693.11171/66

Report of the Annual Meeting of the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China, at Shanghai, October 16 and 17, 1923 13

American Relations with China

“America has a definite and well-established policy toward China, based upon the open-door policy of John Hay and the principles of the Nine-Power Treaty adopted at the Washington Conference,14 but the trouble with America’s relations with China at the present time is due principally to the lack of a definite program.” This statement by a prominent American observer of conditions in China summarizes pretty well the general feeling of the American residents [Page 581] of China, whether they are interested in commercial enterprises or missionary-educational work.

The resolutions adopted at the annual meeting of the Associated American Chambers of Commerce in China held on October 16, and 17, 1923, in the city of Shanghai do not attempt to outline an American program suitable for coping with the serious situation which has developed in China in recent years. The resolutions do, however, represent the feelings or reactions of the American commercial communities in China in respect to certain matters which we believe should receive the serious attention of our people at home, both in government service and outside.

The lack of a definite program on the part of the American Government in respect to China which has been very much in evidence since the close of the Washington Conference, has been nothing short of disastrous to American interests in this country. The uncertainty has prevented the extension of business generally and in the case of firms with branches in the interior of China it has caused withdrawals and losses or depreciation of investment which has been most serious.

Practically the same thing applies to American missionary and educational endeavor in the interior of the country. Obviously a country harassed by unrestrained banditry and uncontrolled soldiery offers little opportunity for the efficient conduct of missionary educational work. The American people have probably invested in China an amount of money in missionary-education work which far exceeds the amount which has been invested in business and it obviously is the affair of the American Government to adopt measures for protecting these enterprises as well as the enterprises of business men.

It is our hope that these resolutions will be of service to American Governmental officials, chambers of commerce and other bodies in the United States which are interested in China and in a continuance of American effort in this part of the world, as well as a further cementing of the relations of the American and Chinese peoples.

Inasmuch as America took the lead in calling the Washington. Conference and in directing its discussions, it is to be expected that this leadership on the part of the United States is to be maintained, otherwise the prestige which accrued to America as a result of the Washington meeting is likely to be lost.

[Resolutions]

illegal taxation

Various treaties between China and the foreign powers have put a limitation upon the taxation of imported goods, without regard to their nature. Any taxation levied in excess of those provided for in [Page 582] these treaties is therefore a violation of the said treaties. The first exception to this principle appears in the Washington Agreement in the provision that has been made for the levying of a tax on luxuries. It therefore applies that any violation of treaties by the illegal taxation of any article of commerce jeopardises the principle established by treaty and would further establish a precedent which might be extended to all importations.

Under the treaties, when goods are imported into China they may be shipped from treaty ports to the interior under transit pass, the payment for which exempts goods from all other taxation. This however, has been a point in dispute between the Chinese Government and foreign powers, the Chinese claiming that when goods reach their destination they are subject to additional taxes. This position has been strongly contested by the various Legations and the maintenance of the spirit of the treaties has been insisted upon although the Government in Peking does not successfully exercise its authority over all the provinces.

Under the provisions of the treaties providing for the use of the transit pass the shipper is given the option of either using the transit pass or shipping his goods to the interior without a transit pass, paying instead the local taxes. When the tax is paid by the use of the transit pass the funds are put into the regular Customs revenues which are hypothecated for certain purposes. Taxes paid in this form do not directly reach the provincial Governments or any other branch of the Central Government than the Customs. Certain provinces, however, have fixed the local taxes at such rates as would induce shippers to forward their goods without transit passes thus benefiting the particular locality. The effect of the treaties has therefore been to make the cost of the transit pass the limit of taxation on any article of commerce shipped into the interior. The treaties also provide that trade in the treaty ports be free from taxation so that the only taxes a merchant has to consider are those levied upon his goods when they leave the treaty port. But in spite of treaty obligations and special agreements arrived at between the Chinese Government and several Legations, various provinces have illegally imposed further taxes on certain commodities not only in the interior districts but even in treaty ports. The action of these provinces has been strongly protested by the British and American Legations both to the Peking Government and thru the consulates to the provincial authorities. The Peking authorities have admitted the illegality of the action on the part of the provinces but declare themselves helpless to enforce the rights and obligations created by the treaties and agreements made thru the Legations. But as these violations of the rights of foreign merchants established a precedent which may be followed and extended by military leaders in all sections [Page 583] of the country in order to secure funds for the maintenance of their armies: therefore, in view of the action taken at the Washington Conference wherein it is provided that a Special Conference is to be held in China for the purpose of revising China’s customs revenues by the addition of a 2½ percent surtax on ordinary commercial goods and a 5 percent surtax on luxuries, the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China recommend that the American Delegation to the Special Conference in association with the other delegations from the various nations give serious consideration to this matter of illegal taxation before agreeing to China’s request for further increases in the customs tariff.

disorder in china

In view of the long series of outrages in China culminating in the so-called Lincheng Incident of May 5, 1923, which constitute a menace to the lives and property of American citizens and other foreign nationals residing in the country, the Diplomatic Body consisting of official representatives of sixteen nations on August 10, 1923, addressed a formal note of protest to the Chinese Government.15 This note demanded that the foreign passengers be reimbursed for property losses, for loss of time and injuries sustained and also demanded the punishment of Chinese officials responsible and that proper means be taken at once by the Chinese Government for the protection of travelers and transportation of merchandise on the Chinese Government Railways.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Chinese Government in reply to this note stated among other things that

“The safety of foreigners has always been the subject of very deep solicitude on the part of the Chinese Government,” and said further “That through the series of measures recently adopted the lives, property and interests of foreigners in China will enjoy added security.”16

Since this reply of the Chinese Government was written there have been additional bandit and military outrages, one of which in Szechuan province resulted in the murder of two missionaries, and others in Honan and Hupeh provinces resulting in the murder of a Catholic priest, the kidnapping of two women missionaries and the destruction of considerable missionary property. In addition to these incidents there has been frequent firing upon peaceful American cargo and passenger boats on the Upper Yangtsze and in the case of a ship belonging to another foreign nation interested in this trade the vessel was raided by soldiers, several members of [Page 584] the crew killed, the chief officers carried into captivity and the cargo destroyed. Lists of these outrages affecting the lives and property interests of American and other foreigners and the Chinese people as well have been compiled by the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China and are on file at the American Legation in Peking.

These outrages are a direct consequence of the condition of military anarchy which has developed in China since the country became a republic in 1911 which matter received the attention of the Washington Conference on February 1, 1922, when a resolution was adopted17 expressing the earnest hope that immediate and effective steps would be taken by China to reduce the military forces and expenditures. This resolution received the signature of the Chinese Delegates as well as those of the delegates representing other nations at the Conference.

In spite of the foregoing action of the Washington Conference and the continued protests of foreign governments, the recruiting of troops into the various Chinese armies has steadily continued until the number of soldiers under arms in the country at the present time, according to the 1923 edition of the China Year Book, amounts to 1,335,835 [1,332,835] men, the largest standing army in the world.

The inability of the Chinese Government to keep this army paid and under control is the chief cause of unsettled conditions existing in the country. As the authority of the Central Government has broken down through conspiracy and civil war, the army has broken up into provincial units under the control of Military Governors or Tuchuns. Sections of the army, unable to obtain pay, constantly rebel and become bandits. The bandit gangs in turn terrorize the country, pillaging villages, burning property or menacing the lives of foreigners until they become strong enough to force their way back into some provincial army.

This situation of military anarchy which has developed in China constitutes a menace not only to the peace of the Far East, but to the entire world. It is a matter of special and vital interest on the part of the United States on account of our well known policies and trade relations with this part of the world, and especially because of our position of leadership in the calling and deliberations of the Washington Conference.

The Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China has always been of the opinion that nothing short of a definite stand on the part of the Powers would be sufficient to bring China’s military dictators to a realization of the obligations of China as a sovereign and independent country among the nations of the world. [Page 585] Until such time as the nations which participated in the Washington Conference are prepared to adopt a definite policy in respect to China, it is vital that the United States take steps to secure to American citizens their just treaty rights in China.

To this end we feel that at the present time the maximum of protection in China for our interests can only be obtained by increasing our military and naval forces to the strength we are entitled to under treaty rights. This involves the bringing of our military and marine forces stationed in Peking and Tientsin under the Boxer protocol of 190118 up to their full strength, and additions to the China section of the Pacific Fleet and the Yangtsze Patrol Squadron.

Both the State and Navy Departments at Washington in correspondence with the American Legation at Peking dated August 6 and 21, 1923, have signified the necessity for immediately increasing our naval force on the Yangtsze River and other navigable streams of China.19 It is understood that the Navy Department has put in its estimates for the Budget to be presented to the next session of Congress, a request for the immediate construction of six river patrol boats of special construction for service on the Upper Yangtsze. It has been recommended that these boats be built on the Asiatic station in order to expedite their being put into service and for economy in the cost of construction. The Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China desire to go on record as being heartily in favor of these recommendations and urges that Congress give immediate and serious consideration to the proposals.

need for american owned consular property in china

The United States Government maintains consular officials in nineteen different treaty ports in China and with the exception of Shanghai and Amoy has never acquired property for the housing of the consul or office space for the transaction of the official business of the United States.

In the cases of Shanghai and Amoy where the consular property is owned, the property consists of antiquated residence buildings in a dilapidated condition which have been converted to office use. The condition of these buildings is such that frequent repairs are necessary to keep them in a habitable condition. In all of the other points in China, the American Government follows the shortsighted policy of renting property usually from native landlords and in very few cases is the property suitable for the purpose desired. In Tientsin [Page 586] a few years ago, the American Consul was forced to vacate his premises at short notice because the property was desired for other purposes by a Japanese landlord. In the city of Antung, the house occupied by the American Consul in 1923 collapsed during a heavy rain storm and had it not been for the hospitality offered by the Commissioner of the Chinese Customs, the official representative of the United States Government would have had no place to go At one station in South China the house occupied by the American Consul is located on ground so poorly located as to be frequently flooded at high tide. In Hankow the foreign concession where the American Consulate is located has become so congested that it is questionable whether the present lease can be renewed on any terms.

The examples above, which are typical of the situation, point to the necessity of the United States Government acquiring its own consular property in China. The present rented property in use at most of the ports is inadequate from the standpoint of efficient conduct of the business of the United States which has grown proportionately with the rapid increase of American interests in this part of the world. America’s share in the direct foreign trade of China has increased from 6½ per cent in 1910 to 16.3 per cent in 1922. The amount of money expended for rentals would pay for suitable consular property in a few years and when the rapid increase in property values at all of the Chinese ports is considered, there can be no question of the benefit of property ownership from the standpoint of investment.

In addition to the foregoing obvious reasons for the ownership of its own consular property on the part of the United States Government, there is the additional element of prestige which would accrue to America through the ownership of suitable structures for the residences and office requirements of the American consuls. It is difficult for the average Chinese, whose principal knowledge of the United States comes from his acquaintance with the American consul and his surroundings, to understand why America which plays such an important part in the affairs of the Far East, should be so negligent in respect to the housing of its official representatives.

The Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China recommend that a Government architect be sent to China to make a report and recommendation on the possibility of obtaining suitable land and the construction of buildings at the principal Chinese ports and cities where American consular officials are maintained.

improvement of diplomatic and consular services

There has been before Congress for several years a measure known as the “Rogers Bill” which is intended to improve the consular and [Page 587] diplomatic services of the United States through combining the two services into a unified foreign service.

According to the terms of the Rogers Bill provision is made for increases in salaries, travelling expenses, retirement and for promotions in accordance with the abilities of the individual.

In view of the fact that the question of improvements in the United States Consular and Diplomatic Services in China have been a frequent source of consideration on the part of this body as well as other American organizations in China the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China desire to go on record as being in favor of and fully endorsing the Rogers Bill and expresses the hope it may be speedily enacted into law by Congress.

american policy toward china

The Washington Conference which met in Washington on November 12, 1921, while called principally for the purpose of discussing the limitation of naval armament devoted most of its time to a consideration of the problem of China. At the close of the Conference a number of treaties and resolutions were adopted calculated to improve not only the international status of China but also provide a basis for an improvement of the internal situation.

In spite of the hopes of the leading statesmen of the world as expressed in the treaties and resolutions of the Washington Conference in respect to China, conditions in this country have deteriorated rather than improved and up to the present the leaders of China have shown an absolute disregard of the obligations of China as a sovereign power among the nations of the world.

Owing to the failure of the unanimous ratification of the various treaties and resolutions adopted at the Washington Conference the United States has made no move toward bringing into effect the Washington Conference decisions. In view of the serious situation which has developed in China as a result of the continued serious internal disorder the practical effect has been to damage the prestige of the United States which nation took the lead in the call and deliberations of the Washington Conference. Unless all Governments concerned ratify the Washington Conference treaties without further delay the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China recommend that the United States Government take up this question with the Governments prepared to adopt a united policy in respect to the protection of their nationals and the general improvement of conditions in this country.

Inasmuch as America took the lead in calling the Washington Conference and in directing its discussions it is to be expected that this leadership on the part of the United States is to be maintained, [Page 588] otherwise the prestige which accrued to America as a result of the Washington Meeting is likely to be lost.

extraterritoriality

In accordance with the terms of a resolution adopted at the Washington Conference21 an international commission of jurists was to visit China within six months after the adjournment of the Conference to report upon the status of extraterritoriality and to make recommendations for improvements.

On May 6, 1922,22 the Chinese Minister to the United States requested the State Department to postpone the visit of the Commission for a year owing to the desperate political situation existing in China. In view of the fact that the year’s postponement requested by the Chinese Minister has now expired and conditions in China have deteriorated rather than improved it is the opinion of the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China that any consideration of a revision of the system of extraterritoriality now existing in China should be indefinitely postponed.

tonnage dues in chinese ports

The tonnage dues which China is permitted to charge foreign vessels are based upon treaties between China and other nations beginning with the Tientsin treaty between China and Great Britain signed in 1858. These dues amount to 4 mace (equivalent to 30 cents U. S. currency) per net registered ton on vessels of over 150 tons and 1. mace (equivalent to 8 cents U. S. currency) per net registered ton on vessels of 150 tons and under. The dues are levied in a lump sum upon any foreign ship that touches at a Chinese port, and cover a period of four months. These dues are higher than those charged by any other country and were adopted originally more than a half century ago because of the fact that few foreign ships touched Chinese ports and the high dues were necessary to provide funds for the construction and maintenance of light houses, etc. Since these high rates work a handicap upon American shipping not engaged in the coastwise trade of China, the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China recommend that steps be taken by the United States Government to revise these regulations which have been in effect without change for 64 years.

The Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China recommend that all foreign vessels be granted the privilege of paying tonnage dues at the rate of 4 mace (equivalent to 30 cents U. S. [Page 589] currency) per net registered ton and good for a period of 4 months or the privilege of paying tonnage dues at a fair rate per net registered ton per call.

special tariff conference

In accordance with the terms of a treaty adopted at the Washington Conference on February 6, 1922,23 a special conference of the powers is to be held in China to prepare the way for the speedy abolition of likin with a view to levying surtaxes provided for in the treaty, the surtax to be levied at the uniform rate of 2½ per cent ad valorem provided that in case of certain articles of luxury which in the opinion of the special conference can bear a greater increase without unduly impeding trade the total surtax may be increased to but may not exceed 5 percent ad valorem.

Although two years have elapsed since the close of the Washington Conference the special Tariff Conference has not been called owing to the non-ratification of the various treaties and resolutions by all of the Powers concerned. In case the various Governments finally ratify the treaties and the special Conference is called, the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China desire to go on record that any increases granted to China under the Washington Conference treaty be predicated upon the condition that all defaulted foreign obligations be secured out of the increased monies resulting from the revised tariff regulations; it being understood that obligations incurred by the operating departments of the Chinese Government for materials supplied take precedence over all bonded indebtedness.

exchange of news between united states and china

Among the resolutions adopted by this body at its last annual meeting was one urging the importance of a fuller exchange and distribution of American news in this part of the world. Since the passage of this resolution the Federal Telegraph Corporation of San Francisco in association with the Radio Corporation of America has made a contract with the Chinese Government whereby a number of high powered American radio stations are to be constructed in China, the chief one being at Shanghai with feeder stations in the interior.

Owing to protests by other foreign interests the work of the American companies in the construction of these radio stations has been seriously retarded. The Chamber heartily approves of the policy of Secretary of State Hughes in upholding American rights in connection with the Federal Telegraph Company’s contract24 and hopes that his vigorous policy in this connection will be continued.

[Page 590]

It is the belief of the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China that the erection here of a high powered radio station will be of tremendous service in placing China in direct communication with the United States for the exchange not only of news but of commercial messages as well at reasonable rates.

yangtze patrol force

In view of the serious political situation existing along the Yangtze River which constitutes a menace to the lives and property of American citizens engaged in business and missionary activities, the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China desire to incorporate as a part of this report a pamphlet entitled “For the Protection of American Lives and Property in China,”25 which was published on October 1st, 1923 and circulated to members of Congress and other officials of the United States Government and to Chambers of Commerce in the United States.

For years the American Chambers of Commerce in China have protested against the frequent changes in American officials assigned to posts in China. The Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China desire to repeat this protest and especially emphasize the importance of retaining experienced men in control of the Yangtze Patrol. In the past the policy of the United States has been to send naval officers to this post and as soon as they became familiar with conditions and have made connections with Chinese officials transfer them to other posts. This has had an unfortunate effect upon American prestige and has militated against the development of a definite and continuing American policy on the Yangtze. It is therefore recommended that experienced men be retained in this work as well as in other lines of American Governmental activity in this part of the world.

representation at washington

The Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China realize that more suitable action may be obtained on matters pertaining to China and the Far East, affecting American business and interests generally, if the Associated Chambers were directly represented at Washington. It is therefore recommended that arrangements be made at once to appoint a resident representative of the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China at Washington who shall be empowered to give publicity to all matters which may be referred to him from time to time, to enlist the aid of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, Government officials and departments [Page 591] and commercial and other organizations interested in the various subjects referred to him for attention.

payment of claims against the chinese government

As a result of the disorder which has existed in China for many years American interests have suffered greatly by the loss or destruction of property resulting from bandit outrages, uncontrolled soldiery and internal fighting.

Claims covering these losses have been on file at the various consulates and the Legation in Peking for years with no settlement being made by the Chinese Government.

The Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China recommend that these claims be brought forward by the American authorities at the special conference and that the American Delegation, be instructed to insist upon payment of these claims before agreement is given to the revision of the Customs Tariff.

publicity campaign in america

Owing to the fact that foreign trade occupies such a small portion of the interest or activities of the American people generally, it is always difficult to induce the American Government to adopt constructive and continuing policies in foreign affairs and especially in respect to American interests in this part of the world. The lack of familiarity on the part of many of the officials at Washington in respect to the protection of the lives and property of its own citizens not to mention the larger diplomatic and strategic interests of America in the Far East has made it necessary for American citizens both individually and through their organizations to frequently conduct publicity campaigns in the United States. Such publicity campaigns in the past, although largely unorganized, have nevertheless been of considerable benefit in concentrating the attention of the American people and through them of the government upon particular problems affecting the interests of Americans in this part of the world.

In view of the serious situation now existing in China which constitute[s] a menace to the lives and interests of American citizens residing in the Chinese Republic, it is recommended that the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China give this subject special attention and that a special committee be appointed to work out in cooperation with other American organizations, a definite publicity campaign calculated to bring to the attention of the American people, members of Congress and other officials of our government the necessity of a definite policy in respect to the present situation of China.

[Page 592]

the boxer indemnity

In view of the fact that Congress has not yet taken action in respect to the disposition of the unexpended balance of the American share of the Boxer Indemnity amounting to approximately fifteen million gold dollars, it was decided that it would not be in accordance with traditional American policy toward China for the United States Government to withhold payment of this money on account of the present default on the part of the Chinese Government of American loans or obligations for materials purchased by the Chinese Government Railways and other departments.

In view of the great number of proposals which have been placed before this body covering possible uses for this money it was decided that the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China should take no action on this subject at the present time.

The Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China are of the opinion however that any expenditure for educational or other purposes in China should be closely supervised by an American committee composed of representatives of the United States diplomatic or consular services and of the American business and missionary organizations in China.

american income tax

American Chambers of Commerce in London, Paris, Mexico City, Buenos Aires, Manila and elsewhere representing American commercial interests engaged in foreign trade have for many years agitated against the injustice of the United States Government enforcing its domestic income tax regulations upon Americans residing abroad who derive their income from non-American sources.

The American Chamber of Commerce (Shanghai) after an agitation lasting over several years was able to obtain the passage by Congress of a measure known as the China Trade Act26 which exempts American companies registered under the Act from the operation of the domestic income and excess profits taxes but was unable to obtain an exemption of American citizens generally from the domestic personal income taxes.

The provision in the Revenue Bill passed by Congress in 1921 intended to exempt Americans residing in the Far East including the Philippine Islands, and China was stricken from the bill when it went to conference before final passage.

There are approximately 240,000 foreigners residing in China of which number about 9,000 are Americans. Americans are the only foreigners who are required by their home Government to pay income [Page 593] taxes upon income derived from activities in this part of the world and entirely outside of the United States.

The handicap which this places upon the American citizen in his competition with the British, Japanese, French, Germans and other foreigners interested in foreign trade in this part of the world is self-evident. Governor-General Leonard Wood of the Philippine Islands has well stated the case in letters and cables to the Secretary of War and to the President of the United States dated September 7 and 8, 1923. In these communications Governor-General Wood said:

“Filipinos and foreign residents of the Philippine Islands, business competitors of Americans, are exempt from Federal income tax paying only local taxes which are very much lower. Resulting discrimination against Americans on an outpost of our foreign commerce is grossly unjust.—British subjects abroad have never been subjected to British taxation on income derived from sources outside of Great Britain. By the Finance Act of 1920 Great Britain has even gone to the extent of refunding to overseas British subjects taxes heretofore levied on income derived solely from British sources. Relief on the part of Congress would greatly facilitate the general efforts to build up our foreign trade now seriously interfered with by subjecting it here and elsewhere abroad to the handicap of heavier income taxes than those paid by foreign competitors. … I feel very strongly that the least the home Government can do is to give a considerate hearing to the American business men of this community in order that all the facts may be before you before definite action is taken.”

The situation affecting Americans interested in business and other activities in China is exactly the same as the situation outlined by Governor-General Wood in the Philippines. All foreigners residing in China are subject to certain municipal and other taxes in the communities wherein they live but it is only the Americans residing in China who are subjected by their home Government to all of the domestic taxes of the United States even though the incomes are derived from sources entirely outside of the United States.

In view of the above factors the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China desire to approve of the action of other American Chambers of Commerce in various parts of the world, and especially the action of the American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands, as well as the action of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America to the effect that Congress in framing the next Revenue Bill may exempt Americans residing overseas and deriving their income from non-American sources from the operation of our domestic income tax law.

[Page 594]

unpaid accounts for materials supplied to the Chinese government railways and other services

With regard to the obligations of the Chinese Government Railways the United States Government has adopted the position that obligations for materials supplied to the Chinese Government Railways “constitute a part of the operating expenses of the railways, and as such should be met before any charges on the surplus revenues are provided for, or before, in fact, it can be said that any surplus exists” or in other words, “that such obligations for equipment become a part of the operating expenses of the railways and as such form a prior lien on the actual earnings of the railways before any surplus can be said to exist,” which position was transmitted to the Chinese Government by the American Minister in his notes No. 168, May 18, 1922,27 and No. 219, July 7 [8], 1922.27

On September 27, 1923, the American Minister, in his note No. 627,27 addressed to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, called attention to the fact that although almost a year had elapsed no reply had been received, covering the principle outlined above to the effect that “obligations for the payment of equipment become a part of the operating expenses of the railways and as such form a prior lien on the actual earnings of the railways before any surplus can be said to exist for the payment of bonded indebtedness.” To this note an answer has been received which entirely ignores the point at issue.

In view of this continued disregard of the rights of American creditors of the Chinese Government, the Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China urge that the State Department instruct the American Minister to bring more pressure on the Chinese Government and that he insist that immediate arrangements be made to meet the obligations incurred by the Chinese Government Railways for materials supplied.

  1. Transmitted by the consul general at Shanghai with despatch no. 2026, Jan. 14, 1924. The Associated American Chambers of Commerce of China consisted of representatives of American Chambers of Commerce at Shanghai, Hankow, Tientsin, Peking, and Harbin.
  2. Foreign Relations, 1922, vol. i, p. 271.
  3. Foreign Relations, 1923, vol. i, p. 682.
  4. For text of note of Minister of Foreign Affairs, see ibid., p. 696.
  5. See Resolution x, Foreign Relations, 1922, vol. i, p. 295.
  6. Foreign Relations, 1901, Appendix (Affairs in China), p. 312.
  7. Department’s instruction of Aug. 21, 1923, to the Minister in China, not printed; it transmitted a letter from the Acting Secretary of the Navy dated Aug. 6, 1923, and the Department’s reply dated Aug. 20, 1923, Foreign Relations, 1923, vol. i, pp. 746747.
  8. Foreign Relations, 1922, vol. i, p. 290.
  9. According to Department files, this request was made on Apr. 13, 1922; see ibid., p. 822.
  10. Foreign Relations, 1922, vol. i, p. 282.
  11. See ante, pp. 570 ff.
  12. Not printed.
  13. Of 1922; 42 Stat. 849.
  14. Not printed.
  15. Not printed.
  16. Not printed.