of ad valorem for specific rates.
669
Sept. 3 (260) To the Chargé in France (tel.)
Instructions to consult with commercial attaché to determine whether substantial discrimination against American goods exists, and if so, to state to French Government the hope that it will impose upon American goods no higher duties than those imposed upon German goods until negotiations for a commercial treaty are consummated; further instructions to report action taken and results.
(Footnote: Information that this hope was communicated to the French Government in an aide-mémoire, September 7.)
669
Sept. 3 (331) From the Chargé in France (tel.)
Information that Chargé urged that new tariff rates be held in temporary abeyance and that in response to his assertion that the United States was prepared to enter into negotiations for a commercial treaty, Foreign Office official stated that negotiations could be taken up after October 1; probability that Chargé’s desire that American goods now in transit be excepted from the duties may be acted upon favorably.
670
Sept. 8 (341) From the Chargé in France (tel.)
Information that Chargé again pressed the matter of temporary abeyance of the application of new tariff to American goods, pending consummation of treaty negotiations, that Foreign Ministry official will probably recommend this action to the other Ministers concerned, and that the official indicated that if such a measure were to be adopted, negotiations should be opened at once, to which Chargé agreed; request for Department’s confirmation so that it may be given to Foreign Office in writing.
671
Sept. 10 (268) To the Chargé in France (tel.)
Desire that draft treaty be presented immediately and that Foreign Office be informed that the U. S. Government is ready to begin negotiations.
(Footnote: Information that on September 12 the Chargé telegraphed that he had just handed treaty draft to Foreign Office.)
672
Sept. 14 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation with the French Ambassador concerning discrimination against American trade through the new tariff, general tariff relations between the two countries, U. S. Statutes with reference to tariffs, and draft treaty presented to the French Government on September 12.
672
[Page XCVIII]Sept. 15 (352) From the Chargé in France (tel.)
Foreign Office aide-mémoire (text printed) offering temporary reduction of August 30 tariff rates in return for assurance that treaty negotiations will include tariff concessions on certain French products; information that Chargé expressed opinion that this reply would be inacceptable.
673
Sept. 19 Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State
Conversation with the French Ambassador, in which he was advised of inacceptability of the French reply and the reasons therefor.
677
Sept. 19 (282) To the Chargé in France (tel.)
Aide-mémoire for Foreign Office (text printed), stating position with regard to the French aide-mémoire and the tariff question in general.
678
Oct. 4 (7898) From the Chargé in France
Foreign Office aide-mémoire of September 30 (text printed), replying in detail to the issues raised in the American note, and expressing belief that the two Governments’ points of view are divergent but that they may be adjusted to make possible a provisional arrangement which may lead to a permanent treaty.
681
Oct. 8 (314) To the Chargé in France (tel.)
Instructions to advise Foreign Minister informally that the U. S. Government hopes that the tariff discriminations of August 30 will be removed so that it will not be necessary for the President to use his power under section 317 of Tariff Act to increase duties in such an instance.
690
Oct. 8 (315) To the Chargé in France (tel.)
Aide-mémoire for Foreign Office (text printed), stating willingness to accede to French desires for investigation of changes in tariff rates based on cost of production studies, and possible “facilities” for French commerce; assertion that, pending negotiations, American products now being discriminated against under August 30 tariff should be given minimum tariff rates; willingness to examine sanitary and other regulations which France claims are obstacles to her agricultural exports.
691
Oct. 15 (405) From the Chargé in France (tel.)
Foreign Office note (text printed), offering to return to situation prior to August 30 decree, with certain additional benefits in return for guarantees, in form of a protocol, that the Tariff Commission will proceed with cost of production investigations, that study will be made to ameliorate sanitary restrictions which exclude agricultural and pharmaceutical products, and that interference of American customs on French territory will cease; expectation that the so-called countervailing duties applied on October 7 to certain French products would be withdrawn as soon as the proposed provisional status be put into effect.
693
Oct. 18 Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State
Conversation in which the French Ambassador explained that his Government’s last note did not make demands on the U. S. Government, but merely asked that the various questions be studied.
695
[Page XCIX]Oct. 22 (330) To the Chargé in France (tel.)
Aide-mémoire for Foreign Office (text printed), stating inability to see necessity for protocol, but setting forth explanations and assurances with regard to the desired guarantees, and reduction of the countervailing duties to the extent possible under Tariff Law of 1922; hope that France will now remove the discriminations and that treaty negotiations may begin.
696
Nov. 4 (7999) From the Chargé in France
Foreign Office note of November 2 (text printed), restating assurances contained in U. S. aide-mémoire, together with French interpretation thereof, and advising that as soon as U. S. Government declares that there is no divergence between the two Governments’ views, the provisional regime will be established by decree.
698
Nov. 7 (345) To the Chargé in France (tel.)
Instructions to present aide-mémoire (text printed) stating that French interpretation of the explanations and assurances corresponds in the main to U. S. position and declaring readiness to enter upon treaty negotiations as soon as French tariff reductions are put into effect. Further instructions to present memorandum contained in Department’s telegram No. 346.
700
Nov. 7 (346) To the Chargé in France (tel.)
Memorandum on the so-called countervailing duties (text printed), explaining that, while Tariff Law of 1922 precludes the restoration of the exact rates obtaining before October 6, approximate rates will be restored and the total annual increase of tariffs on French imports will be small.
701
Nov. 18 (8038) From the Chargé in France
Foreign Office note of November 15 (text printed), stating that the provisional customs regime will enter into force on November 21 by virtue of a decree.
702

Arrangement Between the United States and France Granting Relief From Double Income Tax on Shipping Profits

Date and number Subject Page
1926 Aug. 19 From the French Chargé
Inquiry whether the United States is disposed to enter into an arrangement with France for the reciprocal exemption from taxation of profits of vessels under the other’s flag.
703
1927 Apr. 26 To the French Ambassador
Treasury Department letter of April 9 (extract printed), stating that if the proposed French decree (text printed) be adopted in the form submitted, it will meet the equivalent exemption requirements of section 213 (b) (8) of the Revenue Acts of 1921, 1924, and 1926.
704
[Page C]June 11 From the French Chargé
Transmittal of copy of decree issued by the French Government, May 20 (text printed), with request for assurance that French citizens and companies will hereafter be exempt from tax on shipping profits.
705
July 8 To the French Chargé
Treasury Department letter of July 7 (extract printed), declaring that the French decree of May 20 satisfies the equivalent exemption provision of section 213 (b) (8) of the Revenue Acts of 1921, 1924, and 1926.
706

Representations to the French Government Regarding Claims of American Citizens for Property Sequestered During the World War

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Dec. 17 (2546) To the Chargé in France
Instructions to make representations to the Foreign Office in connection with pending claims of American citizens for the release of sequestered property, asking that the existing understanding for reciprocal treatment be carried out and that the French Government extend to American claimants the same treatment and recognition of citizenship and property rights to sequestered property as was accorded by the U. S. Government to all French claimants, native-born or naturalized.
707

Agreement Between the United States and France for the Acquisition of Sites for Monuments Which the American Battle Monuments Commission Is To Erect in France

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Aug. 29 Agreement Between the United States of America and France
For the acquisition by the U. S. Government of lands intended as sites for monuments which the American Battle Monuments Commission is to erect in France.
718

GERMANY

Agreement by the Allied and Associated Powers Regulating Amounts To Be Allocated for Certain Purposes From the Dawes Annuities, Signed January 13, 1927

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Jan. 3 (3) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
From Hill, American unofficial representative on the Reparation Commission: Information that a meeting will be held January 13 to consider proposal for fixing prior charge on Dawes annuities for costs of armies of occupation, Inter-Allied Rhineland High Commission, and Military Mission of Control; observation that in view of previous instructions, American unofficial representative will raise no objections at meeting.
722
[Page CI]Jan. 13 (15) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
From Hill: Indication at meeting of approval of proposed agreement; request for authorization to sign on behalf of the United States.
723
Jan. 31 (19) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
For Hill: Authorization to sign, since agreement will reduce prior charges and increase American participation.
723
Feb. 1 From the Unofficial Representative on the Reparation Commission
Information that agreement has been signed by the American unofficial representative.
724
Jan. 13 Agreement by the Allied and Associated Powers Regulating Amounts To Be Allocated for Certain Purposes From the Dawes Annuities
For the armies of occupation, the Rhineland High Commission, and the Military Commission of Control for the period April 1, 1926 to January 10, 1930.
724

Policy of the Department of State Regarding American Bankers’ Loans to German States and Municipalities

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Sept. 20 From Messrs. Sullivan & Cromwell
Consideration by Harris, Forbes & Co. of the flotation of a bond issue of the Prussian State, the proceeds of which are to be used for harbor and agricultural development; inquiry whether Department offers any objection.
727
Sept, 26 (89) To the Ambassador in Germany (tel.)
Information that Department told German Chargé that bankers have been advised to consider special questions presented by German financing under Treaty of Versailles; that apparently German Government is not effectively controlling borrowing; that while objection cannot be made on ground of public policy, Department doubts utility of present loan; and that unless German Government undertakes to check loans strictly, U. S. Government may be compelled to place embargo on state and municipal loans.
(Instructions to furnish copy to Agent General for Reparation Payments and to American Embassy official at Paris concerned with Reparation Commission matters, and, if approached by German officials, to make oral explanation of Department’s position.)
728
Oct. 11 To Messrs. Sullivan & Cromwell
Explanation of position with regard to German loans in general; assertion, however, that there appear to be no questions of Government policy involved which would justify objection to the loan under discussion.
729
[Page CII]

GREAT BRITAIN

Representations by the British Government Regarding Letter on War Debts From the Secretary of the Treasury to the President of Princeton University

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Mar. 23 (Dip. 580) To Diplomatic and Consular Officers
Statement by Princeton University president and professors, March 9 (text printed), urging reconsideration and revision of debt settlements with the allies; Treasury Department press release, March 17 (text printed), setting forth text of letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to the president of Princeton University, March 15, which explains the circumstances under which the debts were incurred and considerations on which he bases opinion that the reopening of the question would be inadvisable.
731
May 2 (301) From the British Ambassador
Representations against certain references to Great Britain’s position and policy in the Secretary of the Treasury’s letter of March 15; hope that the U. S. Government will correct the impression that has been created by the issuance of the statement.
739
May 4 To the British Ambassador
Information that the U. S. Government regards the correspondence as a purely domestic discussion and does not desire to engage in any formal diplomatic exchanges on the subject.
745

Arrangement Between the United States and Great Britain for the Disposal of Certain Pecuniary Claims Arising out of the Recent War, Signed May 19, 1927

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Feb. 1 (83) From the British Ambassador
Inquiry whether the exchange of notes on the latest claims settlement may be expected before Parliament convenes on February 8.
745
Feb. 2 To the British Ambassador
Inability to give assurance that the matter can be arranged before February 8.
746
Feb. 19 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Conversation, February 16, in which the British Ambassador was informed of the reasons why the exchange of notes probably cannot be accomplished until some time within the next 2 months.
746
Apr. 19 Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State
General exposition of the war claims problem and comments on the provisions of the proposed agreement to dispose of the matter.
747
May 19 To the British Ambassador
U. S. acceptance of the terms of the arrangement (text printed) for the disposal of certain pecuniary claims arising out of the recent war.
750
May 19 From the British Ambassador
British acceptance of the terms of the arrangement (text printed) for the disposal of certain pecuniary claims arising out of the recent war.
753
[Page CIII]

Arrangement Between the United States and Great Britain Regarding Releases of Property Under American and British Trading With the Enemy Acts

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Jan. 4 (1008) From the American Chargé in Great Britain to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Memorandum (text printed) concerning the reciprocal release by the American and British Governments of property sequestered in both countries under the Trading With the Enemy Acts; inquiry whether understanding of British position is correct, and if so, whether the British Administrator is prepared to release to American citizens the property held by him in cases covered in the memorandum.
755
Feb. 23 (A 1066/171/45) From the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador in Great Britain
Information that the British Government’s position is accurately denned, subject to slight amendments, and that it is prepared to release such property as is covered by the terms of the understanding and on the conditions stated therein.
759

Interpretation of Convention of December 2, 1899, and Merchant Marine Act of 1920 With Respect to British Commercial Rights in American Samoa

Date and number Subject Page
1926 Apr. 30 Memorandum by the Solicitor for the Department of State
Study of the question whether article 3 of the convention of December 2, 1899, which provides for British and German shipping treatment in American Samoa equal to that enjoyed by U. S. shipping, is superseded by section 21 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, which extends coastwise shipping laws to island territories and possessions and thereby restricts such treatment to American vessels.
760
May 1 To the Attorney General
Request for opinion with respect to British commercial rights in American Samoa for Department’s use in consideration of proposal by New Zealand to enact legislation permitting American imports into Western Samoa on same basis as British imports, if the United States will permit New Zealand and all British ships to carry goods and passengers between U. S. and American Samoan ports and will grant to British shipping the same treatment in all other respects as is granted to American shipping.
768
1927 Jan. 27 From the Attorney General
Opinion that section 21 of the Merchant Marine Act superseded, as a matter of municipal law, article 3 of the convention of 1899 and terminated the right of British vessels to engage in the coastwise trade between American Samoa and the United States.
770
[Page CIV]

Negotiations in Regard to the Administration of the Turtle Islands and to the Boundary Between the Philippine Islands and British North Borneo

Date and number Subject Page
1921 Jan. 29 To the British Chargé
Desire of Philippine Government to extend its administration over certain islands on the east coast of Borneo which are included in the group temporarily administered by the British North Borneo Company under the arrangement of 1907 between the British and American Governments; desire of American Government for modification of the 1907 arrangement with regard to the islands in question.
775
1925 Apr. 21 To the British Ambassador
Inquiry whether any decision has been reached regarding the matter; opinion that a modification of the existing agreement would be preferable to a denunciation of the entire agreement.
776
1926 Apr. 21 (279) From the British Ambassador
Preference for modification of existing agreement; willingness to waive any claim on behalf of the British North Borneo Company, if certain considerations are guaranteed by the U. S. Government.
777
1927 Aug. 20 To the British Ambassador
Information that the British terms have been communicated to Philippine Government, which believes that the conclusion of a U. S.-British agreement for definite delimitation of the boundary would be preferable to modification of the existing agreement; concurrence of U. S. Government; proposal that the two Governments enter upon treaty negotiations.
779

Negotiations for Convention Between the United States, Great Britain, and Iraq Regarding Rights of the United States and of Its Nationals in Iraq

Date and number Subject Page
1926 July 13 (601) To the Ambassador in Great Britain
Instructions for presenting to British Foreign Office proposed draft convention regarding American rights in Iraq (text printed); observations concerning draft.
781
Sept. 1 Memorandum by Mr. Allen W. Dulles, Foreign Service Officer
Report of conversations held in London in connection with negotiation of convention; British counterdraft as revised on July 30 (text printed).
787
Nov. 12 (740) To the Ambassador in Great Britain
Instructions for renewing discussion and presenting U. S. views, together with new draft of convention.
796
1927 Jan. 21 (1598) From the Chargé in Great Britain
Transmittal of Foreign Office note, January 18 (text printed), containing certain explanations and proposals connected with U. S. counterdraft, together with redraft of convention containing amendments proposed up to date.
799
[Page CV]Mar. 1 (848) To the Ambassador in Great Britain
Acceptance of draft of January 18, provided exception be made relative to treatment accorded by United States to commerce of Cuba.
802
Nov. 8 (2256) From the Chargé in Great Britain
Transmittal of Foreign Office note of November 7 (text printed) explaining changes made in redraft convention in order to meet views of Iraq Government.
804
Dec. 17 (1208) To the Chargé in Great Britain
Acceptability of revision transmitted November 8, provided British and Iraq Governments accept modifications in articles 4, 6, and 7, as outlined.
(Footnote: Information that these negotiations led to signature of a convention on January 9, 1930.)
806

Retention by the United States of Capitulatory Rights in Iraq Pending Conclusion of a Treaty

Date and number Subject Page
1927 May 11 (1861) From the Ambassador in Great Britain
Informal Foreign Office note, May 9 (text printed), communicating certain considerations regarding status of American nationals in Iraq. Hope of British authorities, expressed in discussion, that, in case of American citizens being implicated in disputes or legal proceedings pending coming into force of treaty regulating U. S. rights in Iraq, Department of State would recognize the status quo.
808
June 1 (981) To the Chargé in Great Britain
Instructions to bring informally to attention of Foreign Office the U. S. position that the capitulatory rights enjoyed under the American-Ottoman treaty of 1830 are still in effect as regards Iraq.
809
July 1 (524) From the Consul at Baghdad
Inquiry whether American firms with offices and businesses in Iraq have authority of U. S. Government to pay income taxes under Iraq law of 1927.
811
Sept. 26 (548) From the Consul at Baghdad
Information that Baghdad banks have been circularized by High Commission informing them that foreign consuls are to cancel stamps on checks drawn.
813
Oct. 1 To the Consul at Baghdad (tel.)
Information that, until a treaty agreement to the contrary enters into force, the collection of income tax from American firms is in contravention of American treaty rights, but that United States would be pleased to consider any request for its consent to levying of tax on American nationals and that, should the firms in question desire to pay the tax, there is no objection to such individual action.
814
[Page CVI]Nov. 8 To the Consul at Baghdad
Information that principle with respect to payment of stamp tax is identical with that as to income tax, but that should consul pay the tax he should reserve the right, if and when his Government so directs, to claim full reimbursement for any amounts so expended.
814
Nov. 10 (568) From the Consul at Baghdad
Report that income taxation matter has been referred to London, with the result that High Commissioner has been instructed to try to persuade Iraq Government not to apply income tax law to American companies until conclusion of pending convention.
815

Continued Negotiations To Ensure Recognition of the Principle of the Open Door in the Turkish Petroleum Company’s Concession in Iraq

Date and number Subject Page
1927 Apr. 1 From the Associate General Counsel of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey
Information that recent negotiations have resulted in plan for share participation by American Group in Iraq (Turkish) Petroleum Co. which would involve, so far as the “open door” under article 6 of the Iraq convention is concerned, an acceptance by American Group on its sole behalf of the self-denying ordinance of the agreements of 1912 and 1914 (texts printed) along with the other shareholders; inquiry whether Department has any objection.
816
Apr. 9 To the Associate General Counsel of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey
Nonobjection to American Group taking up proffered share participation in Iraq (Turkish) Petroleum Co., on the basis and understandings recited.
(Bracketed note: Information that in a letter to the Associate General Counsel, April 16, 1928, the Department stated that it considered that “the arrangements contemplated in view of the special circumstances affecting the situation are consistent with the principles underlying the open door policy of the Government of the United States.”)
822