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List of Papers

[Unless otherwise specified, the correspondence is from or to the Secretary of State or the Department.]

CHAPTER I

THE SOVIET REPUBLIC

Project for a Conference at Prinkipo between Delegates of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers and of All Groups Exercising Authority in Russia

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Dec. 24 (3394) From the Minister in Sweden (tel.)
Letter from Litvinov at Stockholm, December 23, to British, French, Italian, and U.S. Ministers (text printed) offering in name of Soviet Government to enter preliminary peace negotiations.
1
Dec. 27 (14) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: View that Soviet peace proposal is matter for consideration by Associated Governments; request for instructions as to action to be taken in Washington.
2
1919 Jan. 3 (10) From the British Chargé
Proposal to send message to various governments in Russia (text printed) suggesting peace discussions at Paris, provided the governments agree to suspend hostilities during negotiations.
2
Jan. 4 (145) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Information that U. S., British, French, and Italian Ministers in Stockholm have received Soviet peace proposal and that Mission is considering subject.
3
Jan. 6 (110) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Inquiry concerning steps taken for declaration by President Wilson of attitude toward the Bolshevik authorities in Russia, in view of the growing menace of Bolshevism outside Russia.
3
Jan. 9 The Diplomatic Secretary, Commission to Negotiate Peace, to the Secretary-General, Commission to Negotiate Peace
Message to London Embassy, by direction of President Wilson, instructing Buckler to proceed to Stockholm in conformity with former instructions, thence to Lausanne.
4
Jan. 12 (B.C.–A1) Secretary’s Notes of a Conversation Held in M. Pichon’s Room at the Quai d’Orsay, Paris, on Sunday, January 12, 1919, at 4 p.m.
Conclusion of representatives of Principal Associated Powers that Russia should not be represented at Conference but that certain persons should be interviewed personally or asked to supply memoranda.
4
Jan. 12 (200) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Transmittal of British memorandum of January 3, with explanation of delay in forwarding; inquiry regarding publication by French of statement concerning British proposal, without consulting Lansing.
6
[Page XII]Jan. 13 (38) From the British Chargé
French objection to British proposal of January 3 on ground that it would necessitate recognition of Russian Soviet Government; counter-proposal for Allied military support of different Russian governments fighting against Bolsheviks.
7
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 16] From the Danish Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Message from Chicherin (text printed), containing discussion of Senator Hitchcock’s declaration of reasons for sending U. S. troops to Russia; recital of Soviet efforts to restore normal relations with the United States; and reiteration of request for peace negotiations.
8
Jan. 15 (43) From the British Chargé
Omsk government’s request for recognition and representation at Peace Conference.
10
Jan. 16 (B.C. 3) Secretary’s Notes of a Conversation Held in M. Pichon’s Room at the Quai d’Orsay, Paris, on Thursday, January 16, 1919, at 10:30 a.m.
Discussion by representatives of Principal Associated Governments of the British proposal of January 3 regarding peace discussions with the representatives of various governments in Russia.
10
Jan. 18 (330) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Explanation of publicity regarding British proposal of January 3 to be found in the internal political situation of France.
15
Jan. 18 (116) The Chargé in Denmark to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Buckler to Lansing: Interviews with Litvinov regarding Soviet desire for peace; Litvinov’s offer to compromise on all points. Views of A. Ransome, news correspondent, opposing intervention and advocating an agreement with Soviets.
15
Jan. 19 (118) The Chargé in Denmark to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Buckler to House: Advocacy of agreement with Russia which would obviate conquest, revive normal conditions, and defeat Bolshevik tendencies; possibility of fair agreement of foreign debts.
17
Jan. 21 (B. C. 6) Secretary’s Notes of a Conversation Held in M. Pichon’s Room at the Quai d’Orsay, Paris, on Tuesday, January 21, 1919, at 10:30 a.m.
Meeting of representatives of Principal Associated Powers in which President Wilson read Buckler’s report of interviews with Litvinov.
18
Jan. 21 (B.C.6A) Secretary’s Notes of a Conversation Held in M. Pichon’s Room at the Quai d’Orsay, Paris, on Tuesday, January 21, 1919, at 3 p.m.
Discussion of Russian situation by representatives of Associated Powers: President Wilson’s suggestion that projected conference with representatives of Russian governments meet at some place other than Paris; conclusion that President Wilson should draft invitation.
19
[Page XIII]Jan. 21 (54) The Minister in Sweden to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Conversation between Litvinov and Red Cross representative on proposed peace measures, Litvinov referring to Soviet willingness to compromise on foreign debts and external business relations; Soviet aim for supremacy and world revolution.
26
Jan. 22 (469) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Ambassador Francis: Discussion of Chicherin’s message of January 12, which failed to receive recognition by Associated Governments; futile efforts of Soviets to move diplomatic corps to Moscow and the corps’ retirement to Archangel from Vologda; anti-Bolshevik revolution and landing of Allied troops at Archangel; recommendation for armed Allied intervention.
27
Jan. 22 (B. C. 7) Secretary’s Notes of a Conversation Held in M. Pichon’s Room at the Quai d’Orsay, Paris, January 22, 1919, at 3:15 p.m.
Proclamation adopted by Principal Associated Powers (text printed) inviting all Russian political groups to conference, February 15, at Princes’ Islands (Prinkipo) for the purpose of ascertaining the wishes of the Russian people and to establish peace and order in Russia, provided the parties invited declare a truce of arms in the meantime.
30
Jan. 23 (779) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Opinion that any Allied enterprise in Russia should be committed primarily to political and not military guidance; failure of British and French military to grasp political essentials of situation; little reliance to be placed on help from Russian Army. Recommendations.
32
Jan. 24 (131) The Chargé in Denmark to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Substance of letter from Litvinov to Buckler expressing views regarding relief in Russia, pointing out that blockade and Allied intervention have been cause of insufficiency of food in Russia.
33
Jan. 27 (B.C.11) Secretary’s Notes of a Conversation Held in M. Pichon’s Room at the Quai d’Orsay, Paris, on Monday, January 27, 1919, at 10:30 a.m.
Decision of Principal Associated Powers that representatives of small states formerly belonging to Russian Empire were invited to conference at Prinkipo.
34
Jan. 27 (449) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Reasons for calling the Prinkipo conference.
35
Jan. 28 (804) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Message sent to Paris conveying Provisional Government’s refusal to appoint representatives to conference which would include Bolsheviks.
35
Jan. 29 (475) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Message of Bolshevik representative for transmission to Lenin (text printed) urging acceptance of invitation to send representatives to Prinkipo conference.
36
Jan. 30 (812) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Opinion of Ivanov, spokesman of local radicals, also of Tchaykovsky, and of public in general, that Prinkipo conference is morally if not practically impossible.
37
[Page XIV]Jan. 31 Memorandum by Mr. William H. Buckler
British desire to evacuate troops from Archangel, to meet Soviet representatives in conference, and to induce various Russian governments to stop civil war and call all-Russian convention.
38
Feb. 1 (519) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Suggestion that consideration be given to the recognition of the Omsk government; advantages that might follow such recognition.
38
Feb. 4 The Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs to the Principal Allied and Associated Governments (tel.)
Willingness of Russian Soviet Government to be represented at Prinkipo conference; desire to purchase peace at sacrifices, namely, recognition of financial obligations, granting of concessions in natural resources, cession of territory to Allies, and noninterference in internal affairs of Powers. Citation of growth and consolidation of Soviet Russia.
39
Feb. 4 (829) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
His opposition to Russian policy adopted at Peace Conference on motion of President Wilson; tender of resignation.
42
Feb. 5 The Minister in Switzerland to the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Wish of Republic of Circassia and Daghestan to be represented at Prinkipo, in hope that new republic may be placed under protection of Society of Nations with the United States as mandatory.
43
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 6] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Siberian opinion concerning proposed conference of all Russian parties.
44
Feb. 6 (607) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Omsk government’s denial of rumor of agreement reached with Bolsheviks or of cessation of hostilities; its failure to reach decision regarding representation at Prinkipo conference.
46
Feb. 7 (620) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Telegram sent to Poole (text printed) requesting that he maintain reticence regarding his resignation, because of possible disastrous effect upon morale of U. S. troops in Archangel. Request for advice as to further instructions to be sent to Poole.
46
Feb. 8 (47) The Georgian Delegation at Paris to the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Georgia’s request for immediate submission to Peace Conference of question of Georgian independence and regulation of its frontiers; proposed special commission to investigate question.
47
Feb. 10 The President of the Lettish Delegation at Paris to President Wilson
Willingness of Lettish Provisional Government to be represented at Prinkipo conference, provided Russia withdraw forces from Latvia; its desire for recognition as independent state and for treaty establishing normal relations with Russia.
49
[Page XV]Feb. 10 (668) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Telegram sent to Poole at Archangel (text printed) expressing appreciation of his work and the hope that he will continue it, and explaining that intention of conference is investigation not barter with Bolsheviks.
51
Feb. 11 (849) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Message from Moscow government to Workmen’s International affirming a policy of international revolution, simultaneous with reply to Prinkipo invitation temporizing and offering bait of territory and concessions.
51
Undated The Chief of the Esthonian Delegation at Paris to the President of the Paris Peace Conference
Esthonia’s claim to independence and willingness to accept invitation to Prinkipo conference, with purpose of concluding peace with Russia and of establishing future relations.
52
Feb. 12 The Russian Embassy in France to the Secretariat-General of the Paris Peace Conference
Statement of governments of Siberia, Archangel, and southern Russia signifying willingness to accept offer of Allies to collaborate in internal pacification of Russia, but refusing to negotiate with Bolsheviks.
53
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 15] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Press antagonism to Prinkipo conference, claiming Associated Powers’ lack of understanding of Russian situation. Necessity for quick decision as to policy to be pursued to liberate Russia.
54
Feb. 15 (B.C.32) Minutes of the 14th Session of the Supreme War Council Held in M. Pichon’s Room at Quai d’Orsay, Paris, on Friday, February 14, 1919, at 6:30 p.m.
Arguments of representatives of Principal Associated Powers for and against withdrawal of troops from Russia and regarding meeting of Russian representatives at Prinkipo.
56
Feb. 16 (B.C.32) Secretary’s Notes of a Conversation Held in M. Pichon’s Room at the Quai d’Orsay, Paris, on Saturday, February 15, 1919, at 3 p.m.
Discussion by representatives of Principal Associated Powers of Churchill’s proposal of wireless message in regard to Prinkipo conference (text printed) and creation of Allied council for Russian affairs.
59
Feb. 15 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Message from American Mission (text printed) explaining intention of invitation to conference and desirability of representation by Kolchak government.
68
Feb. 17 (797) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Telegram sent to President Wilson (excerpt printed) of resolution in meeting at Quai d’Orsay to secure report from Supreme War Council on possibilities of joint military action by Associated Powers to enable Russia and ex-Russian states to safeguard themselves against Bolshevik coercion.
68
[Page XVI]Feb. 18 [17?] The Head of the Ukrainian Delegation at Paris to the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Note sent President of Paris Peace Conference, February 10 (text printed), claiming independence and refusing to take part in Prinkipo conference unless Bolsheviks cease military operations against Ukraine.
69
Feb. 19 From the Russian Chargé
Telegram from Omsk foreign office (text printed), with concurrence of Ekaterinodar and Archangel, expressing unanimous and decisive condemnation of any negotiations with Bolsheviks.
70
Feb. 19 (6) President Wilson to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Disavowal of any intention to favor military action in Russia as suggested by Churchill.
71
Feb. 22 Memorandum by Mr. A. A. Berle, Jr., of the Russian Section, Commission to Negotiate Peace
Conversation with Lithuanian representatives and attempt to convince them of desirability of accepting invitation to Prinkipo conference; prospect of Russian withdrawal of troops from Baltic States.
72
Feb. 23 (876) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the President: Abandonment of Churchill’s project upon General Bliss’ explanation that President Wilson could never have made statement favoring military action in Russia.
73
Undated Minutes of the Meetings of the American Commissioners Plenipotentiary, March 1, 1919
Decision of Commissioners that United States not be represented at Prinkipo conference.
74

Mission of William C. Bullitt to Russia

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Feb. 24 (893) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Information that Bullitt and party are proceeding to Copenhagen seeking permission to go to Petrograd on unofficial mission.
74
Feb. 26 (914) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Information that Minister at Stockholm has been requested to initiate unofficial negotiations, through private channels, with Moscow government to secure permission for Bullitt and party to proceed to destination.
75
Feb. 27 (900) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Suggestion that Minister at Stockholm be impressed with necessity of refraining from official negotiations with Bolshevik Government regarding Bullitt’s mission.
75
Mar. 1 (986) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Instructions sent to Stockholm in line with Department’s telegram no. 900, February 27.
75
Mar. 8 (6) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Report that Bullitt has crossed border into Russia.
75
[Page XVII]Mar. 10 (1099) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Telegram from Bullitt stating he expects to have early definite propositions from Soviet Government. Notification to Balfour and Pichon of purpose of Bullitt’s mission.
76
Mar. 11 (15) The Consul at Helsingfors to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Message from Bullitt to Lansing and House (text printed) regarding exaggerated reports of conditions in Petrograd and conversations with Chicherin and Litvinov, who urge cessation of hostilities and calling of peace conference.
76
Mar. 16 (5) Mr. William C. Bullitt to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the President, Lansing, and House: Statement unofficially received from Soviet leaders (text printed) enumerating peace proposals which they would be willing to accept from Associated Governments.
77
Undated (6) Mr. William C. Bullitt to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the President, Lansing, and House: Report on Russian political and economic situation from observations and discussions with leaders of Communist and other parties; conclusion that Soviet Government is only constructive force in Russia and recommendation of peace proposals rather than intervention.
81
Undated (8) Mr. William C. Bullitt to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Grew: Plans to return at once to Paris and to send Pettit back to Petrograd to investigate in detail and maintain communications, courier service having been established between Helsingfors and Petrograd.
84
Undated (9) Mr. William C. Bullitt to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For House: Request for views as to whether Soviet proposals will be accepted, urging cooperation of House in efforts for peace; request that Lloyd George’s secretary be informed of contents of his two previous reports.
84
Mar. 22 (3) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.)
Instructions to inform Pettit to withdraw from Russia immediately and return to Paris, as it is not desired to maintain communication office in Russia or courier service between Helsingfors and Petrograd.
85
[Mar. 25 (?)] Memorandum by Mr. William C. Bullitt for the President and the Commissioners Plenipotentiary to Negotiate Peace
Detailed report on economic and political situation in Russia, social conditions, morale of Army, etc.; his conclusions and recommendations.
85
Mar. 29 (27) The Consul at Helsingfors to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Pettit: Conviction that Communist is only government which can preserve order; that intervention would result in chaos; and that government satisfactory to people may evolve from present one. Desirability of some outside representation, preferably United States, in Petrograd.
95
[Page XVIII]Mar. 29 (28) The Consul at Helsingfors to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Pettit: Report on health conditions in Petrograd; efforts of Government to relieve situation.
96
Nov. 19 Mr. Henry White and General Tasker H. Bliss, Commissioners Plenipotentiary to Negotiate Peace, to the Secretary-General of the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Desire to record in archives of American peace delegation that Bullitt’s mission to Russia was not authorized by American delegation, as certified in letter from Grew; inquiry as to warrant for such certificate and Grew’s explanation.
97

Proposal of Dr. Fridtjof Nansen for Relief in Russia under Supervision of Northern Neutrals

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Mar. 11 (1067) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Report from Vice Consul at Viborg (text printed) regarding distressing conditions in Petrograd and Moscow. Proposals for immediate action by Red Cross leaders of all countries. Swedish Red Cross offer.
98
Mar. 24 (1316) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Opinion that Russian relief should be undertaken not by Red Cross but as part of a definite inter-Allied program; information that Hoover’s opinion is being sought.
100
Mar. 28 The Director General of Relief, Supreme Economic Council, to President Wilson
Suggestions that Bolshevik tyranny be not even remotely recognized; that some neutral organize relief for Russia similar to Belgian Relief Commission with collaboration of Associated Powers and neutrals, and upon Bolshevik assurances that fighting cease; and that President Wilson reassert his spiritual leadership of democracy in the world as opposed to all tyrannies.
100
Apr. 3 Dr. Fridtjof Nansen to President Wilson
Inquiry as to conditions under which President Wilson would approve purely humanitarian commission of neutrals for provisioning Russia and whether U. S. support in money and supplies could be expected. Information that similar notes have been sent to Orlando, Clemenceau, and Lloyd George.
102
[Apr.3–4] Draft by Mr. David Hunter Miller and Mr. Gordon Auchincloss of a Proposed Letter to be Signed by President Wilson and the Prime Ministers of Great Britain, France, and Italy in Reply to Dr. Nansen’s Letter of April 3
Concurrence by Associated Powers in proposal of humanitarian commission for relief of Russia, which should be free from political difficulties, but should involve cessation of hostilities by Russian troops.
103
Apr. 4 Draft by Mr. William C. Bullitt of a Proposed Letter to be Signed by President Wilson and the Prime Ministers of Great Britain, France, and Italy in Reply to Dr. Nansen’s Letter of April 3
Proposal of armistice and conference at Christiania with Russian and ex-Russian governments to discuss peace and provisioning of Russia upon basis of certain principles enumerated.
104
[Page XIX]Apr. 5 Redraft by Mr. William C. Bullitt of a Proposed Letter to be Signed by President Wilson and the Prime Ministers of Great Britain, France, and Italy in Reply to Dr. Nansen’s Letter of April 3
Revision of draft prepared by Mr. Miller and Mr. Auchincloss, April 3–4.
106
Apr. 17 Messrs. Wilson, Clemenceau, Lloyd George, and Orlando to Dr. Fridtjof Nansen
Reply to Nansen’s letter of April 3 following lines suggested by Miller and Auchincloss and redrafted by Bullitt.
108
May 3 (269) The Minister in Sweden to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Finnish request that Associated Governments wait until military decision has been reached before sending food into Soviet Russia.
109
May 7 From the Russian Ambassador to the United States, temporarily at Paris
Statement, May 4, by the Russian Political Conference (text printed) expressing appreciation of relief offer, but warning that food supply for Russia should not be delivered into Bolshevik hands.
109
May 9 (284) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
From McCormick, for War Trade Board also: Nansen’s letter, April 17, to Lenin (text printed) transmitting texts of his note of April 3 to Associated Governments and their reply, and stating that proposed organization offers its services without remuneration but that expense for food and transportation must be borne by Soviet Government.
111
May 14 (104) The Representative at Copenhagen of the American Relief Administration to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Hoover: Telegram from Chicherin to Nansen (text printed) expressing appreciation of humanitarian offer, but pointing out objectionable character of conditions imposed, and suggesting conference for discussion of question. Nansen’s proposal to meet Soviet delegates and request for Hoover’s views.
111
May 16 Appendix III to C. F. 20.—Feeding of Russia—Copy of Letter from Lord Robert Cecil to Sir Maurice Hankey
Conclusion of Council of Four that Nansen be advised by Hoover not to meet Bolshevik representatives pending further consideration by Governments. Memorandum (text printed) interpreting Lenin’s reply and discussing policies that Associated Governments might follow.
115
June 21 The Director General of Relief, Supreme Economic Council, to President Wilson
Necessity for economic reorganization in Russia, primarily in currency and transportation, and for establishment of economic mandatory with support of Associated Powers.
117
[Page XX]

Refusal by the Government of the United States to Countenance Further Attempts to Establish Relations with the Soviet Authority in Russia

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Sept. 9 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Excerpts (texts printed) from President Wilson’s speeches at Kansas City and Des Moines, September 6, in which he condemns minority rule and deplores control in Russia by group without constitutional authority and spread of its propaganda.
(Instructions to repeat to Harbin and Omsk. Sent also to Commission to Negotiate Peace to be repeated to Archangel, and to Constantinople for repetition to Vice Consul at Ekaterinodar.)
119
Sept. 22 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Publication of President Wilson’s speeches on Bolshevism creating favorable impression.
120
Nov. 4 (6149) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Press report of proposal by British Government of conference between Soviet Russia and Entente Allies, on lines similar to Prinkipo. Request for information.
121
Nov. 14 (3383) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
No foundation for report of British participation in Dorpat conference; British representatives to Copenhagen conference instructed to confine discussions to exchange of prisoners.
121
Nov. 15 (3390) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Departure of O’Grady for Copenhagen to enter negotiations with Litvinov for exchange of war prisoners.
121
Nov. 15 (3394) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Lloyd George’s statement in House of Commons of policy regarding Russia; his apparent willingness to parley with all Russian factions. Impossibility of predicting future policy because of apparent inconsistencies between statements by Lloyd George and other members of Government.
122
Nov. 18 (4238) From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Publication of telegram from London containing announcement by Department of State (text printed) that no compromise is contemplated with Soviet Government, that United States does not intend to participate in any conference with Bolshevik representatives, and that Department will continue to encourage arrangements for relief in non-Bolshevik territory. Inquiry as to authenticity.
123
Nov. 20 (6194) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Denial that any formal announcement of policy has been made; explanation that telegram from London was probably based upon informal talks with newspaper representatives.
(Instructions to repeat to Stockholm.)
123
Nov. 21 (269) From the Minister in Denmark (tel.)
Interview with O’Grady concerning status of his negotiations with Litvinov and the limitation of his powers to negotiations for prisoners, with privilege of reporting any other proposals.
123
[Page XXI]Nov. 24 (6209) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Press and consular reports of imminent fall of Soviet Government, unless recognition can be obtained from Allies and neutrals. Instructions to intimate that moral support derived from British negotiations with Bolsheviks at this time would be unfortunate.
(Instructions to repeat to Paris.)
124
Nov. 28 (3464) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Foreign Office statement that British representatives at Copenhagen conference are emphatically instructed to refuse to listen to Bolshevik peace proposals.
125
Nov. 29 (5468) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Conversation with Lloyd George who sees menace to Europe in unified Russia; favors independence of Finland, Baltic Provinces, Ukraine, Siberia, etc.; and considers possibility of conference with Soviets.
126
Nov. 30 (279) From the Minister in Denmark (tel.)
For President Wilson: Summary of situation in Russia, advancing four possible policies, prevailing opinion being that Associated Powers should treat situation as civil war and favor no faction. View that Bolsheviks will be strengthened by war but will disappear with peace and prosperity.
126
Dec. 2 (288) From the Minister in Denmark (tel.)
Full powers given Litvinov to conclude peace with any country. O’Grady’s request for greater powers. Litvinov’s wish to include in negotiations Russian prisoners in Germany and Austria.
127
Dec. 2 (289) From the Minister in Denmark (tel.)
Negotiations between O’Grady and Litvinov regarding trade; views of O’Grady that normal free trade and consular service will tend to put an end to communism.
127
Dec. 2 (3481) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Information from Foreign Office and elsewhere that so far negotiations with Litvinov have been confined to exchange of prisoners; no reports regarding Bolshevik peace offer.
128
Dec. 3 (3486) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Discussion of Siberian situation with Curzon; his disavowal of British intention to displace Kolchak or to call a second Prinkipo conference; his favorable attitude toward chain of independent buffer states. Lloyd George’s willingness to treat with Bolsheviks and favorable attitude toward division of Russia into group of small states.
128
Dec. 4 (6243) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
U. S. views, to be presented at Ambassador’s discretion, regarding futility of an understanding with Bolshevik Government; possibility of its evolution into a regime with which relations may be established; dangers attending recognition of present leaders; refusal to support plan for dismemberment of Russia.
(Instructions to repeat to Ambassador in France.)
129
[Page XXII]Dec. 6 (3500) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Information that O’Grady has received reiterated instructions to confine his discussions to exchange of prisoners and to refuse to listen to representations on other subjects.
130
Dec. 10 (301) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Note from Litvinov enclosing resolution on peace with Allies passed by Seventh All-Russian Congress of Soviets (text printed). Information that note was sent to all Allied and Associated Governments and should be considered formal peace offer.
131
Dec. 10 (302) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Return of Litvinov’s note, in conformity with action of British, French, and Italian Legations, on ground that peace negotiations violate ruling under which he was allowed to come to Denmark.
132
Dec. 13 (307) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Semiofficial press announcement of return of Litvinov’s note by Legations of Associated Governments and explanation that action was in conformity with engagements that his sojourn in Denmark is for nonpolitical purposes.
132

Refusal by the Government of the United States to Recognize the Mission of L. Martens, Russian Soviet Agent in the United States

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Mar. 18 (1/a) From Mr. L. Martens
Submission of credentials (text printed) of appointment as representative in the United States of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic; memorandum (text printed) of present political and economic conditions of Soviet Russia, and of proposals for opening commercial relations; also copy of Soviet Constitution.
133
Mar. 25 (1270) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Transmittal of Martens’ communication and memorandum; comments and request for instructions.
141
Apr. 15 (1594) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Inquiry as to information to be furnished National City Bank, which has been notified by Martens that all Russian funds are subject to his order only.
142
Apr. 17 (1656) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Instructions to give no credence to Martens’ claim, Bakhmeteff being the only Russian representative recognized by the United States.
143
[Page XXIII]Apr. 20 From Mr. J. H. Fulton of the National City Bank of New York
Urgent request that, in case of any recognition of present Soviet administration, it apply only to future relations and transactions to avoid retroactive effect.
143
May 21 (644) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Official statements issued to press (text printed) warning business men that any concessions from Bolshevik authorities would probably not be recognized as binding on future Russian governments, and that as Bolshevik regime has not been recognized by the United States, extreme caution should be exercised as to representations made by anyone purporting to represent Bolshevik Government.
144
June 5 (2197) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Information that Martens is German subject, born in Russia, that he has been conducting propaganda and offering business men attractive opportunities, specific cases being cited, and that warnings have been issued by Department. Request for authorization for his deportation.
144
June 18 (2635) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
President Wilson’s statement that no objections will be raised to deportation of Martens, if evidence is complete.
146
June 24 To the National City Bank of New York
For Fulton: Assurances that Soviet Government will not be recognized at this time, and that any recognition hereafter will not have retroactive effect prejudicial to U. S. interests.
146
June 24 Memorandum by Mr. Basil Miles, in Charge of Russian Affairs, Division of Near Eastern Affairs, Department of State
Proposal to intern Martens, evidence warranting deportation being inadequate; evidence of German nationality and reasons why he should be interned.
(Footnote: Decision in Cabinet meeting to do nothing until further evidence or legislation is obtained.)
146
June 24 (3957) From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Telegram from Chicherin through Sweden (text printed) protesting arrest of Martens, demanding his release, reminding of courtesies accorded U. S. citizens in Russia, and threatening reprisals.
148
July 1 (1663) To the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Statement for Swedish authorities denying that Martens has been arrested or that any action is contemplated against law-abiding Russian citizens; citation of illegal and unjustifiable treatment to which Americans have been submitted in Russia, adding that so-called reprisals would arouse U. S. indignation.
149
[Page XXIV]

Continuance of Restrictions upon Trade with Soviet Russia by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers

Date and number Subject Page
1919 June 20 (2659) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Note from Supreme Economic Council (text printed) regarding obstacles in way of blockade of Hungary and Bolshevik Russia after peace is made with Germany and in absence of a declaration of war with Russia. Decision that no announcement will be made regarding resumption of trade and efforts will be made to prevent war material from reaching Bolshevik Russia.
149
July 15 (3152) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
White to the President: Sweden’s inquiry regarding restrictions on munitions of war for Bolshevik Russia. Arguments in Council in favor of blockade; White’s dissenting views; postponement of decision by Council pending receipt of President Wilson’s views.
151
July 18 (2594) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For White: The President’s approval of stand taken by White and view that a blockade before a state of war exists could not receive U. S. recognition.
153
July 26 (3323) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
White to the President: Conclusion of Council of Five to appeal to the President for reconsideration of his decision.
153
July 27 (3354) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
White to the President: Message from Council of Five (text printed) requesting reconsideration of President’s decision.
154
Aug. 2 (2714) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
The President’s reply to Council of Five (text printed) affirming that he is without constitutional right to enforce blockade without declaration of war by Congress; counter-proposal of a joint note to neutrals requesting that traffic in arms with Bolsheviks be prohibited, and of policy of nonintercourse by Associated Powers.
155
Aug. 15 (4027) From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Swedish communiqué (text printed) containing information that the United States and Great Britain still restrict trade with Russia and that mines laid make it impossible to travel by Petrograd route.
157
Sept. 9 (3067) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Inquiry regarding progress in preventing trade with Soviet Russia. Department’s policy of refusing licenses for shipments, which will lapse with proclamation of peace; recourse then to refusal of passports and clearance to vessels.
157
Sept. 13 To Senator Irvine L. Lenroot
Reply to inquiry regarding issuance of licenses for exportation of commodities to Soviet Russia, citing title VII of Espionage Act of June 15, 1917 (excerpt printed) as authority and calling attention to fact that all foreign trade in Russia has been nationalized and that funds used might prove to be exploitation of resources of Russian people.
158
Oct. 1 (4464) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Meeting of Council in which was discussed draft note to neutrals (text printed) suggesting measures of nonintercourse with Soviet Russia.
159
[Page XXV]Oct. 3 (4503) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Decision of Council that Clemenceau, as President of Peace Conference, should address proposed note to diplomatic representatives of neutrals in Paris.
160
Nov. 1 To Senator James W. Wadsworth
Policy of nonintercourse with Bolshevik Russia, in view of propaganda aimed at overthrow of U. S. Government and of Bolshevik control over and unequal distribution of necessities; U. S. efforts, however, for relief of needy, where supplies do not fall into Bolshevik hands.
161
Nov. 22 (840) From the British Appointed Ambassador
Inquiry as to what steps U. S. Government is taking to prevent banks from doing business with Bolshevik Russia, in accordance with request sent to neutrals.
162
1920 Jan. 10 To the British Chargé
Reply that prohibitions are still in force against financial transactions with Bolshevik Russia, but will be weakened with removal of censorship. Reference to Report of Secretary of Treasury to Congress, November 20, 1919.
163

Prohibition in the United States of the Traffic in Russian Rubles

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Jan. 28 From the Consul General at Paris (tel.)
Ministerial decree prohibiting importation into France of any form of Russian bank notes, coins, etc., without authorization from Ministry of Finance.
163
Feb. 4 From the Director of the Division of Foreign Exchange, Federal Reserve Board
Opinion that trading in rubles in the United States should be prohibited and press notice given to that effect; report that vast amounts of rubles are being printed for purposes of propaganda and that individuals are being lured into speculation in them.
164
Feb. 7 From the Secretary of the Treasury
Advisability of publicly prohibiting importation of Russian bank notes, coins, etc., into the United States.
166
Feb. 26 To the Federal Reserve Board
Receipt of letter containing order issued by Federal Reserve Board (text printed) prohibiting exportation or importation of Russian rubles or transfer of funds for their purchase.
167
[Page XXVI]

Efforts to Obtain the Release of American Citizens Detained in Russia

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Jan. 28 (457) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Offer of Government of India to exchange Russian hostage for release of Tredwell, U. S. consul at Tashkent; suggestion that Tredwell’s release be unconditional preliminary to U. S. participation in Prinkipo conference. Representations sent through Norway (text printed) regarding Kalamatiano, naturalized American, accused as spy for Consul Poole and condemned to death.
167
Feb. 4 (7281) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Instructions to propose cooperation of French, British, and U. S. Governments in efforts for release of their nationals in Soviet Russia.
Similar telegram to Embassy in London.)
169
Feb. 7 (789) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
British intention to propose exchange of prisoners with Bolsheviks and to include demand for U. S. nationals as well. Inquiry as to number and location of American prisoners in Russia.
169
Feb. 8 (660) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Inability to follow suggestion concerning release of Tredwell as unconditional preliminary to U. S. representation at Prinkipo. Assumption that India’s offer of hostage exchange will be investigated further.
170
Feb. 10 (1569) From the Minister in Norway (tel.)
Message from Norwegian consul at Moscow of Soviet offer to release Kalamatiano and English mission, provided certain Soviet officials arrested by Allied troops in eastern Siberia are released.
170
Feb. 11 (688) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Recommendation that Department refuse to consider Bolshevik proposal for exchange of prisoners unless it includes Tredwell.
171
Feb. 12 (1572) From the Minister in Norway (tel.)
Soviet request through Norway for immediate reply to proposal of exchange of Russian prisoners at Vladivostok against simultaneous delivery of Kalamatiano.
171
Feb. 14 (7224) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
French willingness to cooperate in release of U. S. prisoners in Russia; however, exchange of French prisoners having been effected, no important Bolsheviks remain in France.
172
Feb. 18 (693) To the Minister in Norway (tel.)
Instructions to request Norway to inform Soviets that offer to exchange Kalamatiano for Bolsheviks in Siberia cannot be considered unless Bolsheviks first release Tredwell, who is held in violation of international law and custom.
172
Feb. 21 (4589) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Appreciation of British offer to include Kalamatiano in demand upon Bolsheviks for exchange of prisoners, number of U. S. prisoners in Russia being unknown. Suggestion also of further intervention by India in case of Tredwell, and request that message to him be forwarded.
173
[Page XXVII]Feb. 21 (1443) To the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Suggestion of intimating informally to Bolshevik representatives in Copenhagen that release of Tredwell prior to Prinkipo conference would be clever move because of importance of his position and prejudice which his arrest has aroused in the United States.
174
Feb. 21 (3652) From the Minister in Sweden (tel.)
Message from Petrograd stating that Kalamatiano’s sentence for espionage has been commuted to imprisonment.
175
Feb. 24 (3666) From the Minister in Sweden (tel.)
Soviet message through Danish Red Cross at Moscow requesting U. S. views on exchange of Kalamatiano and Albers for Soviet officials detained at Vladivostok by U. S. authorities.
175
Feb. 25 (1534) To the Minister in Sweden (tel.)
Instructions to send message of assurances to Kalamatiano through Danish Red Cross and to report details concerning Albers.
176
Feb. 26 (41) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Minister in Sweden (tel.)
For Bullitt: Instructions to convey to Moscow government U. S. concern and irritation at treatment of Kalamatiano and Tredwell.
176
Mar. 5 (702) To the Minister in Norway (tel.)
Message from U. S. consul at Vladivostok (text printed), denying that any Russians have been detained by U. S. authorities. Instructions to request that this information be conveyed to Soviets.
176
Mar. 7 (1066) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Departure of Bullitt mission from Stockholm for Helsingfors, arrangements having been made unofficially by Minister at Stockholm; Bullitt’s intention to secure immediate release of Tredwell and Kalamatiano.
177
Mar. 8 (1556) To the Minister in Sweden (tel.)
Instructions to request that Danish Red Cross representative use every effort unofficially to secure release of Tredwell and Kalamatiano.
177
Mar. 10 (3726) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Report on details of Kalamatiano’s imprisonment secured through Norwegian consulate at Moscow.
177
Mar. 20 (1241) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Bullitt’s message (text printed) regarding Soviet orders for release of Tredwell.
178
Mar. 21 (3755) From the Minister in Sweden (tel.)
Bullitt’s report of personal interviews with Kalamatiano, Houston, and Albers, securing Soviet official statement of willingness to release Kalamatiano in exchange for U. S. facilities for repatriation of Lomonosov, whose passport Swedish Legation declines to visa.
(Footnote: Release of Houston and Albers April 1919.)
178
[Page XXVIII]Mar. 27 (1581) To the Minister in Sweden (tel.)
Instructions to make representations to Sweden to allow safe transit for Lomonosov, similar request being made of Finland; U. S. willingness to arrange for his safe transit when Kalamatiano, Houston, and Albers are released.
179
Mar. 31 (3825) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Soviet message, through Danish Red Cross, that all Americans, Italians, Rumanians, and Serbs will be liberated as soon as Russians held at Blagoveshchensk and Vladivostok are released; report that orders have been given to liberate Tredwell and send him to Moscow.
180
Apr. 4 (3794) From the Minister in Sweden (tel.)
Instructions from Foreign Office to Swedish Legation, Washington, to grant visa to Lomonosov permitting his entry into Sweden.
181
Apr. 8 (229) From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.)
Gade to Lansing and Naval Intelligence: Scheme to secure release of U. S. and other prisoners in Russia, including Tredwell, in return for Russia’s right to purchase medicines in America through Denmark; request for full discretionary power.
181
Apr. 10 (125) From the Chargé in Persia (tel.)
Message from Tredwell, through Russian diplomatic officer at Askhabad, telling of his release and departure for Moscow.
181
Apr. 14 (1555) To the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Unwillingness to lend good offices in connection with Bolshevik proposal for exchange of prisoners until Tredwell has been delivered to station outside Bolshevik control. Instructions to verify Tredwell’s message concerning his release.
182
Apr. 14 To the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.)
Instructions to inform Gade that his proposal cannot be approved.
182
Apr. 25 (254) From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.)
Report of departure of Tredwell and others from Moscow for Finland.
(Footnote: Tredwell’s entrance into Finland on April 27.)
183
May 3 (173) From the Consul General at Stockholm (tel.)
From Tredwell: Detailed account of arrest and imprisonment.
183
May 15 (3984) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Excerpts from Danish Red Cross reports sent to American Mission (texts printed) urging negotiations for exchange of prisoners in return for right to purchase medicines, adding that Soviets insist there are some of their number with Americans at Vladivostok and Blagoveshchensk.
184
May 27 (1637) To the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Confirmation of report that Americans have not taken any Bolshevik prisoners in Siberia. Inquiry as to measures to be taken to release Kalamatiano.
185
[Page XXIX]June 14 (1675) To the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Instructions to inform Danish Red Cross that U. S. authorities in Siberia hold no Bolshevik prisoners and that the United States has no objections to purchase by Danish Red Cross of medicines in America for needy Russians; also to endeavor, under these circumstances, to secure release of Kalamatiano.
185
June 24 (3955) From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Lomonosov’s arrival in Sweden; failure to secure passage to Russia for himself and staff; appeals to Moscow and reply refusing to consider his exchange for Kalamatiano (texts printed).
185
June 25 (2416) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Message from Legation at Copenhagen (text printed) regarding Danish Red Cross efforts to include Kalamatiano with French and British in exchange for Russians in France; suggestion that offer of tonnage be made in return for release of Kalamatiano and Americans. Inquiry as to action being taken by France; approval of tonnage offer.
187
June 28 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Soviet telegram to Lomonosov (text printed) denying that any offer had been made to release Kalamatiano and advising Lomonosov to wait in Sweden; telegram by Lomonosov, through Swedish Foreign Office (text printed), inquiring how his passage from America to Russia was conditioned.
187
July 1 (1662) To the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Department’s willingness to assist Lomonosov to return to Russia; refusal to assist his staff except under some arrangement which would secure release of Kalamatiano.
188
July 7 (3977) From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Transmittal of Department’s telegram no. 1662, July 1, to Soviet Government, through Swedish Government, by attorney for Lomonosov.
188
July 13 (3129) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
French intention to repatriate Russian soldiers in France regardless of reciprocal action on part of Soviets.
188
July 14 (3988) From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Soviet telegram to Lomonosov (text printed) reiterating refusal to release Kalamatiano, explaining situation regarding Kalamatiano, Martens, and Tredwell. Lomonosov’s statement to Legation (text printed) comparing his case with that of Tredwell and requesting U. S. reciprocity of treatment. Request for instructions, since permission for Lomonosov to remain in Sweden expires August 1.
188
July 18 (1668) To the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Instructions to telegraph U. S. Commissioner at Helsingfors of U. S. desire that Lomonosov be allowed passage through Finland to Russia, and to say to Lomonosov that his statement regarding detention in America is contrary to facts.
190
[Page XXX]

Rejection of British Proposals for Facilitating the Repatriation of Chinese Coolies Remaining in Russia

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Jan. 20 (57) From the British Chargé
British request for support of a proposal to China to order home their nationals now serving in Bolshevik armies, and to address summons to Bolshevik Government to release all Chinese from army service and facilitate their return home.
190
Jan. 25 To the British Chargé
Request for British views as to advisability of proposed action in view of unsettled state of China and danger of introducing lawless element in large numbers; counter-proposal that coolies be returned gradually and their distribution supervised.
191
Feb. 8 To the British Embassy
Opinion of American Minister in China and of his British and Russian colleagues that presence of coolies in China in large numbers would endanger peace of the country. Department’s concurrence and instructions accordingly.
192
Feb. 24 (144) From the British Chargé
Request for U. S. views on desire expressed by Union of Chinese Workmen in Russia, conveyed through Bolshevik Government, that facilities be granted for return home of Chinese coolies.
192
Feb. 28 To the British Chargé
Reply that reasons have been given as to inadvisability of assisting at this time in repatriation of Chinese workmen and coolies who have been under influence of Bolshevik rule in Russia.
193
Mar. 5 (171) From the British Ambassador
Explanation that movement for repatriation of Union of Chinese Workmen in Russia was at their own request and has no connection with British proposal of January 20. Submission of question to Chinese Government.
193
Mar. 26 To the British Ambassador
Opinion of U. S. Minister in China that Bolshevik propaganda will find little encouragement in China and that Government is willing that workmen return. Reports from other sources that movement is part of plan for armed uprising in Siberia and for establishing Soviets in China.
194
Apr. 21 (295) From the British Ambassador
British decision to drop whole question of allowing Chinese Bolsheviks to return to China.
194
[Page XXXI]

CHAPTER II

SIBERIA

Campaigns in Western Siberia, and the Final Defeat of Kolchak

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Jan. 3 From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Evacuation of Ufa by Siberian troops and small detachment of Allies.
195
Jan. 10 (165) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing also: Report from U. S. military observer at Ekaterinburg (text printed) regarding capture of Perm by Siberian Army; evidence of Bolshevik terrorism among inhabitants.
(Instructions to repeat to London.)
195
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 11] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Plan of Siberian Army on western front, under command of Generals Gaida and Pepelyaev, to attempt to reach Moscow by spring.
196
Jan. 13 From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Kolchak’s statement that situation in Orenburg district is serious owing to Social Revolutionary and Bolshevik propaganda; arrangements for dispatch of troops to Ufa.
196
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 24] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Report on frustration of Bolshevik attempt to loot Perm, Kolchak being aided by Cossacks, Fall of Ufa, however, to Bolsheviks counter-balancing any advantage gained.
196
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 25] From the Minister in China (tel).
From Harris at Omsk: Occupation of Orenburg by Bolsheviks, January 22.
197
Jan. 30 From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Reverses suffered by Siberian troops at Kungur, endangering Perm front; congestion in railway traffic and unrest in political and military circles.
197
Jan. 30 From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Refusal of Czech and Siberian soldiers in Kungur region to obey orders; drastic action taken by military authorities.
198
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 3] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Japanese offer to support Kolchak in fight against Bolsheviks; Kolchak’s refusal of offer, stating that aid should come jointly from all the Allies.
198
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 5] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Improved situation at Kungur and Perm, despite news that Czechs are withdrawing.
199
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 15] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Tomsk: Improved military situation at Omsk, population quiet, regiments on both sides refusing to fight.
199
Undated [Rec’d Mar. 20] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Harbin: Report of capture by Siberian Army of Ufa and of junction point of Chishmy.
200
[Page XXXII]Mar. 29 (1367) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Indorsement of optimistic views of Harris (text printed) arrived at after discussions with Graves, Stevens, and others at Vladivostok, describing Kolchak government as stronger and campaign against Bolsheviks as progressing favorably, only needs now being economic and protection in the rear.
200
Apr. 18 (236) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Contradictory reports regarding military situation at Omsk. Thompson’s report from Irkutsk (text printed) of imminence of coup d’état at Omsk and Irkutsk because of reactionary tendency of government and refusal to authorize constituent assembly. Reports also of army advances toward Samara.
201
May 17 (306) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Activities of Bolsheviks in region between Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk; promise of Czech full military strength to crush movement.
202
Undated [Rec’d June 4] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Novo Nikolaevsk: Report of unsatisfactory military conditions on Ufa front and unchanged railway situation.
203
Undated [Rec’d June 7] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Report of victory of Ural Cossacks over Bolsheviks on Orenburg front and advance of Siberian Army on north; its repulse, however, on Kazan front.
203
Undated [Rec’d June 14] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Tomsk: Command of northern and western armies by Gaida, whose policy is moderation based on democratic principles, instituting counter-Bolshevik propaganda to improve morale of army; restoration of confidence notwithstanding greater strength of Bolshevik Army.
203
Undated [Rec’d June 21] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Probable resignation of Gaida; his views that Bolsheviks will not be defeated by Siberian Army, that Kolchak is surrounded by clique of Russian officers intriguing against him.
204
Undated [Rec’d June 23] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Superseding of Gaida by Dietrichs as commander in chief of main Siberian Armies.
205
Undated [Rec’d July 2] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Evacuation of Perm by Siberian Army.
205
Undated [Rec’d July 1] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Serious situation on Ufa and Perm fronts and in trans-Baikal as regards railway, yet considerable improvement in service owing to work of U. S. railway men; influx of refugees.
205
Undated [Rec’d July 10] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Battles at Zlatoust and Kungur; notification to all Americans including Red Cross to retire to Omsk if Bolsheviks advance; serious situation at Ekaterinburg.
206
[Page XXXIII]July 10 (372) The Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia to the Adjutant General
From Slaughter at Omsk: Capture of Perm and Kungur by Red Guards; destruction of Kama River fleet; evacuation of Perm and retreat by Dietrichs and Gaida forces; chaos and panic west of Tiumen.
206
Undated [Rec’d July 12] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Japan’s proposal to send troops to Ural front under guise of protecting railway when Czechs evacuate.
208
Undated [Rec’d July 14] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Evacuation of Ekaterinburg July 8; army to retire behind Tiumen; Russian Red Cross to evacuate patients to Omsk; Bolshevik concentration on Kolchak’s front with view to taking farming districts of Urals.
208
Undated [Rec’d July 16] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Report from Tomsk of mutiny in Siberian Army following distribution of Bolshevik propaganda. Restoration of order by Czechs.
208
Undated [Rec’d July 17] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Bolshevik occupation of Ekaterinburg; further evacuations toward Omsk by U. S. consular officers, U. S. Red Cross, etc.
209
Undated [Rec’d July 19] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Evacuation of Chelyabinsk by U. S. and Russian Red Cross and patients; saving of medical supplies; near approach of Bolsheviks, having occupied Zlatoust and cut railway between Chelyabinsk and Ekaterinburg.
209
July 24 Memorandum by the Third Assistant Secretary of State of Conversation with the Japanese Chargé d’Affaires
Statement by Debuchi that Omsk government had requested two divisions of Japanese troops sent to Lake Baikal, and that Japan had declined.
210
Undated [Rec’d July 29] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: No Americans now west of Omsk; presence of Czech and British troops in Omsk guaranteeing safety of city.
210
Aug. 6 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Indications of demoralization and panic in Kolchak’s army; his efforts at reorganization; superior strength, morale, and equipment of Bolsheviks, and exhibition of more tolerant spirit; political disorganization in Kolchak government and growing Bolshevik sentiment in Siberia.
210
Aug. 15 (2829) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Report from Vladivostok to War Department (text printed) of hopelessness of Kolchak’s efforts to reorganize army and lack of cooperation among government officials. Gaida’s statement (text printed) of hypocritical declaration by government in favor of constituent assemblies, at same time plotting restoration of monarchy.
212
[Page XXXIV]Aug. 15 From the President of the Technical Board (tel.)
Opinion of Allied representatives that Omsk will soon be evacuated and that government will collapse. Prediction of Red occupation as far as Irkutsk unless Allied Armies, exclusive of Japanese, intervene.
214
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 29] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Advice to Kolchak from U. S., British, and French representatives and foreign military experts, to remove Government gold reserve to Vladivostok. Kolchak’s refusal to do so.
214
Sept. 3 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.)
For Harris: Suggestion that gold bullion under Kolchak’s control be sent to U. S. Legation at Peking, with U. S. pledge to return it to properly constituted government. Request for views.
214
Sept. 8 (377) From the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Opinion that Kolchak will refuse to transfer gold to any Allied power, believing that he can protect it. Present military operations west of Omsk not unfavorable to Siberian forces; untrue reports of fall of Omsk.
215
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 11] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Report that Omsk is believed to be out of danger; southern and central armies holding their ground; capture of Tobolsk by Bolsheviks.
216
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 12] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Report of general advance by Siberian Army, capturing prisoners and guns.
216
Sept. 22 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Kolchak decree (text printed) calling convention of Zemstvo Council and appealing to people to support Government and Army.
217
Sept. 22 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Continued advance on whole front by Siberian Army, which will apparently unite with Denikin advancing from south.
217
Sept. 23 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Instructions to confer with Slaughter whose reports directly contradict consul general’s reports. Request for authoritative report of actual situation of Kolchak forces and progress in measures for Zemstvo Council.
218
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 30] From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Refusal to modify reports after conferring with Slaughter; submission of further encouraging details as to Kolchak’s situation and of progress made toward Zemstvo Council.
219
Oct. 20 Memorandum by the Third Assistant Secretary of State of a Conversation with the Russian Ambassador
U. S. refusal to send additional troops to Siberia or to move troops farther west; discussion of Japanese decision not to proceed west of Baikal; advantage to railroads of slow repatriation of Czechs.
220
[Page XXXV]Oct. 21 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Report of satisfactory conditions at Irkutsk and quiet in Altai region; Bolshevik attacks on Siberian Third Army causing retreat of latter.
220
Oct. 29 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris: Retreat of Siberian Army; preparations to defend Omsk if necessary; transfer of personnel of departments to Irkutsk, Kolchak, officials, and gold bullion remaining.
221
Nov. 1 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Continued retreat of Siberian Army; order for U. S. Red Cross to evacuate to Irkutsk; aggravation of situation by railway congestion and intense cold; Bolshevik radio reports of victories on all fronts.
221
Nov. 3 (3658) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Telegram From Harris at Omsk (text printed) regarding conversation with Kolchak, who expresses appreciation of U. S. aid and determination to fight to the end; Czech intention not to participate in fighting but to evacuate Siberia; capture of Petropavlovsk by Bolsheviks; purpose of foreign missions to evacuate by November 5.
222
Nov. 5 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Resignation of Dietrichs, succeeded by Sakharov as commander of Siberian Army. No change in military operations.
223
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 7] From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Departure for Novo Nikolaevsk after evacuation of U. S. Red Cross, leaving Vice Consul Hansen to report: request that International Harvester Co. and Singer Sewing Machine Co. be advised that their important documents are in his custody.
223
Nov. 11 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Novo Nikolaevsk: Hansen’s report from Omsk of continued retreat of Siberian Army; evacuation by Government to Irkutsk in anticipation of Bolshevik occupation of Omsk, Kolchak remaining and gold being sent east.
224
Nov. 12 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Hansen at Omsk: Kolchak’s departure for Irkutsk; many refugees passing through Omsk; concentration of army within city.
224
Nov. 17 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
From Harris at Novo Nikolaevsk: Fall of Omsk, November 15, Bolshevik Army continuing east; destruction of great bridge over Irtysh River by retreating Siberian Army.
225
Nov. 22 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Tomsk: Destruction of Omsk; capture of trains carrying families of Siberian officers; great suffering; severe cold; further evacuation by Polish troops and others moving eastward.
225
Nov. 24 From the President of the Technical Board (tel.)
Capture by Reds of large number prisoners, supplies, and equipment at Omsk; scattering of Kolchak’s army.
226
[Page XXXVI]Nov. 25 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris: Report of resignation of Kolchak ministry and attempt to fuse new ministry with Social Revolutionaries and Cossacks; elimination of pro-American members. Czech appeal for repatriation, attacking Kolchak government. Estimation that 60 percent of Czechs are Bolsheviks. Presence of Kolchak in Novo Nikolaevsk with the gold.
226
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 1] From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Report from Novo Nikolaevsk of anticipated fall of that city; preparations for evacuation of Americans to Krasnoyarsk; reinforcement of Dutov’s army with Siberian Cossacks to create new southern front; presence of Kolchak and army staff at Novo Nikolaevsk.
227
Dec. 3 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Fall of Barabinsk; beginning of the evacuation of Novo Nikolaevsk.
228
Dec. 3 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Difficulty of evacuation of Novo Nikolaevsk owing to seizure by Czechs of all locomotives for their own use; report of no atrocities by Bolsheviks at Omsk but kind treatment of population and army.
229
Dec. 18 To the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.)
Request for comment on Stevens’ report from Harbin (text printed) stating that attitude of Bolsheviks in Siberia has changed, that they are advancing east establishing order, advising all to go about their business, and arranging for election of delegates for General Constituent Assembly.
229
Dec. 18 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Complaint that Czech seizure of locomotives has prevented U. S. vice consuls and Red Cross from reaching Irkutsk; Government’s request for Japanese protection.
230
Dec. 23 From the President of the Technical Board (tel.)
Official confirmation of capture of Tomsk by anti-Kolchak forces; rumored capture of Taiga.
231
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 24] From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Conflict between Poles and Bolsheviks at Taiga; assurance of safety of Americans; friction between Czechs and Siberians; quiet in region of Cheremkovo, work being resumed and traffic unimpeded.
231
Dec. 24 From the President of the Technical Board (tel.)
Kolchak’s request to Semenov and Japanese to stop Czechs and to force them to support Kolchak government. Semenov’s appointment as commander of forces east of Irkutsk. Bolshevik control of all territory west of Achinsk.
232
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 26] From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Semenov’s demand that Czechs desist from disorganizing railway traffic; determination of Czechs to reach Vladivostok where they believe steamships wait to repatriate them.
232
[Page XXXVII]Dec. 26 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Social Revolutionary uprising; expectation that Czech troops will guarantee order and that peace will soon be made; presence of Allied representatives and safety of U. S. Red Cross.
233
Dec. 27 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Reports of mutiny in Siberian Army at Irkutsk and the advance of the Bolsheviks on the city; General Oi’s move to protect Baikal tunnels. Eagerness of Japanese to send troops to preserve order and evacuate foreigners; their hesitancy to act without U. S. concurrence and support.
234
Dec. 27 From the President of the Technical Board (tel.)
Overthrow of Kolchak government, with Irkutsk in the possession of Social Revolutionists; protection of Americans by Czechs; Semenov’s operation of railroad.
234
Dec. 28 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris: Indications that Kolchak’s mentality is breaking under the strain; opinion that Czech-United States-Japanese forces are sufficient to safeguard tunnels and bridges in trans-Baikal.
235
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 30] From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Kolchak government finished; Bolsheviks in control from Lake Baikal to Moscow; no change of policy except toward those from whom they wish to secure food supplies; no move toward a constituent assembly and no possibility of constructive work under their rule.
235

Inter-Allied Agreement for Supervision of the Chinese Eastern and the Siberian Railways

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Jan. 9 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Submission to Japanese Foreign Minister on January 9 of memorandum of points previously discussed and agreed upon concerning plan for supervision of railways. Foreign Minister’s suggestion that Associated Governments be advised of understanding reached and that Ambassador Morris go to Vladivostok to assist in preliminary arrangements.
236
Jan. 11 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
For Stevens: Telegram From Harris at Omsk (text printed) containing appeal of Omsk government that managing control of Siberian Railway be taken over by American Railway Commission; Harris’ recommendation for favorable consideration in view of present condition of railroad and facilities needed by relief organizations.
237
Jan. 13 (4037) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Transmittal of Ambassador Morris’ telegram of January 9. Information that Department is authorizing Morris to proceed to Vladivostok; that plans can go forward as soon as matter has been formally presented by Japan; and that instructions will then be issued for formal notification to Government.
(Instructions to repeat to Paris and Rome.)
238
[Page XXXVIII]Jan. 15 From the Japanese Ambassador
Presentation of plan for supervision of Chinese Eastern and Trans-Siberian Railways in zone in which Allied military forces are now operating (text printed).
239
Jan. 16 (371) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
British promise of support to final plan for inter-Allied supervision of railways.
240
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 17] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Statement of Council of Ministers, Provisional Government, to representatives of foreign powers conveying decision in favor of project for control and regulation of their railways by Inter-Allied Committee and under management of Stevens.
241
Jan. 18 From the Counselor of the Japanese Embassy
Confirmation of Japan’s understanding concerning points of agreement for supervision of Chinese Eastern and Trans-Siberian Railways, as presented in Ambassador Morris’ memorandum of January 9 (text printed).
242
Jan. 21 (376) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: The President’s approval of railway plan. Importance of working out method by which burden of financing shall be equally distributed between interested Governments; McCormick’s recommendation to War Trade Board, Russian Bureau, to make temporary advance to Stevens.
243
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 25] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Telegram sent to Stevens (text printed) explaining that Omsk government will object to making any arrangements with Horvat for control of railway. Suggestion that it would be good policy not to ignore wishes of government.
244
Jan. 24 (391) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Doubt as to possibility of securing money for Russian railway supervision owing to critical attitude of Congress toward Administration’s Russian policy.
245
Jan. 31 (521) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: President’s authorization to present secretly to congressional committees plan for supervision of railways, with full explanation of policy involved and necessity for financing project; instructions to hold in abeyance instructions to General Graves and advance of money by War Trade Board, Russian Bureau.
246
Feb. 4 (568) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Inadvisability of approaching Congress at this time with any Russian plan, in view of hopelessness of obtaining an appropriation and indefinite nature of plan; demand made in Congress for withdrawal of U. S. troops from Russia; inquiry as to reply to be given Japan.
248
[Page XXXIX]Feb. 6 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Vladivostok (tel.)
Meeting of technical representatives and others with Morris and Stevens at Vladivostok to be arranged as soon as agreement is approved by Associated Governments. Recommendation of C. H. Smith as U. S. representative on Allied Committee.
249
Feb. 9 (658) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing and McCormick: The President’s withdrawal of suggestion to submit railway plan to congressional committees; authorization, however, to notify Japan of U. S. acceptance of plan with reservation as to financial responsibility, to proceed with plan, and to notify War Trade Board, Russian Bureau, to advance available funds.
250
Feb. 10 To the Japanese Ambassador
Notification of U. S. acceptance of general plan of supervision of railways in Siberia, with reservation as to any financial responsibility; U. S. approval of memorandum of January 9. Interpretation of word “interests” as not implying political or territorial spheres of influence.
251
Feb. 10 (4496) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Instructions to make formal notification of U. S. approval of plan for supervision of railways and to request Government’s approval and support.
(Similar telegrams to Ambassadors in France and Italy.)
252
Feb. 12 The Chief of Staff to the Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia (tel.)
The President’s directions that U S. troops be used as may be necessary to give authority and support to Stevens in operation of railways.
253
Feb. 19 (7314) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
French approval of plan and assurance of cooperation.
254
Feb. 25 (1107) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
British note, February 22 (text printed) concurring in railway plan and offering to cooperate, stressing urgency of solving problem of financing railways, which must be dealt with by Allied Governments upon recommendation of Board.
254
Feb. 27 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
For Morris: Message to Smith notifying him of his appointment as U. S. representative on Inter-Allied Committee for supervision of Siberian Railways.
255
Mar. 5 (2673) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Italian note, March 4 (text printed) accepting Siberian Railway plan with U. S. reservations and interpretations.
255
Mar. 5 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Vladivostok (tel.)
Organization of Technical Board, election of Stevens as President; meeting of Inter-Allied Committee, at which Omsk representative is directed to prepare draft declaration to Russian people.
256
[Page XL]Mar. 17 (148) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Report on meeting of Inter-Allied Committee and measures under discussion; publication of declaration to Russian people, dated March 14, as approved by Omsk government.
257
Mar. 19 (159) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Invitation to Czechoslovaks to join Inter-Allied Committee and Technical and Military Boards; organization of Military Transportation Board on March 18.
258
Mar. 21 (2628) From the Minister in China
China’s appointment of representative on Military Transportation Board, having accepted plan with reservation as to China’s special interest in Chinese Eastern Railway.
258
Mar. 21 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Question raised in meeting of Inter-Allied Committee and Technical Board whether decisions of committee must be unanimous or by majority vote, Japan and China insisting upon unanimity. Arguments in favor of majority vote which Ambassador is instructed to urge.
(Instructions to repeat to Peking for similar action and to Smith for information.)
258
Mar. 22 From the Russian Chargé
Omsk government’s expression of satisfaction regarding declaration of March 14, especially with regard to character of technical aid offered and cooperation with Russian railway personnel.
259
Mar. 27 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Decision at Vladivostok that questions within scope of authority of committees should be settled by majority vote and questions outside competency of national representatives should be referred to interested Governments for settlement.
260
Apr. 15 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Instructions to inform Government regarding certain modification of text of railway plan drawn up by Japanese Embassy, and of U. S. acceptance thereof.
(Sent also to the Minister in China. Instructions to repeat to Rome and Paris.)
260

International Financial Assistance to the Chinese Eastern and the Siberian Railways

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Mar. 1 To President Wilson
Request for information concerning funds for maintenance of Russian Railway Service Corps and for financing supervision of Siberian Railways. Explanations as to amounts needed, pointing out inadequacy of $1,000,000 emergency fund to be advanced by War Trade Board, Russian Bureau.
260
Mar. 3 From President Wilson
Authorization to use National Security and Defense funds for maintenance of U. S. railway corps in Siberia through June.
262
[Page XLI]Mar. 6 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Vladivostok (tel.)
No objections on part of Japan to U. S. advance of $1,000,000 for Stevens’ use on Siberian Railways, with understanding that it is temporary measure without security and will be redeemed from general funds to be provided by Inter-Allied Committee.
262
Mar. 14 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
For Stevens: Authorization to draw drafts against War Trade Board, Russian Bureau, for sums not to exceed $1,000,000, for use in connection with Siberian Railways, as temporary measure, without security, to be redeemed from general funds of railways. Further instructions.
262
Apr. 8 (205) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Resolutions of Inter-Allied Committee regarding distribution of expenses in connection with supervision of railways, also total amount to be advanced.
263
May 28 (327) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Notice to all governments of committee’s request for advance of $20,000,000. Only England, France, Japan, and the United States expected to participate.
265
June 5 (3094–A) Executive Order
Providing for the allotment for the maintenance of the Trans-Siberian and Chinese Eastern Railways of any funds returned to the Treasury upon the dissolution of the War Trade Board, Russian Bureau.
265
June 24 (8722) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Woolley to McCormick: Availability of $4,000,000 for Russian railway loan according to proposal to use capital of liquidated War Trade Board, Russian Bureau.
266
June 28 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.)
For Stevens: Transfer of $1,000,000 to Vladivostok branch of National City Bank and $3,000,000 to Riggs National Bank at Washington to credit of Stevens, as balance of U. S. quota of the $20,000,000 required for railway plan.
267
July 1 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.)
For Stevens: Directions for certain disbursements for Emerson and for maintenance of Railway Service Corps, including salaries for Smith and Stevens; arrangements for purchase of air brakes for locomotives.
267
July 11 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
For Morris: Instructions to consult Smith and Stevens and report views as to comprehensive plan for economic reconstruction of railways in Siberia and European Russia, contemplating Allied participation; the President’s intention to ask Congress for adequate appropriation.
268
July 31 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Conclusion of Russian and Allied representatives and experts in conference that it would be unwise for Associated Powers to assume responsibility for internal financial arrangements of Chinese Eastern or Trans-Siberian systems. Appointment of committee to investigate requirements for continuing operation of main line from Vladivostok to Ural Mountains.
269
[Page XLII]Aug. 9 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Summary of financial requirements of Siberian Railways as compiled by committee.
270
Nov. 18 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
For Smith: Inquiry as to (1) amounts contributed by Associated Powers for support of inter-Allied railway plan, (2) estimate of money needed for continuance of operation for 1920, and (3) portion which the United States should equitably furnish.
270
Nov. 25 (612) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Amounts paid by China, Japan, and the United States for support of inter-Allied railway plan, other countries having refused to contribute; amount needed for continuing operation for 1920; recommendation that the United States furnish entire amount if necessary. Measures needed to establish for Russian masses a representative government with right to own property and right to freedom of religious worship.
271

Decision by the Allies to Begin Evacuation of the Czechoslovak Forces, and Commitments by the United States to Assist in Their Repatriation

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Jan. 17 (8) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Accumulation of Czech war supplies at Vladivostok, congesting port and retarding commerce. Inquiry regarding reports that funds for their purchase are of U. S. origin.
273
Jan. 25 (7147) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
For American Mission and McCormick also: General Graves’ report to War Department (text printed) regarding discontent of Czechs; probability that they cannot be held in Siberia much longer; Czech property received from United States not being shipped west.
273
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 27] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Summary of position of Czechs in Siberia, their political tendencies, their eagerness for repatriation, and impatience at and contempt for conditions in Siberia.
274
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 28] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Arrangement for Czech troops to be placed at strategic points from Ekaterinburg to Irkutsk to guard railroad, provided Czech soldiers agree to it.
275
Jan. 29 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Reply of Lansing and McCormick (text printed) stating that war supplies in Vladivostok are result of U. S. loan to Czechoslovak National Council recognized as de facto government. Instructions to confer with Heid, representative of War Trade Board, Russian Bureau, as to advisability of stopping shipments and disposing of war material in port.
276
[Page XLIII]Feb. 8 (7343) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Instructions to discuss with Benes, Czech Foreign Minister, Harris’ telegram from Omsk (text printed) regarding behavior of Czech soldiers in Siberia in actually blocking military operations by refusing right of railway.
277
Feb. 11 From the Secretary of War
Message from Graves (text printed) reporting that morale of Czechs has been growing worse since signing of armistice, that they are not in sympathy with Kolchak government, and are withdrawing from the front, seeking most direct route to return home.
277
Feb. 12 (7183) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Beneš’ promise to inquire into situation among Czech troops in Siberia and to take remedial measures. His explanation of difficult situation.
278
Feb. 17 (7435) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Instructions to inform Beneš of U. S. appreciation of efforts of Czech troops, of failure to understand why U. S. loan was so little known and why supplies had been allowed to accumulate at Vladivostok.
279
Mar. 29 (1363) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Report from Major Slaughter at Omsk (text printed) regarding Czech situation, recommending that troops be repatriated slowly. Desire of Department that Mission discuss with Czech representatives at Paris best methods of repatriation.
279
Mar. 31 (1393) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Opinion of Secretary of War that some definite action regarding repatriation of Czech forces in Siberia is extremely important.
280
Apr. 3 (1444) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Beneš’ disapproval of repatriation of Czechs through European Russia, suggesting gradual evacuation by way of Vladivostok.
280
June 16 (2314) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Message from Stevens (text printed) regarding serious situation created by dissatisfaction of Czech forces in Siberia and necessity for Allies to take steps without delay to remedy it.
281
June 20 (2354) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Reports through Peking from Irkutsk and Omsk (text printed) stating that Czechs have become demoralized; that they are turning Bolshevik and taking things into their own hands.
282
Undated [Rec’d June 23] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Reasons for Czech disturbances, pointing out necessity for their repatriation and replacement by Allied troops to protect railway.
283
June 24 (2744) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Suggestion of Czechoslovak representative that Czechs fight their way out from Perm through Vologda and that invalids be repatriated by sea.
283
[Page XLIV]July 10 (2542) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Miles to Whitehouse: Refusal of General Janin, commander of Czech forces in Siberia, to consent to Czechs’ fighting their way out; Omsk government’s appeal to the United States and Japan to defend railway when Czechs leave; Stevens’ statement that U. S. engineers west of Irkutsk will have to be withdrawn if railway is not protected.
284
Undated [Rec’d July 14] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Foreign Office message (text printed) affirming necessity of having railway guarded by foreign troops, according to plan of Associated Powers, and suggesting U. S. participation west of Irkutsk.
284
July 16 (3177) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Whitehouse to Miles: General Bliss’ statement (text printed) of discussions in Supreme Council regarding impracticability of British plan for part of the Czechs to fight their way out of Siberia via Archangel: Czech objections to plan; doubt as to ability to repatriate Czechs this year.
285
July 18 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Instructions to release for publication the President’s address of felicitation to invalided Czechs en route from Vladivostok through Washington to their native land (text printed).
Substance sent to Minister in Czechoslovakia. Instructions to furnish copy to Czech representative and ask Harris to do likewise.)
286
July 18 (3212) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Bliss and White for the President also: Message from Kolchak to Clemenceau (text printed) pointing out inadvisability of attempting Czech evacuation from Archangel and recommending gradual evacuation from Vladivostok and protection of railroad by U. S. and Japanese troops.
287
July 21 (3251) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Submission to the United States and Japan, by Council of Heads of Delegations, of request (text printed) that United States and Japan send troops to guard railway, replacing Czechs who contemplate repatriation from Vladivostok.
288
July 21 (3248) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Note from Secretary General of Peace Conference to U. S. delegation, July 17 (text printed) summarizing views of French High Commissioner in Siberia in conference with Janin and Sookine, with respect to repatriation of Czech and Polish troops in Siberia.
289
July 22 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
For Heid: Information that expenses for repatriation of wounded Czech soldiers are being paid by Czech Legation at Washington from funds loaned Czechoslovakia by the United States.
290
July 24 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
For Morris: Transmission of conclusions reached by Supreme War Council, July 14, regarding the possibility of repatriating Czechs; request for views on certain alternative plans.
291
[Page XLV]July 30 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Discussion by diplomatic and military representatives of essential facts regarding present condition of Czech forces in Siberia and inevitable consequences of failure to replace railway guard, should Czechs evacuate. Japan’s purpose in intervention. Necessity for U. S. contribution of one-half additional troops for protection of Siberia.
292
Aug. 7 (3546) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Opinion of military authorities that suggestion made by French Embassy, Washington, for Czech repatriation in direction of Denikin’s forces is impracticable; recounting of obligations to assist Czechs; understanding that any expense will be refunded.
294
Aug. 8 (2759) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
The President’s reply to request of Council of Heads of Delegations, stating that it is impracticable to furnish additional U. S. troops to replace Czechs when latter withdraw from Siberia.
295
Aug. 9 (2776) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Availability of certain tonnage and Treasury funds to lend the Czechs for Czech repatriation; inquiry whether conference has any proposals for financing either through loans to Czechs or otherwise.
295
Sept. 13 (4204) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: French memorandum on question of reimbursement of expenses paid for Czechoslovak troops in Siberia; French and British request that the United States accept obligation of paying one-third of expense pending final arrangement with Czechs.
295
Sept. 17 (4253) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Urgent representations by Benes to American Mission regarding condition of Czech troops in Siberia and political danger at home caused by their detention; request for reply stating definitely what can be done regarding transportation and financial assistance.
296
Sept. 20 (3189) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Reference to U. S. reply in 1918 to French notes concerning U. S. willingness to assume one-third total cost of aiding Czechoslovak troops in Siberia; statement of U. S. separate financial aid to Czechs.
297
Sept. 22 (3198) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: The President’s approval of allocation by Treasury of funds up to $12,000,000 as loans to Czechoslovakia for repatriation of 50,000 Czechs from Siberia, also of allocation of sufficient tonnage for movement; instructions to insist on Great Britain and France sharing expense.
298
Sept. 24 (3228) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Telegram from Belgrade (text printed) regarding Foreign Minister’s request for U. S. and Japanese assistance in repatriation of Yugoslav and Czech forces in Siberia; inquiry as to arrangements to finance Poles and Yugoslavs.
299
[Page XLVI]Sept. 25 (3238) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Treasury Department to Polk: Readiness to establish credits for Czechoslovakia up to $12,000,000; suggestion, however, of plan by which England and France should bear proportionate share of expense of repatriation.
299
Sept. 27 (3259) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Availability of funds, provided plan for withdrawal of Czech troops is approved; urgency of decision.
300
Sept. 30 (3284) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Instructions to secure best plan possible for repatriation of Czechs; opinion that French and British should share half of loans; but urgency of situation causes U. S. willingness to begin movement alone.
300
Oct. 4 (4522) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Creation of Allied commission to deal with repatriation of German, Austrian, and Hungarian prisoners in Siberia and designation of Logan as U. S. member. Supreme Council’s decision that repatriation of friendly troops in Siberia should be effected first. Consideration by Commission of Treasury plan.
301
Oct. 9 (3378) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: U. S. proposal to commence repatriation of Czechs direct from Siberia to Trieste via Suez as separate movement under General Hines; inquiry when commission will get down to work.
302
Oct. 9 (4598) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Logan’s proposal to Allied representatives that repatriation of friendly troops in Siberia be commenced at once by United States who would handle movement up to total U. S. tonnage available and up to amount of credits to be advanced by United States. Request for U. S. approval of plan and for statement of proportionate number of troops of each nationality United States will finance.
303
Oct. 15 (3427) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Message from Glass to Rathbone (text printed) objecting to assuming burden of repatriation without definite agreement with England and France, and suggesting U. S. undertaking of Czech obligations only. Department’s reply in detail to telegram no. 4598, October 9, and statement that whole plan will have to be abandoned unless other governments contribute their quota.
306
Oct. 15 (3431) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Miles and Long to Polk: Confidential information that United States has no intention of abandoning repatriation of troops; U. S. threat to abandon them to be used only to compel cooperation.
308
Oct. 30 (3608) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Telegrams From Harris at Omsk (texts printed) regarding recall of Rozanov to Omsk; Omsk government negotiations with Czechs to return to front; and request for Department’s influence with Czech Government to this effect.
309
[Page XLVII]Oct. 31 (4937) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Rathbone to Glass: Offer to British to move one-half troops if British will move other half, U. S. advances to go to Czechoslovakia chiefly. Request for advice in view of prospect of having to furnish entire cost if British are asked to supply all tonnage.
309
Nov. 1 (3635) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Report of advance by Bolsheviks, menacing Omsk; proposal to repatriate portion of Czechs from Vladivostok, with understanding that 25,000 Czech troops cooperate with Kolchak in counter-offensive against Bolsheviks, with view to opening way home.
310
Nov. 4 (3660) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Request that Department’s telegram no. 3658, November 3, be read in connection with its telegram no. 3635, November 1.
311
Nov. 11 (5106) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Probability of disastrous results if Czechs are pressed to participate in counter-attack on Bolsheviks, in view of Czech teeling of bad faith on part of Allies.
312
Nov. 16 (596) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Protest of Czech plenipotentiaries (text printed) against intolerable situation of Czech Army in Siberia, holding that as result of neutrality, Army appears an accomplice in crime; appeal to Allies for aid in repatriation.
313
Nov. 22 (3856) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Decision to repatriate Czech troops at once. Instructions to urge measure upon Rathbone; discussion of Glass’ instructions to Rathbone, infra.
314
Nov. 22 (3857) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Glass to Rathbone: Summary of Department’s proposal (text printed). Willingness to leave to decision of Rathbone whether importance of immediate repatriation outweighs Treasury’s objections to begin movement before agreement is reached with England.
315
Nov. 24 (5384) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Rathbone to Glass: Benes intention to press British for reply to U. S. offer. Rathbone’s reluctance to recede from position taken by Treasury.
317
Dec. 9 (1719) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Letter to British representative (text printed), sent with Rathbone’s approval, making definite offer for settling responsibility for repatriation of friendly troops in Siberia in view of urgency of situation.
318
Dec. 27 (1928) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Rathbone to Davis: Correspondence between U. S. and British representatives (texts printed) regarding British acceptance of U. S. offer, at same time informing France that acceptance is without prejudice to contention that France should share cost. Necessity for dispatching at once necessary shipping for Czech repatriation.
320
[Page XLVIII]1920 Jan. 7 (41) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Davis to Rathbone: Notice of approximate date when transports allotted for movement of Czechs will begin arriving at Vladivostok, repairs having been expedited.
322

Decision of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers to Support Admiral Kolchak

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Jan. 2 (72) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Telegram From Harris at Omsk (text printed) recommending that policy of friendly support be given Omsk government without recognition.
322
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 3] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Official report that Denikin has recognized Kolchak government.
323
Jan. 8 (209) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Proposal of declaration by Associated Governments of desire to assist Provisional Government financially and by furnishing military supplies, without recognition, however, or interference in internal affairs, pending establishment of central representative government.
323
Jan. 11 (188) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Suggestions for consideration of Associated Powers in working out solution of Russian problems, namely, whether to withdraw troops from Archangel and also from Siberia, where protection of railway is imperative.
323
Jan. 11 (189) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Essential points in solution of Russian problems: to define attitude toward Bolsheviks, to determine extent of support to be given by Associated Powers, and to secure U. S. funds for military supplies.
325
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 16] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Progress of American relief work in Siberia; Red Cross, Y. M. C. A., and War Trade Board assuming large proportions, aided by consular staff.
325
Jan. 21 From the Russian Chargé
Request that instructions be given Red Cross to extend aid to sufferers among Siberian troops.
326
Jan. 23 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Bullard to House: Warning against recognition of Kolchak.
327
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 24] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: British and French expression of sympathy with Kolchak’s endeavors, thus pointing way to recognition.
327
[Page XLIX]Undated [Rec’d Feb. 3] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Oath of office taken by Kolchak, who declared that he would relinquish his power to All-Russian Government, which would be created by properly appointed constituent assembly.
328
Feb. 15 To the Russian Chargé
Expression of regret that no more can be done to aid Siberian troops outside of what has been undertaken by Red Cross and Y. M. C. A.
328
Mar. 1 (342) From the Ambassador in Great Britain
British note, February 26 (text printed) setting forth factors governing Siberian problem, justifying dispatch of forces to Far East and support of Kolchak government as temporary measures, and requesting U. S. cooperation.
328
Mar. 23 (1285) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Harris’ instructions to inform Omsk government that conduct of military groups in maritime district jeopardize U. S. support. Inquiry regarding character of military equipment being sent to Siberia and for what purpose used.
331
Mar. 27 (1315) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Information that United States has been lending good offices to Russian Embassy in shipping supplies for use of Russian forces on Volga front and in Siberia.
331
Apr. 12 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Comments on Harris’ observations and conclusions of April 2 and concurrence in his suggestions except as to de facto recognition of Kolchak government and Allied loan to government.
331
Apr. 15 The Russian Political Conference to the President of the Paris Peace Conference
Declaration of purpose of national movement to establish democratic government by means of constituent assembly with assistance of Allies.
332
Apr. 19 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Message from Harris, April 2 (text printed) giving opinion of U. S. representatives that Kolchak represents most acceptable type of Russians; that Bolsheviks must be eliminated; that prosperity depends upon Allied support, efficient operation of railways, and stabilization of currency.
333
Apr. 24 (1716) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Information regarding various steps taken to support Russian forces in Siberia which are cooperating with Omsk government and U. S. friendly disposition toward Omsk authorities, in view of press reports of contemplated recognition upon initiative of U. S. delegates in Paris.
336
Apr. 29 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Paris Mission’s consideration of advisability of provisional recognition of Kolchak government and desire to know whether Morris’ views have been modified.
337
[Page L]Undated Memorandum of Conversation with Mr. Alexander Kerenski at Paris, May 4, 1919
Kerenski’s opinion that Bolsheviks will soon be succeeded by Kolchak, and that Allies should have united policy in Russia. Conditions which he thinks Kolchak should be required to accept as proof of his democratic principles, after which Provisional Government should be recognized.
337
May 4 (1141) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Circular note from Provisional Government announcing decision to recognize authority of Omsk government as Provisional National Government of all Russia, and proposing junction between two governments.
338
May 4 (217) From the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Harbin (tel.)
Recommendation that rifles ordered by Omsk government be sent to Russia.
339
May 4 (1980) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Suggestion that Kolchak be induced to take steps to summon a constituent assembly, in view of feeling that his is a military dictatorship and that it would be unwise to recognize it.
339
May 6 (1877) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Concurrence in Morris’ views (text printed) that if Associated Governments decide upon recognition, statement should first be obtained from Kolchak defining his position and policies on certain fundamental issues. Reports from Stevens and Caldwell on subject (texts printed).
339
May 7 (I. C. 181 E) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House in the Place des États-Unis, Paris, on Wednesday, May 7, 1919, at 11 a.m.
Discussion of Russian situation by President Wilson, Lloyd George, Paderewski, and Clemenceau.
341
May 7 (1162) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
British recommendation that Allies recognize Kolchak government and its provisional authority over all other parts of European Russia which subordinate themselves to that of Omsk. Improved situation at Archangel. Condemnation of Bolshevik Government.
342
May 9 (C. F. 4) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House in the Place des États-Unis, Paris, on Friday, May 9, 1919, at 4 p.m.
President Wilson’s presentation of military problem whether to send stronger U. S. support to Kolchak or to withdraw. Danger of present policy and of Japan’s superior numbers in Siberia. Further discussion of situation with Lloyd George.
345
May 12 (1946) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Kolchak’s oath of office and speech of March 1919 before Zemstvo and other organizations; declaration of Omsk government (excerpts printed) regarding democratic principles, land ownership, and other reforms.
347
[Page LI]May 15 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to proceed to Siberia to obtain from Kolchak definite assurances as to his policies and methods on certain specific subjects, the President’s object being to ascertain whether Kolchak regime deserves recognition.
349
May 16 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
The President’s request that Morris inquire into character of men and influences which surround Kolchak, and whether he is strong and liberal enough to control them in right direction.
349
May 17 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Release of certain rifles to Russian Embassy; question of obtaining funds for further purchases.
349
May 19 (C.F.19) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House in the Place des États-Unis, Paris, on Monday, May 19, at 4 p.m.
Discussion of Kerensky’s plan of requiring all Russian parties opposed to Bolsheviks to pledge themselves to certain progressive policy in order to receive support of Associated Powers.
350
May 20 (C.F.20) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House in the Place des États-Unis, Paris, on Tuesday, May 20, 1919, at 11 a.m.
Discussion of Bolshevik reply to Nansen. Conclusion that pledges should be exacted of various Russian groups to unite and form all-Russian democratic government before further support given, and that formal despatch to that end be sent out. Hoover’s note on food shortage in Balkans.
351
May 23 (C.F.26) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House in the Place des États-Unis, Paris, on Friday, May 28, 1919, at 11 a.m.
Discussion of possibility of Japan’s taking initiative in proposing recognition of Omsk and of whether recognition should represent all Russia.
354
May 23 (C.F.28) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House, Place des États-Unis, Paris, on Friday, May 23, 1919, at 4 p.m.
Discussion of terms of draft despatch to be sent Kolchak (text printed); abolition of conscription in Russia; promotion of elections; and recognition of Russia’s foreign debts. Telegram from Omsk Foreign Minister (text printed) declaring intention to accept obligations of former government.
355
May 24 (C.F.29) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House in the Place des Éats-Unis, on Saturday, May 24, 1919, at 11 a.m.
President Wilson’s statement that Lansing concurs in sending despatch to Kolchak, suggesting addition to draft.
360
May 24 (C.F.31) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House in the Place des États-Unis, Paris, on Saturday, May 24, 1919, at 4 p.m.
Submission to Chinda of draft despatch to Kolchak for approval of Japanese Government; Chinda’s presentation of circular despatch from his Government on Japanese policy toward Russia; Colonel Kisch’s description of military situation in Siberia; steps to be taken if Kolchak accepts conditions.
361
[Page LII]May 26 (C.F. 32) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House in the Place des États-Unis, Paris, on Monday, May 26, 1919, at 11 a.m.
Japanese approval of draft despatch, which was accordingly sent in name of conference to Kolchak.
366
Undated [Rec’d May 26] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Conference with Kolchak who stressed economic aid, which he thought the United States most able to give.
367
May 26 (M. 190) Appendix I to C. F. 37—Despatch to Admiral Kolchak
Conditions under which Associated Governments will continue assistance in restoration of peace in Russia through freely elected constituent assembly and by settling boundary disputes by arbitration of League of Nations.
367
May 29 (1235) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Comments of Archangel military governor on despatch sent Kolchak; his acceptance of all conditions except proposed separation from Russia of small nationalities and the functioning of 1917 Constitutional Assembly.
370
Undated [Rec’d June 3] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Military situation on Perm and Ufa fronts. Kolchak’s intention to issue proclamation (text printed) of policies and reforms.
371
June 3 (1247) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Acceptance by Archangel military governor of provisional arrangements, on understanding that final adjustment respecting dependent nationalities remain exclusively within competence of constituent assembly or its mandatory.
372
June 4 (2413) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: The President’s view that Morris’ instructions to proceed to Omsk should be canceled.
373
June 11 (2269) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Harris’ report (excerpt printed) that Omsk government disagrees on only one point, namely, convening of old constituent assembly, because majority of members are now Bolsheviks.
373
June 11 (C.F. 60) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House in the Place des États-Unis, Paris, on Wednesday, June 11, 1919, at 5:45 p.m.
Receipt of reply from Kolchak which was read by President Wilson; decision to publish the despatch to Kolchak and his reply, subject to consent of Japanese delegation.
374
June 12 (C.F. 61) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House in the Place des États-Unis, Paris, on Thursday, June 12, 1919, at 11 a.m.
Japanese willingness to have published despatch to Kolchak and his reply; decision to send note to Kolchak indicating that his reply is satisfactory. French report from Omsk, June 4, quoting Kolchak’s reply (texts printed).
375
[Page LIII]June 12 (C.F.62) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House in the Place des États-Unis, Paris, on Thursday, June 12, 1919, at 4 p.m.
Note to Kolchak, June 12 (text printed) expressing approval of his reply as in agreement with proposals of Associated Governments and offering promised support.
378
June 16 (2315) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Advisability of formulating exact support to be given Kolchak by each Government and of following it up by prompt action. Suggestion for early repatriation of Czechs.
379
June 18 The President of the Lettish Delegation at Paris to President Wilson
Declaration of independence and request for recognition by delegations at Paris of the Republics of Azerbaidzhan, Esthonia, Georgia, Latvia, North Caucasus, White Russia, and Ukraine (text printed).
380

Efforts by the United States to Carry Out the Decision to Support Kolchak

Date and number Subject Page
1919 June 19 (2343) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Inquiry whether acceptance of Kolchak’s reply conveys de facto recognition and further and open extension of support.
381
June 19 (2346) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Inquiry as to attitude to be assumed by Department regarding Omsk government’s desire to purchase supplies.
382
June 20 (2355) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Omsk government’s anxiety to know nature of Allied assistance and how soon it can be expected, in view of prospects of another winter campaign against Bolsheviks.
382
June 20 (2363) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Inquiry whether Kolchak government is qualified to purchase available U. S. property under act of March 3, 1919. Urgent need for railway material; project for turning over to Russia certain locomotives.
383
June 24 (3099–A) Executive Order
Providing funds for relief of civilian population of Russia and Siberia, and for restoration of railway traffic in Siberia.
383
June 25 From the Secretary-General of the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Russian Ambassador Bakmeteff’s specific inquiries as to nature of aid to be supplied Kolchak by Associated Powers. President Wilson’s replies.
384
[Page LIV]June 25 From the Secretary-General of the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Bakhmeteff’s interpretation of note to Kolchak as offering independence to Poland and Finland and as guaranteeing rights of other reconstituted Russian states to autonomy within their boundaries, but without prejudice to sovereignty and unity of Russia.
385
June 25 (2794) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing and McCormick: The President’s statement that note to Kolchak does not imply political recognition but merely offers assistance insofar as each Government’s policy and legislation will permit.
386
June 27 (2441) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Inquiry whether Secretary of War and others may deal openly with Kolchak representatives on credit basis with 10 percent initial cash payment.
386
June 27 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
For Heid: Offer of position as representative of Secretary of War in supervising disposal and delivery in Siberia of material which has been contracted for by Russian cooperative unions. Willingness of Secretary of War to sell certain amount of material on hand on credit basis.
387
Undated [Rec’d June 28] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Omsk government’s desire for U. S. Government loan for financial and political reasons.
(Footnote: U. S. explanation to Russian Chargé that no loans can be made to unrecognized government.)
387
June 30 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Message from the President (text printed) directing that Ambassador Morris be sent to Omsk to secure information and impressions as to spirit and purposes of Kolchak government, also that he impress upon Japan U. S. open-door policy in Russia.
388
Undated [Rec’d July 2] From the Chairman of the War Trade Board (tel.)
No objection on part of the President to Secretary of War’s dealing openly with Kolchak representatives for purpose of selling supplies, and no objection to financial plan, provided there is no diplomatic recognition of Kolchak government.
388
Undated [Rec’d July 10] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Omsk government’s desire that United States adopt same benevolent attitude as England and France concerning supplies and equipment; and furnish supplies on easy terms to be paid for by future All-Russian Government.
389
July 10 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Vladivostok (tel.)
Arrival at Vladivostok; intention to proceed at once to Omsk, accompanied by General Graves.
389
July 11 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
For Morris: Instructions to investigate and advise as to plans for economic reconstruction of Siberia and European Russia, especially with regard to railways.
390
[Page LV]Undated [Rec’d July 15] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Discouragement of people and demoralization of army caused by failure of Allies to send troops to crush Bolsheviks and Allied failure to recognize Kolchak government.
390
July 22 President Wilson to the President of the Senate
Reasons for sending U. S. soldiers to Siberia and explanation of their continuance there.
391
July 22 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Report of demoralization of Kolchak army, fleeing of inhabitants eastward, and evacuation of Red Cross from Omsk.
394
July 22 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Czechs’ domination of Siberian Railway; their probable retirement in near future, which would be signal for anti-Kolchak if not pro-Bolshevik uprising from Irkutsk to Omsk. Causes of Kolchak’s failure to win popular support.
395
July 24 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Conversation with Acting Foreign Minister Sookine on difficulties of situation, Japan’s attitude and influence over Semenov, desire of Associated Powers to aid in establishing better order of things, including protection of railways and solving of Czech problem.
396
July 25 To the Secretary of War
Favorable attitude toward arrangements with Ughet, Russian Chargé d’Affaires, for disposing of surplus war material to Russia.
398
July 26 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
For Morris: Suggestion as to points to be investigated, including basis and extent of popular support of Kolchak west of Irkutsk.
398
July 27 (?) From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Conversations with Kolchak and Sookine on plans for overthrow of Bolsheviks, railway supervision, military supplies, credits and relief, and proposed bill of rights for Russian populace.
399
July 30 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
For Morris: Request for comment on possibility that reactionary elements, especially among officers, may prove too strong for Kolchak.
401
[July 31 (?)] From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Informal conference, in which was presented the question of military supplies needed for the winter and a plan for the supervision of their distribution.
401
Aug. 4 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Report on financial conditions in Siberia. Recommendations.
402
Aug. 4 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Report on personnel, spirit and purposes, efficiency, and present strength of Kolchak government.
403
[Page LVI]Aug. 8 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Report on commercial assistance; list of minimum commodity requirements. Allied credit only solution offered by Council of Ministers.
405
Aug. 8 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Opinion that Kolchak government is not strong enough to combat Bolsheviks; need for drastic changes in its personnel and methods.
407
Aug. 11 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Conclusions as to specific measures of Allied assistance necessary for strengthening Kolchak government.
408
Aug. 12 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Kolchak’s efforts to hold Omsk after ordering army to retreat to within 170 miles of city; his request that Allies continue assistance, appealing for release of ruble notes at Vladivostok and for troops to guard Chinese Eastern; Morris’ suggestion that President Wilson send encouraging message to Kolchak.
410
Aug. 12 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
For Morris: The President’s expression of regret that the United States is unable to furnish additional troops for Siberia.
412
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 13] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Concurrence in Morris’ conclusions expressed in his telegram of August 11.
413
Aug. 14 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Report on results of Kolchak’s policy of substituting military for civil administration throughout Siberia. Steps taken by Kolchak to remedy situation.
413
Aug. 16 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Statement that Kolchak government, with all its weaknesses, is the best, perhaps the only available agency through which promised aid to Russia can be given. Opinion that Kolchak government cannot continue without open support of United States.
414
Aug. 18 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Conversation with Kolchak on probable outcome of events; his concentration on military situation to exclusion of financial and economic problems; decision, however, to call conference of heads of peasant communities; advantageous changes in Ministry.
415
Aug. 20 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
For Morris: Request for views on situation in view of the inability of the United States to send additional troops. Continuance, however, of shipments of rifles, though sale of clothing from War Department stocks is impossible.
417
Aug. 20 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Reports of Bolshevik advance toward Omsk, driving back Siberian Army; decision of Morris to leave with General Graves, unless instructed to contrary.
417
[Page LVII]Aug. 22 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
For Morris: President’s desire that Omsk authorities be informed of his hopes that they will encourage the assembly of Zemstvos and municipalities.
418
Aug. 22 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Preparations for evacuation of Omsk because of further advance of Red Army; tendency to lose hope in U. S.–British aid and to seek alliance with Germany and Japan; difficulties of Railway Service Corps.
418
Aug. 23 (3859) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Polk to Miles: Inquiries as to details of reported loan to Kolchak government by U. S. and British banks, covered by deposit of gold in Hongkong bank.
419
Aug. 24 From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Departure of Morris and Graves for Vladivostok, Harris remaining for purpose of evacuating Red Cross and other U. S. interests.
420
Aug. 25 (2940) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Miles to Polk: Details of proposed bankers’ loan to Kolchak government; disclaiming of any responsibility on part of U. S. Government for encouragement of such negotiations.
420
Aug. 25 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
For Morris: Conclusion that recognition of Kolchak government is impracticable because United States cannot give necessary support of commercial credits and troops. Message to Kolchak of sympathy and appreciation.
421
Aug. 27 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Irkutsk (tel.)
Opinion that, since no U. S. troops can be sent, immediate recognition of Kolchak would be unwise and that outcome of present crisis should be awaited.
422
Aug. 30 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Irkutsk (tel.)
Request of U. S. officials that definite statement as to U. S. attitude be withheld until future of Kolchak government is determined.
423
Sept. 5 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.)
For Morris: Approval of withholding final statement to Kolchak government. Hope of future comprehensive recommendation from Morris based on conference with Stevens and Smith.
423
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 15] From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Sookine’s disappointment at U. S. delay in sending supplies; unfortunate impression made by Department’s note of August 30 to Japan; reported statement by Morris at Vladivostok that fall of Kolchak is inevitable and that government formed of various revolutionary parties is pending.
424
Sept. 19 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Explanations that U. S. supplies are being shipped to Kolchak and railway material to Stevens and that obstruction of shipments was occasion of note of August 30 to Japan; opinion that alleged remarks of Morris regarding Government are mere hostile propaganda.
424
[Page LVIII]Sept. 19 To President Wilson at San Diego (tel.)
Request that Secretary of War be authorized to sell surplus Army equipment on credit basis for shipment to Kolchak, since the British are supplying Denikin and the French, the Czechs. Report that Bolsheviks are being routed.
425
Sept. 20 From President Wilson (tel.)
Authorization for furnishing available supplies to forces under Kolchak.
426
Sept. 20 (511) From the Representative at Vladivostok of the War Trade Board, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Report that situation is too unsettled to undertake economic relief measures as planned. Request for permission to return home for conference with War Department.
426
Sept. 22 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: British correspondence (excerpts printed) indicating that Morris now advocates recognition of new revolutionary movement in Far East. Harris’ disapproval and view that Russia must choose between Kolchak and Bolsheviks; disapproval of Red Cross evacuation of Omsk.
427
Sept. 22 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Report that negotiations with U. S. and British banks for loan to Kolchak government have failed. Sale of gold to France for francs. Recommendation that U. S. banks make loan, permitting sufficient Russian gold to be deposited at San Francisco as guaranty.
430
Sept. 23 The Russian Delegation in Paris to the President of the Paris Peace Conference
Appeal for recognition of Kolchak government as of utmost importance in regeneration of Russia.
431
Sept. 23 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Vladivostok (tel.)
Czech antagonism to Kolchak government and encouragement of new movement; Kolchak’s recognition of Kalmykov and Semenov, thus placing the United States in anomalous situation; Morris’ recommendation that U. S. efforts be concentrated on economic relief, naming essential conditions therefor.
432
Sept. 26 (4370) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Inquiry whether recognition of Kolchak is being considered and, if not, whether the Department is withdrawing support.
434
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 27] From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Favorable impression on Omsk government made by Department’s telegram of September 19, 5 p.m.
435
Sept. 27 (3270) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Continuance of U. S. policy of support to Kolchak; measures for supplying rifles, clothing, and money to Kolchak.
435
[Page LIX]Sept. 28 (3130) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Churchill’s request for U. S. contribution of winter clothing and other supplies for Kolchak troops.
435
Sept. 30 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Conclusion of loan by U. S. bankers to Kolchak government.
436
Oct. 1 (3296) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Lansing’s intention to recommend to the President that formal recognition be granted Kolchak. Inquiry as to attitude of other members of Council.
436
Oct. 2 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Instructions to inform all U. S. representatives of, and give publicity to, U. S. purpose to support Kolchak government, as expressed in notes of May and June 1919, between Associated Powers and Kolchak.
437
Oct. 3 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris: Telegram sent Morris (text printed) urging him to join in renewal of recommendations to Department to assist Kolchak, in view of failure of new movement in Far East, improved situation at Omsk, convocation of Zemstvos, etc. Suggestion that certain Czech forces be retained in Siberia for the winter.
437
Oct. 7 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
For Heid: Request that trip to Washington be deferred in view of fact that material is in process of being shipped to cooperative societies according to contract, which Department is not willing to have broken.
439
Oct. 11 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Concurrence in Harris’ conclusion that time is opportune to give Kolchak every practicable support; discussion of difficulties of rendering effective support.
439
Oct. 13 From the British Appointed Ambassador on Special Mission
British apprehension at possibility of U. S. withdrawal of promised bankers’ loan to Kolchak and supply of rifles; and opinion that Kolchak’s fall, which without supplies would be certain, would mean extension of Bolshevism throughout Siberia.
441
Oct. 15 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Information that the President’s illness precludes, for the present, possibility of decision on matters discussed in telegram no. 386 sent through Chargé in China September 22.
441
Oct. 16 (550) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Dissent of British High Commissioner and other British at Vladivostok from opinion of British Foreign Office that fall of Kolchak means spread of Bolshevism over Siberia. Their condemnation of Kolchak government.
442
Undated [Rec’d Oct. 17] From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Grant of further British loan to Denikin; entire dependence of Kolchak upon U. S. support; necessity for hastening supplies before winter.
442
[Page LX]Oct. 21 To the British Appointed Ambassador on Special Mission
Reply that loan to Kolchak government has been consummated and that delivery of rifles has now probably been made, delay having been caused by difficulty of safe transit.
443
Oct. 21 (558) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Recall of British Acting High Commissioner on account of his attitude toward Kolchak.
443
Oct. 24 (4796) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Report on British and French favorable attitude toward recognition of Kolchak; suggestion that U. S. lead be taken, if recognition is intended. Appeal of former Premier Lvov for recognition.
444
Oct. [25] (4825) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Note from Russian Embassy at Paris to French Government (text printed) urging that Associated Powers no longer delay recognition of Russian Provisional Government, in order that credits abroad may be provided for needed supplies.
444
Oct. 31 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Advance of Bolsheviks, threatening Omsk; Kolchak’s insistence that Government be removed to Irkutsk; suggestions that time has arrived for action and recognition.
445
Nov. 3 From the Russian Embassy
Calling attention to grave situation in northwest and Siberia, due to inadequacy of supplies promised by Associated Powers.
446
Nov. 6 (3686) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Consideration of possibility of recognizing Kolchak in case he survives present crisis.
447
Nov. 18 From the Russian Chargé
Note from Kolchak (text printed) regarding relinquishment of Omsk and transfer of Government to Irkutsk; Government’s faith in final triumph; appeal to friendly nations not to discontinue their further support and aid.
447
Nov. 26 From the Russian Embassy
Necessity for supply of munitions to put down military machine lest Bolshevism sweep westward to Europe.
449
Dec. 2 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Formation of new Cabinet, who consider that America has Bolshevik leanings and whose new policy will be to encourage Japanese influence.
450
Dec. 4 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to inform Harris of U. S. friendly attitude toward Kolchak, in contrast with disposition of Japanese to encourage his elimination. Future policy in Russia as set forth in report to the President (excerpts printed) in which distinction is drawn between Bolsheviks and Bolshevism.
451
[Page LXI]

Release to the Kolchak Government of the Russian State Bank Notes Printed in the United States

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Feb. 4 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Instructions to ascertain whether Omsk authorities could arrange to have ruble notes, now held at Manila, surcharged with a legend to indicate obligations of Omsk government and not Russian State Bank; operation to be under supervision of Harris.
453
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 13] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Novo Nikolaevsk: Omsk government’s willingness to meet conditions for release of notes.
453
Feb. 24 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
For Heid and Morris, to be repeated to Harris: Arrangements for 500,000,000 ruble bank notes to be delivered by Harris to Omsk authorities, after being properly surcharged to show Omsk obligations; balance of shipment to be held in escrow in custody of Heid.
454
Apr. 15 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
For Harris: Specific instructions regarding surcharge of notes and their delivery to Omsk authorities.
454
May 4 [14?] (218) From the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Harbin (tel.)
Impossibility of surcharge of notes in question because of lack of presses and labor; recommendation that notes be released at once without surcharge to save financial situation, and some other means be devised to show they are not obligations of Russian State Bank. Concurrence of Stevens.
455
Aug. 8 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
For Morris: Request for views relative to delivery of bank notes to Kolchak representative. Question of U. S. responsibility if notes are released to unrecognized authorities.
456
Aug. 12 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Recommendation that bank notes be released at Vladivostok.
457
Sept. 26 To the Russian Financial Attaché
No objection to Embassy’s proposal to sell to Kolchak certain unexecuted Russian ruble notes printed in this country, under certain conditions.
457
Sept. 29 (1–5766) From the Russian Financial Attaché
Information that conditions for release of bank notes are acceptable to Russian Government.
458

American Attempts to Avoid Entanglement in the Factional Strife in Eastern Siberia

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Dec. 19 From the French Chargé
Announcement of arrangement for General Janin to command all forces west of Lake Baikal, General Knox to be his assistant in charge of services in the rear. Continuance of Japanese command of all forces operating east of Lake Baikal, mixed detachments of U. S. and Japanese troops to be distributed along railway.
459
[Page LXII]Jan. 3 From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Report on situation in Trans-Baikal, Semenov having constituted himself commander of eastern Siberian army, presumably counting on Japanese support; his preference for monarchical form of government.
460
Jan. 7 (130) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Transmittal of French note of December 19, 1918, with request for instructions as to reply to be made by Department.
461
Jan. 8 (26) From the British Chargé
Confirmation of agreement reached with France for command of forces west of Lake Baikal.
461
Jan. 16 (46) From the British Chargé
Correspondence with Japan concerning Japan’s withdrawal of troops from Siberia and Japan’s efforts to bring about reconciliation between Kolchak and Semenov.
462
Jan. 16 (273) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Letter from Secretary of War (text printed) disapproving arrangement for mixed detachments of U. S. and Japanese troops to guard railways in Siberia.
463
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 24] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Circumstances tending to strengthen Omsk government in external affairs; Kolchak’s inability to control Cossack Atamans; his adoption of middle course to prevent uprisings.
464
Jan. 30 From the Secretary of War
Report from General Graves to the Adjutant General, December 13, 1918 (text printed) on conditions in Siberia, equipping of Russians by British and Japanese, and loss of prestige by the United States.
465
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 4] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Government’s request that U. S. officer be attached to commission which is proceeding to Chita to investigate conduct of Semenov.
467
Feb. 4 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Vladivostok (tel.)
Opinion that Allied representatives should not participate in proposed negotiations between Semenov and Kolchak.
468
Feb. 13 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Instructions to advise Harris that U. S. representation in negotiations between Kolchak and Semenov is inadvisable.
468
Feb. 25 The Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia to The Adjutant General
Unmistakable evidence that Japan is equipping forces of Kalmykov, Semenov, and Ivanov-Rinov; enumeration of outrages committed by these soldiers.
468
Undated [Rec’d Feb. 28] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Omsk government note (text printed) declaring that orders given by military authorities in Zabaikal territory are not valid and are annulled.
472
[Page LXIII]Mar. 3 (106) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Appeal of insurrectionists to consulate and local and district Zemstvos for protection. Knox’s request that reply indicate plainly U. S. lack of sympathy with insurrectionists; his criticism of policy of U. S. representatives, pointing out unfortunate effect of divergence of views of U. S. and British military authorities as to method of aiding Kolchak.
473
Mar. 6 (998) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Transmission of telegram from Graves to War Department (text printed) reporting bitter feeling of Japanese towards U. S. forces for not joining them in fighting against Bolsheviks.
474
Mar. 8 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Vladivostok (tel.)
Situation caused by General Graves’ interpretation of his instructions as preventing him from interfering to protect one faction of Russians against another. Suggestion that in railway area occupied by Allied troops, protection should be afforded population from arbitrary action of any faction.
475
Mar. 8 (4772) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Instructions to read to Foreign Office Caldwell’s telegram no. 106, March 3, 3 p.m.
477
Mar. 8 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Instructions for Harris (text printed) to make representations to Omsk government against obstruction of public meetings and arrest of Zemstvo leaders as being prejudicial to U. S. public opinion and assistance to Siberia.
477
Mar. 8 (4773) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Transmittal of instructions sent to Harris March 8, for communication to Foreign Office to ascertain whether Government takes same position.
(Instructions to repeat to Paris and Rome.)
478
Mar. 8 To the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.)
For Harris: Instructions that communication of Department’s telegram of March 8 be made orally through consul at Omsk and that Harris proceed to Vladivostok to discuss with U. S. diplomatic and military representatives and with Stevens and Smith general situation in Siberia and advise Department.
478
Undated [Rec’d Mar. 10] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Report from Vladivostok of recognition of Kolchak by Ussuri Cossack assembly; deportation of editors and Zemstvo leaders by Ivanov; Japanese-Bolshevik engagements; further Russian conscription for army.
479
Mar. 11 (1335) From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.)
Communication of Department’s telegrams nos. 4772 and 4773 of March 8 to Foreign Office; concurrence of British in latter.
479
Mar. 13 (1106) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Graves’ telegram, March 5 (text printed) inquiring as to approval of his policy of considering Bolshevik trouble as internal affair, in which he should take no part. Polk’s recommendation that Graves be instructed to use good offices to prevent armed conflicts between factions and also to use force where safety of Railway Corps and communications are threatened.
480
[Page LXIV]Mar. 18 (1156) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Graves’ telegram, March 9 (text printed) reporting protest of Vladivostok Social Revolutionary Party against arrest of Zemstvo officials and establishment of martial law.
481
Undated [Rec’d Mar. 21] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Harbin: Consul Emory’s report (text printed) of Kolchak’s encouragement of Zemstvos in western Siberia, deploring actions in east of Ivanov, over whom Kolchak has little control.
482
Mar. 21 (7784) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
French support of U. S. attitude toward reactionaries and approval of their repression by Kolchak, though no detailed information regarding subject has been received.
483
Mar. 25 (2729) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Italy’s instructions to consul at Vladivostok to make representations to Omsk government similar to those expressed in Department’s telegram no. 4773, March 8, to Great Britain, provided other Allied representatives do likewise.
483
Undated [Rec’d Mar. 27] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Vladivostok: Confidential declaration by Omsk government (text printed) of inability to restore order in Far East owing to concentration of energy on western front and to foreign influence in East, particularly Japan’s backing of Semenov.
484
Mar. 31 The Intelligence Officer with the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia to the Director of the Military Intelligence Division in Washington
His conclusions concerning Horvat, Ivanov, Semenov, and Kalmykov; relations of Kalmykov to American Expeditionary Forces and to Japanese; the Kalmykov incident.
485
Apr. 17 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Official denial of alleged Japanese brutality toward women and children, given out by press as reason why Graves did not go to assistance of Japanese detachment which was almost annihilated in engagement with Russians at Khabarovsk.
(Sent also to Commission to Negotiate Peace.)
488
Apr. 18 (230) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Difference between U. S. and Allied policy on occasions of disorders, causing anti-American propaganda. Case in question: peasants’ armed resistance to draft near Suchan mines; Japanese order for Allied troops to intervene; and Graves’ refusal to obey.
488
Apr. 21 (239) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Criticism of acts of British cruiser Kent at American Bay where she fired upon persons presumed to be prepared to resist landing of Omsk government troops.
489
Apr. 29 (262) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Possibility of U. S. troops being forced into armed conflict with Russian reactionaries; necessity for adoption of uniform policy by all Allied Governments.
490
[Page LXV]May 3 (273) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Resolution of railway committee that only railway representatives of Technical Board have right to hold trains.
490
May 4 (281) The Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia to The Adjutant General (tel.)
Sookine’s statement that U. S. policy of noninterference is source of danger to Government and furnishes reactionaries and Japanese with occasion for anti-American propaganda. Graves’ opinion that U. S. forces in Siberia must use force or be withdrawn.
491
May 9 (1920) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Comment on complaint of British military authorities of noncooperation on part of Graves; his tactlessness in dealing with Japanese; necessity for reaching agreement with British as to future course in Siberia.
493
May 10 From the Russian Ambassador to the United States, temporarily at Paris.
Note of Omsk government, April 24 (text printed) requesting that U. S. forces cooperate with Russian authorities in movement of troops, that definite instructions be given U. S. forces in cases of Bolshevik riots, and that certain element in U. S. forces be replaced by men having no affiliation with Russian political strife.
494
May 14 (C.F. 13) Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House, Place des États-Unis, Paris, on Wednesday, May 14, 1919, at 12:15 p.m.
Discussion of cause of friction between U. S. forces in Siberia and Russian troops.
496
May 14 (1965) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Morris’ telegram (text printed) reporting the recall of Ivanov-Rinov by Kolchak government.
497
May 16 To the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.)
Request for comment on Graves’ report of May 10 (text printed) stating that refusal of U. S. forces to engage in active operations against Bolsheviks is causing antagonism on part of Kolchak’s adherents.
497
Undated [Rec’d May 18] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Chita: Semenov’s acts of violence on section of railway guarded by Japanese; occurrence at Dauriya station where train was stopped and property of consuls and Red Cross broken open and searched.
498
May 19 From Mr. George T. Clerk
British note (text printed) pointing out specific cases in which U. S. forces failed to cooperate in support of Kolchak and adding that instructions to General Graves are not adequate in view of policy agreed upon for Siberia.
499
[Page LXVI]May 19 (312) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Resolution of Inter-Allied representatives that Allied troops be instructed to prevent Semenov from collecting dues or examining baggage on railways; less obstruction from Japanese; recall of Ivanov-Rinov, leaving Horvat in command.
501
May 21 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Instructions to inform Sookine of the unfavorable reaction to his press interview of May 7, adding that it would be advisable for him to adopt course which will foster favorable public opinion in this country, in order to carry out program of relief and restoration of railway.
502
May 21 (2051) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Transmittal of Associated Press statement of May 7 for attention of Bakhmeteff (text printed) making public Sookine’s request that Graves refrain from sending his troops further inland, in view of U. S. undefined stand on Bolshevism and certain anti-American propaganda.
502
May 24 (322) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Adjustment of difficulty as to guarding of railway from Verkhneudinsk to Baikal; change in Russian attitude toward Americans owing to Horvat’s influence and better understanding of U. S. position.
503
Undated [Rec’d May 29] (328) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Bolshevik attack upon trains to Suchan mines, repulsed by Americans; Bolshevik threat to destroy railway if denied right of transportation; propaganda among miners.
504
Undated [Rec’d May 30] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Opinion that crisis in anti-American attitude has passed and indications of friendly feeling on part of Romanovsky and Kolchak.
504
May 31 From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Report of vice consul at Chita (text printed) regarding Semenov’s seizure of car occupied by member of Railway Corps acting in line of duty on U. S. sector of railway. Release of train only by Japanese intervention.
505
June 3 (2182) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Announcement of Semenov’s recognition of Kolchak, submitting unconditionally to his command.
505
June 13 (2297) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Telegram from consul at Vladivostok (text printed) quoting protest of Chamber of Commerce against one-sided action of U. S. commander in Maritime Province as promoting Bolshevik regime, particularly in Suchan mine district.
506
Undated [Rec’d June 14] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Tomsk: Report of vice consul at Chita (text printed) regarding clash between Colonel Morrow and Semenov near Verkhneudinsk; Semenov’s explanation that he had never been notified of Allied control; his assurance that nothing of the kind will occur again.
506
[Page LXVII]June 21 The Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia to The Adjutant General
Proclamation issued April 21 (text printed) of purpose of U. S. forces to protect railways and insure their operation to benefit of all Russians; request for cooperation, and warning that interference will not be tolerated.
507
June 26 (345) The Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia to The Adjutant General (tel.)
Restriction of railway facilities by government class to inhabitants of certain towns on railways and consequent resentment and antagonism of peasants.
508
June 28 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Proposal that Governments issue instructions to Inter-Allied Committee and Allied military commanders in Siberia to make joint representations to Semenov against continued interference with operation of railways.
(Instructions to repeat to Paris and Rome. Sent also to Ambassador in Japan with instructions to repeat to Legation at Peking.)
509
July 11 (2518) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
British instructions to representatives in Siberia to protest, in accordance with U. S. request, against Semenov’s interference with operation of railways. British desire for consistent Allied policy toward Russia.
510
July 15 (407) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Information that Horvat is to be retired and will be replaced by Rozanov, who is reactionary and who employs terrorism. Measures being taken by Inter-Allied Committee to prevent this change.
510
July 16 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
For Morris also: Authorization, if deemed advisable, to make informal representations to Omsk authorities favoring retention of Horvat.
511
July 19 (416) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Telegram from Inter-Allied Committee to Omsk government (text printed) making representations against interference with operation of railways by Russian military authorities, especially Semenov, and requiring that certain provisions be fulfilled.
511
Undated [Rec’d July 25] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Retirement of Horvat and his replacement by Rozanov.
513
Aug. 5 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
For Morris: Instructions to state, if deemed advisable, that promotion of Semenov to generalship would militate definitely against purpose of Associated Governments to assist Siberia.
513
Aug. 7 (3086) From the Chargé in Italy (tel.)
Italian instructions to consul at Vladivostok to associate himself with colleagues of Inter-Allied Railway Committee in protest to Semenov.
513
[Page LXVIII]Undated [Rec’d Aug. 8] From the Minister in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Rozanov’s leanings toward a monarchy and acts of terrorism; Semenov’s appointment as major general.
514
Aug. 13 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Promotion of Semenov to full generalship; mobilization of Siberian Cossacks by Ivanov-Rinov.
514
Sept. 16 (467) The Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia to The Adjutant General (tel.)
Cossack leaders’ independence of Kolchak’s authority and acceptance of Japanese funds; arrest by Kalmykov of U. S. officers and threat to drive Americans from Siberia; Graves’ refusal to release rifles for Kolchak.
514
Sept. 18 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
For Morris: Opinion that rifles should be delivered to Kolchak in fulfillment of formal obligation and that Kalmykov incident should be taken up with Omsk government. Request for views.
(Footnote: Reply September 23, concurring in Department’s views and explaining that delivery of rifles was delayed until safe transportation could be secured.)
515
Sept. 22 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Note from Graves to Omsk Foreign Office (text printed) stating that he has refused to deliver rifles, in view of anti-American actions of Cossack leaders and failure to suppress libels of press. Harris’ expression of regret at Graves’ protest; and also at the unfortunate utterances of Morris at Vladivostok.
516
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 23] From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Displeasure of Sookine over Graves’ note and intimation that he wishes Lansing to make decision in the matter. Protest of British military authorities against Graves’ action in withholding rifles; favorable situation at front; removal of Ivanov-Rinov from command.
517
Sept. 24 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Sookine’s reply to Graves (text printed) explaining Government’s inability to cope with Far East situation; importance of securing rifles; and desire to have expression of U. S. views through the State Department.
517
Sept. 26 (385) The Adjutant General to the Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia (tel.)
Instructions to forward rifles and ammunition to Kolchak, if possible.
519
Sept. 26 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Information that Graves has been instructed to deliver rifles immediately.
519
Sept. 27 From the Russian Embassy
Request for U. S. declaration of attitude toward Omsk government, as has been made by British, French, and Japanese Governments, in view of disturbed conditions in Far East, contributed to by Morris’ sympathy for new movement under Dr. Girsa.
519
[Page LXIX]Sept. 27 (481) The Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia to The Adjutant General (tel.)
Acts of violence in Vladivostok resulting from presence of Rozanov with his troops; demand by Inter-Allied representatives that troops be removed. Graves’ recommendation that Rozanov be recalled.
521
Sept. 27 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Disturbing activities of Dr. Girsa, representative of Czech National Council at Vladivostok; instructions to inform him of U. S. purpose to support Kolchak and of negotiations for repatriation of Czech troops in Siberia at early date.
522
Sept. 28 (483) The Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia to The Adjutant General (tel.)
Purpose to deliver rifles to Kolchak representatives, to be accompanied by guard as far as Verkhneudinsk, with understanding that none will be given out east of Irkutsk.
522
Sept. 30 (529) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Demand of Inter-Allied military commanders for evacuation of Rozanov’s forces occupying fortress of Vladivostok; Kolchak’s order for them to remain; decision of Allied representatives to telegraph Omsk and their Governments explaining necessity for Rozanov’s removal to prevent conflict between Allied and Russian troops.
522
Oct. 1 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Sookine’s protest (text printed) against demand for evacuation of Rozanov forces from fortress of Vladivostok, holding subject to be outside sphere of jurisdiction of Allied military command.
523
Oct. 2 Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State
Interview with Russian Ambassador, in which Ambassador agreed to communicate to Omsk government situation in Vladivostok and stress necessity of Kolchak’s disavowal of acts of Kalmykov.
524
Oct. 3 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Evident lack of information on part of Omsk government as to reasons for detention of rifles by Graves and demand for withdrawal of Rozanov’s forces. Enumeration of outrages and offenses committed which threaten open hostilities between Rozanov and Allied forces.
525
Oct. 8 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris: Sookine’s note (text printed) expressing regret and condemnation of acts in Far East just learned from Ambassador in Washington, and giving assurance of investigation and adoption of such measures as conditions will allow.
526
Oct. 8 (540) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok
Graves’ order to concentrate all U. S. troops in view of reported plot to mobilize worst Russian elements and enemy prisoners for attack on Americans and Czechs. Message from Stevens (text printed) of Semenov activities in Manchuria.
527
[Page LXX]Oct. 9 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Stevens’ complaint of unwarranted interference by Russian railway officials with Allied inspectors and recommendation for amendment of agreement. Department’s reply that specific cases should be reported to Morris, who will make representations to Omsk government.
528
Oct. 11 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Instructions to acquaint Omsk government with reports of an attempt to establish independent Russian authority under Semenov or other Cossack leader east of Lake Baikal.
529
Oct. 13 From the Russian Chargé
Telegram from Omsk government, September 30 (text printed) stating Government’s version of Vladivostok difficulties and accusing General Graves of being chiefly responsible for Allied demand for Rozanov’s withdrawal.
530
Oct. 13 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japan’s refusal of urgent request of Omsk government to guard railway west of Irkutsk; imminence of evacuation of Czechs from Irkutsk–Omsk district. Justification of any Japanese plan to support Semenov, in order to prevent spread eastward of Bolshevism and typhus now prevalent.
531
Oct. 16 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Expression of gratification at repudiation by Omsk government of action of military officers at Khabarovsk in arresting and mistreating U. S. soldiers. Expectation that guilty parties will be punished.
532
Oct. 19 (555) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Report of more satisfactory conditions in eastern Siberia, presenting opportunity for U. S. expression of support of united democratic Russia under Kolchak.
532
Oct. 19 From the President of the Technical Board (tel.)
Order for withdrawal of railway inspectors coincident with evacuation of Allies and Czechs, to begin October 20.
533
Undated [Rec’d Oct. 20] From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Irkutsk: Offer to attempt to secure adjustment of railway cases if Stevens will report them; control of railways in Russia by Ustrugov clique, continuing obsolete, unprofitable state of affairs.
533
Oct. 20 From the President of the Technical Board (tel.)
Desire of all original members of Service Corps to leave for home, declaring their efforts are useless under existing arrangement.
534
Oct. 21 (518) The Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia to The Adjutant General (tel.)
Nonconcurrence in Consul Macgowan’s optimistic report in telegram of October 19.
535
Oct. 21 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris: Official assurance that every effort will be made to investigate mistreatment of Americans and to punish guilty parties.
535
[Page LXXI]Oct. 21 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.)
For Stevens: Request that railway inspectors be retained under Russian guard until culmination of critical events now taking place in European Russia, in view of recent successes of anti-Bolshevik forces.
(Instructions to repeat to the Embassy at Tokyo.)
536
Oct. 22 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.)
For Stevens: Opinion that to terminate work at this time would be tragic mistake, and that it should be possible to hold the men to their task until situation clarifies.
536
Oct. 23 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Emerson’s instructions from Harbin for technical inspectors to withdraw from railway as fast as Czechs evacuate, which is deemed by Harris as productive of unfortunate impression upon Russians.
537
Oct. 24 From the President of the Technical Board (tel.)
Withdrawal of inspectors to depend upon prospect of safety and upon wish of men themselves; continuation of murders and train wrecks.
537
Oct. 25 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: British purpose to keep British railway officials and men on duty at Omsk, irrespective of removal of Czechs.
538
Oct. 25 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Information that Stevens may not find it necessary to withdraw inspectors immediately upon departure of Czechs; importance of cooperation by Russian officials.
538
Oct. 25 From the President of the Technical Board (tel.)
Decision of Service Corps not to abandon work unless Bolsheviks force them to leave.
538
Oct. 25 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.)
For Stevens: Information that pressure upon Omsk government will be employed by Harris and Russian Ambassador in Washington to bring about safety on railways.
539
Oct. 26 (568) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Report that Semenov has held up second train of munitions from America for Omsk, demanding 15,000 rifles, with no attempt on part of Japanese to prevent act.
539
Oct. 28 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Recall of Rozanov from Vladivostok to Omsk to explain his actions.
539
Oct. 28 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris at Omsk: Confirmation of Smith’s view of improvement in Russian attitude, especially of Ustrugov, who is becoming conciliatory; advisability of requesting Stevens not to withdraw railway inspectors.
540
[Page LXXII]Oct. 29 (534) The Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia to The Adjutant General (tel.)
Japanese statement that rifles will be turned over to Semenov at Irkutsk as soon as guard is removed; their arrival at Verkhneudinsk; seriousness of permitting arms to fall into hands of reactionaries. Anti-American, monarchistic views of Knox.
540
Oct. 29 From the Chargé in China (tel.)
From Harris: Graves’ telegram (text printed) reporting Semenov’s threat to take rifles from train at Chita and Graves’ order to resist; report of incident by vice consul at Chita (text printed) and of release of train through Japanese intervention.
541
Oct. 29 (3316) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
British attitude toward Macgowan’s report from Vladivostok, discrediting views as to improved conditions.
542
Nov. 1 From the Secretary of War
Cable sent to Graves (text printed) regarding State Department’s approval of withholding rifles from Semenov. Instructions to send through Harris all representations to Omsk government.
542
Nov. 1 To the Consul General at Irkutsk, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Report from Stevens (text printed) that nothing can be done for improvement of railways because Russian officials ignore advice and instructions of inspectors.
543
Nov. 7 (548) The Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia to The Adjutant General (tel.)
Rumor of Rozanov’s intention to declare himself dictator east of Baikal if Kolchak is forced to leave Omsk, counting on support of Cossacks and Japanese, latter in return to be given control of certain coal and iron mines. Further report of Japanese lack of cooperation.
543
Nov. 11 (587) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Report of failure of Omsk government to cooperate with Railway Corps, and obstructions offered by Russian railway officials; Stevens’ order to inspectors to leave when Czechs go.
544
Nov. 17 (599) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Coup d’état at Vladivostok headed by Gaida, Czech leader, in name of autonomous Siberia; seizure of locomotives, opening of recruiting station, and beginning of conflict.
546
Nov. 17 (601) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Participation of Rozanov’s forces in fight; strike stopping shipping operations; firing on railway yards from gunboats; reloading of rifles and ammunition on U. S. S. Delight.
546
Nov. 18 (602) From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Surrender of Gaida; Rozanov’s order for executions; identification of Gaida and followers as Czecho-Slovak reserves, having permission to serve in Kolchak’s army.
547
[Page LXXIII]Nov. 20 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Comments on good work done by U. S. representatives in Siberia in face of difficulties and hope that some means can be devised to continue U. S. steadying influence in Siberia.
548
Dec. 3 To the Secretary of War
Desirability of requesting departure of political refugees who have claimed asylum in U. S. headquarters at Vladivostok.
549
Dec. 19 (647) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Semenov’s change of attitude, now advocating representative government, proposing proclamation to people, declaring that civil authorities must direct affairs and military be used only for protection. His refusal of Japanese scheme to head a government formed by Mongolia, Manchuria, and Eastern Siberia.
550

Efforts by the United States to Maintain Unity of Policy with Japan in Siberia

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Mar. 31 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with Minister of War, Tanaka, indicating that Japan has abandoned independent action in Siberia and modified policy of support of Cossack leaders, and is prepared to cooperate with Graves in simply guarding railways. Conciliatory attitude of Cossack leaders also. Request for instructions.
551
Apr. 1 (1421) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
The President’s proposal of a military zone six miles wide in which Graves, in cooperation with Allied forces, would exercise police powers to secure uninterrupted operation of Trans-Siberian and Chinese Eastern Railways.
552
Apr. 4 (1431) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Secretary of War, Baker, to the President: Explanation that military zone would require policing of large area, necessitating increased military forces; counter-suggestion of limiting activities to preserving order about railway, its stations, and trains, as those in charge of railway may request.
553
Apr. 4 (1432) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Concurrence in Baker’s view that control of 6-mile military zone would be unnecessary and cause criticism and that same purpose might be accomplished by preserving order along railway.
554
Apr. 16 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note from Mission at Paris (text printed) stating that President approves Tanaka’s views and desires that Japan be urged to adopt them, limiting use of military forces to preservation of order only on railway and suppressing local violence only when it interferes with train service. Request for views.
554
[Page LXXIV]Apr. 19 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Opinion that proposed policy of simply guarding railway is not only adequate and feasible but one which will avoid involving the United States in civil war in Siberia.
555
Apr. 21 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to take up question of policy with Japan as outlined in Department’s telegram of April 16 and urge its acceptance by other Governments concerned.
555
Apr. 22 (240) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Location of Allied troops which guard railway.
555
Apr. 25 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Tanaka’s opinion that military zone of 10 kilometers on each side of railway should be established. Morris’ intention to seek definite understanding with Japan, which would be submitted to Associated Governments for approval.
556
Apr. 26 (5244) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Instructions to state U. S. concurrence in Harris’ views as to preeminence of Inter-Allied Committee for supervising railways in Siberia in all matters affecting policy, so that Technical Board and military boards may collaborate along same lines. Information that Japan has been requested to agree to U. S. policy.
(Instructions to repeat to Paris for similar action and to American Mission.)
557
Apr. 29 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Tanaka’s press statement (text printed) confirming friendly relations between U. S. and Japanese troops in Siberia.
558
Apr. 30 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to inform Government of reasons for abandonment of idea of establishing definite military zone on railways.
558
May 2 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japanese memorandum (text printed) suggesting a military policy in Siberia for protection of railways, rivers, and waterways in that region, its chief proposal being the creation of a military zone.
559
May 3 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Expression of appreciation of friendly and cordial attitude of Minister of War and hope for success of combined efforts.
560
May 3 (1962) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
British concurrence in U. S. view as to Inter-Allied Committee’s preeminence in matters affecting policy.
560
May 6 (827) To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Opinion that military forces are subordinate in importance to working of the railways and should be employed exclusively in assisting Inter-Allied Committee and the boards subordinated to it. British concurrence in opinion. Instructions to impress upon Japan necessity of stopping aggressive activities on part of Japanese military in Siberia.
560
[Page LXXV]May 10 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversations with Tanaka and Uchida on closer military cooperation in Siberia, neither being willing to give up military zone idea. Extract from Tanaka’s speech (text printed), on occasion of entertainment in honor of Morris, in which is stressed necessity for mutual cooperation between the two forces.
561
May 23 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Proposed memorandum to Japan (text printed) expressing doubt as to wisdom of attempting to establish military zone and presenting general policy of limiting activities to immediate vicinity of railways.
562
May 28 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Approval of proposed memorandum to Japan.
563
June 7 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japanese memoranda (text printed) raising objections to preeminence of Inter-Allied Committee in matters affecting policy. Comments.
563
July 17 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Irkutsk (tel.)
Report on conditions under which Chinese Eastern and Trans-Siberian Railways are being operated as far as Irkutsk; and of Japanese military scheme for operating through Cossack organization in attempt to take possession of railways and thus to dominate eastern Siberia and northern Manchuria.
565
July 27 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Conclusions, reached in official discussions, as to measures which should be taken for the better operation of the railways. Information that Allied inspectors have been directed to withdraw from division between Manchuria Station and Verkhneudinsk, as Japanese have refused to protect lives and property.
567
July 31 To the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Inquiries regarding working out of conclusions reached in official discussion.
569
Aug. 14 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Impossibility of putting into force conclusions reached in regard to railway operation. Professed support of Kolchak by Japanese, who at same time give Semenov free hand in mistreating railway employees.
569
Aug. 15 From the President of the Technical Board (tel.)
Order for removal of inspectors, since Japanese have given no protection and Semenov’s acts are more hostile than ever.
570
Aug. 15 From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Omsk (tel.)
Japan’s overruling of conference’s conclusions concerning railway operation, refusing to interfere with any Russian official recognized by Omsk; report from Baikal division (text printed) regarding Semenov outrages and Japanese refusal to protect representatives of Inter-Allied Technical Commitee. Request for advice regarding withdrawal of engineers.
570
[Page LXXVI]Aug. 21 (474) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Report that all Allied military, except Japan, have complied with Inter-Allied Committee’s regulations concerning interference with train movements. General Otani’s explanation (text printed) that interference with Cossack leaders recognized by Omsk would constitute intervention in Russian internal affairs. Matsudaira’s attempt to palliate Otani’s excuses.
572
Aug. 21 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
For Smith: Stevens’ message (text printed) affirming Oba’s refusal to interfere with Semenov, indicating Oba–Semenov combination to prevent railway operation; and order for inspectors to withdraw. Instructions to consult Inter-Allied Committee and report.
572
Aug. 25 (380) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Withdrawal of inspectors not known by committee; probability committee would have upheld Stevens. Japanese activities which have completely blocked execution of Allied policy and agreement.
573
Aug. 30 To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Note for Uchida (text printed) calling attention to serious developments as result of U. S. efforts to assist Siberia with military forces and through railway plan, in conjunction with other Allies; failure to secure cooperation and unity of policy with Japan, making it necessary to decide whether to withdraw U. S. forces and make public statement as to reasons.
(Sent also to Great Britain, France, Italy, China, and to Russian Ambassador at Washington.)
573
Sept. 2 (488) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Resolution of committee (text printed) that withdrawal of inspectors is matter for decision of Inter-Allied Railway Committee, but, in case of emergency, Technical Board may act, subject to approval of committee. Semenov’s statement that he will no longer interfere with railway management.
578
Sept. 3 (494) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Matsudaira’s explanation that Otani’s letter will be recalled because of mistake and new one sent, new Japanese forces will replace division at Chita, and clear instructions will be given, which he hopes will settle difficulties.
579
Sept. 4 From the President of the Technical Board (tel.)
Information that Allied inspectors have not been withdrawn from Semenov territory.
579
Sept. 5 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Report that note was presented September 5, in accordance with Department’s telegram of August 30.
580
[Page LXXVII]Sept. 15 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Information that British Chargé has been instructed to support U. S. representations to Japan; British Chargé’s desire to be acquainted with text of U. S. note to Japan. Request for instructions.
(Footnote: Department’s reply raising no objection to showing text of note to British Chargé.)
580
Sept. 16 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
Japan’s resentment at U. S. note; feeling of Foreign Minister that note was not based on underlying principle but on a series of minor disagreements.
580
Sept. 25 (521) From the Ambassador in Japan, temporarily at Vladivostok (tel.)
Conciliatory attitude of Japanese commanders with explanations that Japanese orders had been misunderstood and that further orders Would be issued to correct mistakes.
581
Sept. 27 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Information that U. S. acquiescence in Japan’s delay in answering note should not lead to inference United States is indifferent or disposed to evade issue. Instructions to impress urgency of a decision by Japan, so that United States can determine future course of action.
582
Sept. 28 (527) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Statement from General Oi, commander in chief of Japanese forces (text printed), quoting instructions issued to Japanese railway guards. Smith’s doubts as to their practicability; further comments.
583
Oct. 1 (3158) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
British comment on U. S. circular telegram of August 30 (text printed) expressing hope that U. S. troops will be maintained in Siberia.
585
Oct. 5 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conference with members of Foreign Office, in which Ambassador reviewed prior negotiations and showed correspondence to prove that matter was not one of specific incidents of misunderstanding but a fundamental difference of interpretation and consequently of policy and practice. Impression that Foreign Office was ignorant of what had been taking place in Siberia and hence bewildered by U. S. note. Responsibility of Japanese General Staff for publicity given negotiations.
585
Oct. 10 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note for Foreign Minister (text printed) inquiring when reply to U. S. note of September 5 may be expected. Instructions to use discretion in conveying report that Semenov is occupying stations along Chinese Eastern and is attempting to establish independent authority east of Lake Baikal, supported by Japanese commanders.
586
[Page LXXVIII]Oct. 14 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japan’s assurance that reply will be forthcoming at early date; further representations to Foreign Office, urging necessity for understanding on question of guarding railway; tender of information that Semenov has moved on Chinese Eastern.
588
Oct. 31 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Japan’s reply to U. S. note of September 5 (text printed) affirming efforts by Japanese troops for cooperation in Siberia, quoting instructions to military as proof of policy; Japan’s failure, however, to acquiesce in view that Inter-Allied Committee should have preeminence in matters of policy; mission of Kato to Siberia to further economic and political recuperation.
588
Nov. 1 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Characterization of Japanese note as conciliatory in spirit but vague and indirect. Further comment on specific points mentioned in reply to U. S. note. Counseling of patience and continuance of best efforts for cooperation with Japan rather than withdrawal.
592
Nov. 12 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Note for Foreign Office (text printed) expressing satisfaction at Japan’s assurance of cooperation in Siberia and hope for success of Kato’s mission. Inquiry regarding Associated Press message from Tokyo containing summary, evidently based on full knowledge, of Japanese memorandum of October 30.
594
Nov. 14 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Associated Press correspondent’s statement that source of his knowledge of U. S.–Japanese correspondence is confidential. No publication of correspondence in Japan.
595
Nov. 15 (594) From the American Member of the Inter-Allied Railway Committee, transmitted by the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.)
Opinion of Matsudaira and member of Japanese Parliament that salvation of Siberia lies in organization of a parliament of self-governing bodies, that Japan and the United States must formulate plan for economic relief, and that Kolchak will soon fail.
596
Nov. 19 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Transmittal of Smith’s telegram no. 594, November 15; comments thereon. Instructions to discuss same informally with Japan, stating U. S. desire that Russians be allowed to work out own political destiny, without interference, reorganizing Government with Kolchak at its head along democratic lines, if acceptable to people.
597
Nov. 24 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Conversation with Uchida on entire Siberian situation in detail, advancing personal views that Kolchak should be supported, that U. S. and Japanese forces be maintained, and economic relief furnished. Japan’s fear of spread eastward of Bolshevism and desire for U. S. support in creating safety zone. Subjects suggested for Department’s interview with Shidehara.
599
[Page LXXIX]Nov. 28 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Semiofficial press summary of discussions in Cabinet and Diplomatic Advisory Council (text printed) in which Hara won victory for policy of maintaining status quo in Siberia pending understanding with Allies, particularly the United States.
601
Dec. 2 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Foreign Office note (text printed) expressing gratification that Siberian question has reached amicable solution and suggesting that copy of U. S. note of November 12 be sent to Great Britain, France, Italy, China, and to Russian Ambassador at Washington.
603
Dec. 5 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
Instructions to state that Japanese suggestion has been complied with.
603

CHAPTER III

THE NORTHERN REGION

Withdrawal of Allied and American Support of the Provisional Government in Northern Russia

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Jan. 3 (720) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Continued quiet in Archangel. Failure of small offensive against Bolsheviks.
604
Jan. 9 (736) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Summary of conversations with Bolshevik prisoners (text printed) regarding good equipment and discipline of Bolshevik army and purpose to attack Archangel by Easter.
604
Jan. 16 (448) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Information that money allotted for Murmansk relief is exhausted; inquiry whether returns on expenditures as reported from London (text printed) could be used as revolving fund.
605
Jan. 18 (760) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Report on disbursements for relief and desirability of using returns for further food supplies for Murmansk and Archangel.
606
Jan. 23 (781) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Evacuation of Ust Padenga by Allied troops. Memorandum by military attaché (text printed) describing unsatisfactory military situation of U. S. and Allied troops, criticism of British commanding officers, and danger of loss of advance positions.
606
Jan. 24 To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Inquiry concerning (1) present attitude of Russians toward Allied intervention, (2) attitude of Archangel government toward Kolchak, (3) plans of government for spring campaign, and (4) extent to which government is supported.
607
[Page LXXX]Jan. 24 (786) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Statement by British commander in chief, Ironside, as to causes of failure of offensive against Bolsheviks, attributing it to overextension, poor quality of British officers, and low morale of French. Orders for evacuation of Shenkursk.
608
Jan. 27 (793) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Information, in reply to inquiry, that Allied intervention is favored by Russians.
608
Jan. 27 (794) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Information, in reply to inquiry, that Archangel government desires union with Omsk government; that preparations are being made for defense, as offensive campaign is impossible; and that there is mild approval of government.
610
Jan. 27 (799) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Account of evacuation of Shenkursk and of Bolshevik occupation and atrocities committed. Ironside’s call for reenforcements from Murmansk.
611
Jan. 28 (4278) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Transmittal of certain telegrams from Archangel. Instructions to discuss serious condition at Archangel, disadvantages of U. S. and Allied forces, and necessity for employing officers with experience and sound qualifications.
612
Jan. 30 (467) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Inadvisability of using allotment as revolving fund. War Department’s responsibility for devising plan for financing army at Archangel and War Trade Board’s responsibility for disbursement of $5,000,000 allotment. Suggestion that relief work be continued as part of Hoover’s relief program.
612
Jan. 31 (815) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Ironside’s statement that military situation is critical, but that he hopes to hold out until reenforcements arrive.
613
Feb. 8 (643) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Secretary of War’s statement that Supreme War Council is responsible for protection and reenforcement of U. S. forces at Archangel.
613
Feb. 9 (845) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Summary of Provisional Government’s memorandum to U. S. and Allied Embassies calling attention to difficult financial situation and requesting loan. British Commissioner’s adverse recommendation to his Government, advocating rather that Allies control financial operations of national character, leaving local expenses to Provisional Government.
614
Feb. 13 (899) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
British perturbation over military situation at Archangel and purpose to augment British forces from Murmansk. Rumors of errors in military strategy, friction between British, French, and U. S. troops, intoxication among British, and lack of sufficient supplies.
615
[Page LXXXI]Feb. 13 (858) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Proposed statement (text printed) to be issued by high authority, calculated to improve morale of U. S. forces, commending work accomplished and promising early repatriation.
615
Feb. 14 (866) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Recent ill success of Bolsheviks owing to two favorable Allied operations and Murman reenforcements, bringing reassurance for the present. Prospects of critical situation when rivers open up in spring.
616
Feb. 24 (507) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Letter from Secretary of War to Senate and House Military Committees (text printed) regarding cablegram from General Bliss, sent by direction of President Wilson, ordering two railway companies to Murmansk to assure safety of U. S. forces and facilitate their withdrawal as soon as weather conditions permit.
617
Feb. 24 (511) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Procurement of Murmansk fund as revolving fund. Arrangements for food shipments to be furnished as required for January, February, and March. Inquiry as to return cargo.
618
Feb. 26 (514) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Opinion of Secretary of War that notice through press and his letter to Senate and House Military Committees make Chargé’s proposed statement unnecessary.
618
Feb. 27 (908) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Improved morale of U. S. forces owing to promise of withdrawal. Suggestion that considerable naval force be sent to counterbalance troop withdrawal. Opinion that dispatch of two railway companies will not accomplish objects, as spring thaw will make movements by land impracticable.
618
Mar. 2 (920) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Ironside’s note (text printed) revealing mutiny among French troops. Bolshevik attacks on Vaga and Dvina fronts.
620
Mar. 3 (922) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Mutiny among British reenforcements from Murmansk. Efforts to keep U. S. troops in hand.
620
Mar. 11 (955) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Account of Bolshevik attacks with superior numbers on Vaga front causing U. S. and Allied troops to withdraw.
621
Mar. 26 (1000) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Arrival of U. S. railway company. Success of Russian troops on Pinega front, capturing two villages. Contact of Russian outposts with Siberian outposts in North Urals.
621
Mar. 29 (563) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Departure of railway companies for Murmansk. Purpose to send Brig. Gen. W. P. Richards on to take command of U. S. troops in North Russia.
622
Mar. 29 (565) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Navy’s plans to send certain vessels to Northern Russia in accordance with Government’s policy.
622
[Page LXXXII]Mar. 31 (1012) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Mutiny among soldiers in 339th U. S. Infantry. Immediate necessity for announcement of order for withdrawal of 339th by June 30.
623
Apr. 2 (1017) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Substantial evidence of effort among Russians to hasten union with Siberia by way of Kotlas and to organize northern region so as to dispense with Allied support. Ironside’s opinion that government will collapse if Allied expedition is withdrawn in spring and that 16,000 Russians will have to be evacuated to prevent their massacre.
623
Apr. 4 (1436) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Reconsideration of request for statement to allay discontent and preserve morale of U. S. troops. Suggestion that statement might properly be issued by Pershing.
625
Apr. 5 (1459) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
British note, March 28 (text printed) proposing that Allied Governments assume responsibility for financing national services of Provisional Government to extent of 10,000,000 rubles a month for six months; request that United States be responsible for 2,500,000 rubles a month, in accordance with terms of Murmansk agreement of July 1918, to which United States was signatory.
625
Apr. 9 (1053) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Specific inquiries as to views on north Russian situation, especially as to future of Archangel expedition. Problem whether Y. M. C. A. should remain after U. S. forces leave.
627
Apr. 15 (588) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
American Mission’s reply to Chargé’s telegram of April 9 (text printed) stating that information relating to future of Archangel expedition may be disclosed only by British officers in command.
627
Apr. 15 (1074) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Report of British and French purpose to send replacement forces. Ironside’s insistence that no instructions as to policy have come from London. Indications that ice is about to break up; improvement on railway front and successful handling of Bolshevik attacks.
628
Apr. 17 (1086) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Actions to be governed by understanding that there is unity of policy with Great Britain concerning military operations in North Russia. British objective to be occupation of Kotlas; the 339th U. S. Infantry to be evacuated first; Y. M. C. A. to remain.
629
Apr. 18 (1091) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Arrival of Richardson to take command of U. S. troops.
629
Apr. 22 (1679) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Department’s refusal to consider Murmansk agreement as binding in regard to Archangel government. Request for views and course of action to be followed concerning British proposals for financing government.
629
[Page LXXXIII]Apr. 30 (1867) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Suggestion that War Department be consulted regarding their plans in Archangel before making any decision in regard to future relief. Efforts to close up Murmansk agreement.
630
May 3 (1137) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Clearance of rivers of ice above Archangel and activities of gunboats; repulse of Bolshevik attack on Vaga; passage of dangerous phase in military situation; establishment of Maynard’s headquarters 250 miles south of Murmansk.
630
May 12 (1175) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Improved political atmosphere at Murmansk, owing to excellent morale of U. S. railway troops. Uncertainty that Russian troops at Archangel will cooperate with British, who are suspected of having ulterior territorial ambitions.
631
May 16 (1191) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Arrangements by Allies for shipment of flour, only, to Northern Region, leaving to Provisional Government importation of other foodstuffs; payment for flour to be made out of foreign balances.
631
May 27 (1227) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Arrival at Archangel of 4,000 British troops.
632
June 11 (1274) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Ironside’s press statement outlining plans for transfer of base of Russian National Army from Siberia to Archangel, because of easier access to England for supplies, and his plans for campaign to take Kotlas, Vologda, and Petrograd.
632
June 20 (1291) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Omsk government note to Archangel government (text printed) accepting allegiance of Archangel government and recognizing its independence in certain measures. Decision of latter to issue government documents in name of Provisional All-Russian Government.
633
June 25 (1303) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Steps in unification of Russia: Appointment of Governor General Miller as commander in chief of land and sea forces in north, and of Yudenich as general on Petrograd front, and Denikin’s recognition of Kolchak.
634
July 3 (497) From the British Chargé
British request that U. S. railway troops, which are to be withdrawn July 15, be allowed to remain, as withdrawal might bring about collapse of whole Archangel force.
634
July 5 To the British Chargé
Reply that withdrawal of U. S. railway troops at Archangel was settled by Supreme War Council and suggestion that matter be taken up with General Bliss.
634
July 9 (515) From the British Chargé
British urgent request for payment by United States of 2,500,000 rubles toward monthly support of Provisional Government of Northern Russia.
635
[Page LXXXIV]July 10 From the Russian Chargé
Request that two U. S. railway companies, scheduled to be withdrawn from Murmansk, be retained until replaced by other engineering troops.
636
July 11 To the President
Request for approval of arrangements for shipment of flour to Archangel. Enumeration of reasons why action is so necessary.
(Footnote: Annotation on margin indicating President Wilson’s approval.)
636
July 11 (1315) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Rapid withdrawal of U. S. military and naval units. Plea that one cruiser remain, as means of diminishing force of Bolshevik propaganda.
637
July 12 (710) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Inquiry as to views regarding retention at Archangel of two companies of U. S. railway engineers, as urged by Provisional Government.
638
July 17 (1327) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Withdrawal of U. S. railway engineers from Murmansk, upon their refusal to volunteer to remain. Miller’s request for replacement and presence of naval unit with full complement of marines subject only to U. S. authority.
638
July 18 To the British Chargé
Information that no funds are available for financial assistance to Archangel Provisional Government.
640
July 23 (717) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Purchase of $1,000,000 worth of grain for shipment on Redondo to Archangel. Inquiry whether British and French will participate to like extent and, if so, whether this will cover requirements.
640
July 24 (2609) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Cole at Archangel: Mutiny of Russian troops, Onega passing into hands of Bolsheviks; Ironside’s recommendation to London for immediate reenforcements or evacuation; importance of evacuation of friendly Russians and Provisional Government.
641
July 25 (2623) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Cole at Archangel: Cordons thrown around mutinous region; engagements of indecisive nature, British reporting situation well in hand; possibility of Russian staff evacuating to Murmansk.
642
Undated [Rec’d July 29] (2645) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Publication of British official view of situation in North Russia (text printed) claiming no immediate danger to troops, but announcing the speeding up of evacuation because of late reverses and dispatch of reenforcements by French.
643
July 30 (3399) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Proposed plan to appoint Governor General for North Russia no longer of interest, as British decision to evacuate Archangel involves the complete collapse of Archangel government.
643
[Page LXXXV]Aug. 2 (723) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Instructions to prepare for possible Bolshevik control of Archangel and to consider safety of himself and all other Americans.
644
Aug. 2 (1358) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Advice that Redondo should not proceed to Archangel, since British are furnishing sufficient flour to last until evacuation.
644
Aug. 3 (2687) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Cole at Archangel: Imminence of evacuation by British, Provisional Government, and loyal Russians; uselessness of consulates and embassies, which should leave also with their nationals.
644
Aug. 3 (26) From the Consul at Archangel (tel.)
Loss of Onega; inevitable submission of whole region to Bolshevism. Request for U. S. shipping for evacuation of proportionate part of 10,000 or more Russian inhabitants. Account of insidious Bolshevik propaganda.
645
Aug. 5 From the Acting Secretary of the Navy
Issue of order for U. S. S. Des Moines to remain at Archangel and vicinity. Presence of Eagles 1, 2, and 3 and Yankton in vicinity.
646
Aug. 6 (725) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Authority to evacuate Embassy, Consulate, and U. S. citizens on such date as seems advisable. Inquiries as to adequacy of accommodations for evacuation of Americans and Russians on British ships.
646
Aug. 9 (1371) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Report that British are arranging for evacuation of U. S. Embassy and Y. M. C. A. personnel and that plans for evacuation of Russians are not complete.
647
Aug. 10 (2752) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Cole at Archangel: Excerpts from Provisional Government’s note, August 5 (text printed) making urgent plea that Northern Region be not abandoned to Bolsheviks, but that financial, military, and naval assistance be continued.
647
Aug. 11 To the Elanco Forwarding Corporation of New York
Directions for Redondo to proceed to Reval and report to representative of American Relief Administration for instructions.
649
Aug. 11 (729) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Information that no U. S. tonnage will be provided unless reported as necessary to save situation.
650
Aug. 14 (2791) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Cole at Archangel: Futility of attempt to organize resistance to Bolsheviks after departure of British troops by changes in government, suppression of military dictatorship, and concentration of control in civilian hands. Desirability of removing government and valuable supplies when British depart.
650
[Page LXXXVI]Aug. 14 (2798) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Cole at Archangel: Defeat of entire Bolshevik force on Dvina River by British and Russians, many prisoners and supplies being taken.
651
Aug. 14 (2797) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Cole at Archangel: Report from Onega district of mutiny of 5th Northern Rifle Regiment and its remobilization in name of Soviet Republic; establishment of Soviet authority; and abolishment of Zemstvo and Duma.
651
Aug. 14 (2793) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Cole at Archangel: Receipt of official notification of changes in Archangel government and reply that the United States will be favorably impressed by efforts toward representative government.
652
Aug. 15 (736) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
For Cole: Approval of Cole’s reply regarding Archangel representative government.
652
Aug. 16 (2808) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Cole at Archangel: Embarkation of most of Italian troops at Murmansk for repatriation.
652
Aug. 17 (1381) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Detailed reply to inquiry regarding transportation, stating British have ordered ample tonnage for accommodation of all.
652
Aug. 18 (1384) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Report that French will not participate in new food shipments under present conditions.
653
Aug. 21 (2852) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Cole at Archangel: Provisional Government’s decision to stay and organize defense of Archangel, requesting Allied aid, which is refused. Folly of leaving supplies and armed and equipped Russian troops in region.
653
Aug. 25 Representatives of the Northern Region of Russia to President Wilson
Appeal for the retention of Allied troops in North Russia.
655
Aug. 27 (2903) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Cole at Archangel: Fifteen measures adopted by Zemstvo and Municipal Assembly in attempt to establish parliamentary system of government.
657
Sept. 3 (1403) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Departure of all U. S. private individuals from Archangel, several officers remaining for special work.
659
Sept. 3 (2959) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
From Cole at Archangel: Intention to leave Sept. 7; no reason for U. S. S. Des Moines’ remaining longer; departure or intended departure of most foreign representatives.
659
Sept. 4 (751) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Instructions to reply to appeal of Conference of Zemstvos and Municipalities, pointing out stern necessity for withdrawal of troops and calling attention to efforts being made to offer refuge to Russians in danger.
660
[Page LXXXVII]Sept. 9 (1410) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Explanations offered Zemstvo Conference regarding withdrawal of troops and U. S. assurances of sympathy and further efforts to assist in happy outcome of struggle.
660
Sept. 10 (5946) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Instructions to repeat to American Mission at Paris certain reports on Archangel and a message to Polk (text printed) inquiring whether Council of Four contemplates any measures in support of popular movement in Archangel district.
661
Sept. 14 (1417) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Departure for London.
662
Sept. 18 The Russian Military Attaché to the War Department
Miller’s inquiry as to feasibility of sending delegation to America to secure American and Russian volunteers to fight Bolsheviks in North Russia.
662
Sept. 19 (4280) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
No measures contemplated by Council of Four to support popular movement in Archangel district.
662
Sept. 20 The Director of Military Intelligence to the Russian Attaché
Explanation that Miller’s request involves international relations and should be taken up with Department of State and that such recruiting within the United States would be violation of U. S. law.
663
Oct. 17 From the Consul at Murmansk (tel.)
Report of complete evacuation of Allied forces from Murmansk; restoration of order. Continued arrival of refugees from Archangel.
664
Nov. 11 From the Consul at Murmansk (tel.)
Report of unusual quiet, with morale at front above criticism; similar conditions reported at Archangel. Supplies sufficient for several months. Immediate closing of consulate.
664
Nov. 21 To the Chairman of the U. S. Shipping Board
Assurances, in regard to certain shipments of flour and coal to Russia, that Department will not recognize any future Russian Government that does not assume obligation for these debts.
664
Nov. 24 From Commissioner John A. Donald of the U. S. Shipping Board
Shipping Board’s decision to make shipments of coal and food to Russia under assurances of Department of State.
665
[Page LXXXVIII]

CHAPTER IV

THE BALTIC PROVINCES

Conflict of the White Russians and Inhabitants of the Baltic Provinces with the Bolshevik Forces in Western Russia

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Jan. 6 (3410) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Report that Riga is now believed to be in hands of Bolsheviks.
666
Jan. 7 (3419) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Ineffectiveness of Provisional Governments of Esthonia and Latvia to deal with Bolshevik encroachments; Esthonian request for British protectorate or for military help.
666
Jan. 24 (3510) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Latvian Prime Minister’s request for Allied intervention or permission to recruit U. S. and Allied volunteers; and for arms, ammunition, food, and loan.
667
Feb. 7 (1407) To the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Order of Secretary of War stopping recruiting in the United States; suggestion that loan to Latvia be taken up with American Mission at Paris.
668
Feb. 15 (768) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Lithuanian petition to Peace Conference to recognize independence of Lithuania. Consideration of sending commission to determine whether its Government represents will of majority.
668
Feb. 15 (769) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Consideration of Esthonian petition for recognition, independence having been provisionally recognized by British, French, and Italian Governments.
668
Feb. 20 (834) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Arrangement between Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania for common struggle against Bolsheviks. Permission given by Sweden, Finland, and Denmark to enroll volunteers.
669
Feb. 20 (3663) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Finland’s offer to defeat Bolsheviks in Northern Russia, asking only moral support of Allies and food supplies from United States.
669
Mar. 2 (3) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Organization of Russian Whites for purpose of capturing Petrograd and Moscow and overthrowing Bolsheviks; their request that United States assist by shipping to Scandinavian port sufficient food to supply Petrograd and Moscow when captured; their desire to cooperate with Kolchak and Allied forces.
670
Mar. 6 (193) From the Commissioner at Helsingfors (tel.)
Opinion that sending military forces against Petrograd would be height of folly.
671
Mar. 7 (1020) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Recommendation that Department be authorized to furnish letter of recommendation to Lettish National League of America seeking to promote trade relations between the United States and Baltic Provinces.
672
[Page LXXXIX]Mar. 8 (3721) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Suggestion of U. S. assistance to Baltic Provinces in struggle against Bolsheviks and Germans, supplying food and credit, if necessary.
672
Mar. 8 To the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Lack of adequate information regarding Russian Whites and inability to offer assistance. Caution against encouraging false hopes.
673
Mar. 12 (1131) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Lansing: Approval of economic assistance to Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and of Department’s issuing letters in line with suggestion.
673
Mar. 12 (1136) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Information that mission is being sent to Baltic Provinces under Lt. Col. Warwick Greene, to investigate economic and military situation and question of credits.
673
Mar. 13 (3746) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
Reported bombardment of Narva by Bolsheviks.
674
Mar. 18 (7765) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Statement of Finnish commander that it will be necessary to take Petrograd to save Finland from Bolsheviks, and that Finland will expect Murman Peninsula as reward.
(Instructions to repeat to Mission and to London.)
674
Apr. 17 (319) The Chargé in Denmark to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Greene: Overthrow of Latvian Provisional Government by Germans, who have taken complete control, under pretext of suppressing Bolsheviks.
675
Apr. 30 From the Acting Secretary of War
Desire for approval before complying with request for sale of rifles and other war material to Finnish, Esthonian, and Latvian Republics.
675
May 2 (350) The Chargé in Denmark to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Greene: Report on situation in Esthonia. Importance of sending food.
675
May 6 (3946) From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
From Greene: Probability that Esthonia will make peace with Bolsheviks, unless Government receives prompt help.
676
May 11 (67) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Chief of the Mission to the Baltic Provinces, at Libau (tel.)
From Hoover: Dispatch of steamer with foodstuffs for Esthonians, also of relief mission to take charge of work in Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania; other relief ships to follow.
676
May 12 (366) The Chargé in Denmark to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Greene at Libau: Account of distribution of food in Libau and other cities, which relieves situation.
676
[Page XC]May 23 (383) The Chargé in Denmark to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Greene at Libau: General offensive against Bolsheviks at Riga, with street fighting.
677
May 30 (319) The Chargé in Sweden to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Greene at Riga: Account of capture of Riga from Bolsheviks in surprise attack by Letts, Russian volunteers, and Germans under Major Fletcher, who now has restored order and quiet.
677
May 31 To the Secretary of War
American Mission’s approval of sale of rifles to Finland and to those parts of Esthonia and Latvia which are non-Bolshevik.
678
June 2 (399) The Chargé in Denmark to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Greene at Libau: Critical conditions in Riga; suggestion that Russian volunteers serving under Prince Lieven be increased and that increase be made from Russian prisoners in Germany.
679
June 4 (400) The Chargé in Denmark to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Greene at Libau: Description of scenes in Riga under Red terror and later under White terror; Fletcher’s iron hand in restoration of order.
679
June 10 (65) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Chargé in Denmark (tel.)
For Greene at Libau: Opinion of chief of U. S. military mission at Berlin that Lieven should have all volunteers he wants.
680
June 27 (2445) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing and McCormick: Kolchak’s desire (text printed) for approval by U. S., British, and French Governments of his request to Finland to launch attack on Petrograd. Request for advice as to reply to be made to Kolchak.
681
June 28 The Chief of the Mission to the Baltic Provinces to the Secretary-General of the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Summary of his report on conditions in the Baltic; suggested remedies for defeating Bolshevik aggression and loosening German military hold.
682
July 2 (58) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Negotiations between Russian Whites and Finns, with view to inducing Finns to advance against Petrograd from Byeloostrov front. Finns’ assurance of success if undertaking receives Allied approval.
683
July 4 General Tasker H. Bliss of the Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Russian Ambassador to the United States, temporarily at Paris
Inquiry as to measures Kolchak’s representatives at Paris would propose in order to organize and support anti-Bolshevik forces in Baltic Provinces, and what assurances they would give as to future autonomy of these Provinces, in view of approaching withdrawal of German forces.
683
[Page XCI]July 8 The Russian Ambassador to the United States, temporarily at Paris, to General Tasker H. Bliss of the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Measures which Kolchak government deems necessary to defeat Bolshevism: namely, capture of Petrograd; supply of munitions, clothing, and food; coordination of military operations and unity of front under Yudenitch. Kolchak’s statement that assistance to Provinces is not to be construed as prejudicing unity of Russia or as fostering separatist movements.
684
July 11 (18) From the Vice Consul at Viborg
Report on political and military conditions in Soviet Russia: Rise of Bolshevik power since April; successes on Volga and Olonets fronts and recapture of Krasnaya Gorka. Opinion that Petrograd can be captured and Bolshevism overthrown if Allies will sanction the advance of Finnish forces against Petrograd.
687
July 16 (3167) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Telegram to French Chargé at Helsingfors (text printed) in which Supreme Council directs that Finland be notified that Allied Governments have no objection to any assistance Finns may be able to give for relief of Petrograd.
691
July 22 (68) From the Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Request of Yudenitch, commander of White forces on Petrograd front, for U. S. military supplies of every kind, in view of British failure to furnish them.
691
July 24 (360) From the Commissioner at Helsingfors (tel.)
Finnish Foreign Minister’s reply that new government will be formed following Presidential election now taking place, and that there can be no discussion of Petrograd campaign at present.
692
July 25 To the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Instructions to refer Yudenitch to Kolchak for supplies, since Secretary of War cannot, by law, dispose of surplus munitions, except by sale.
692
July 31 From the Russian Chargé
Special agreement of July 16 between the American Relief Administration and Provisional Government of Russia (text printed) regarding U. S. sale of foodstuffs and issue of Treasury notes of Provisional Government in payment thereof. Desire that copy be sent to Secretary of War to facilitate payment in same manner for supplies desired to be obtained from Liquidating Committee in Paris.
693
Aug. 4 From the Russian Ambassador
Gain in anti-Bolshevik strength around Petrograd and encouragement furnished by American Relief Organization; acute need, however, of military material; earnest appeal that necessary supplies be furnished by Liquidation Committee from U. S. stocks in France.
696
[Page XCII]Undated [Rec’d Aug. 7] (854) From the Chairman of the American Relief Administration (tel.)
Report that necessary supplies for Baltic Provinces and Petrograd, in case of its liberation, have been stored at Viborg, Finland, in care of consul and that relief personnel will be withdrawn by August 15.
698
Aug. 7 (73) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Report of arrival of British artillery, etc., at Reval for use of Russian White forces in Esthonia in joint attack with British Baltic Fleet on Petrograd. Advantageous position of Bolsheviks.
699
Aug. 8 (9019) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
For Hoover: Issue of directions to vice consul at Viborg regarding Russian supplies as requested.
699
Aug. 12 From the Secretary of War
Information that surplus supplies of U. S. Expeditionary Forces in France have been disposed of or are being disposed of, therefore no foodstuffs are available for sale to Kolchak.
699
Aug. 12 (3634) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Report that Hoover has supplied food to civilian population in rear of Yudenitch’s army; that supplies from U. S. stocks in France are no longer available; arrival of British military supplies for Yudenitch and his proposed early advance on Petrograd.
700
Aug. 13 (79) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Report that stores belonging to Food Administration have been turned over to Viborg consulate, to be moved subject to consul’s approval and not to be used for political or military purposes.
701
Aug. 16 (81) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
British loans to Finland conditional upon Finnish offensive against Petrograd; recognition of independence of Esthonia by Yudenitch in return for military aid. Offensive against Petrograd to be launched by Russians and Esthonians; Finns to cooperate by simultaneous drive from Byeloostrov front.
701
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 17] (1742) The Latvian Prime Minister and the Latvian Minister for Foreign Affairs to President Wilson (tel.)
Urgent plea for money, arms, food, clothing, and ammunition for Latvian Army.
702
Aug. 19 (3771) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Greene’s recommendation (text printed) that Gade be appointed special commissioner, with headquarters at Reval, in view of Greene’s departure. London press account of new Russian government set up at Reval.
703
Aug. 22 (3839) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Need for U. S. shipping to transport supplies for Yudenitch promised by British and French. Russian expectation of early fall of Petrograd.
704
[Page XCIII]Aug. 25 (9058) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
For Hoover: Advisability of arranging for Yudenitch’s forces to be given priority in delivery of flour, in view of importance of their movements. Report of delivery to Esthonians of flour expected by Yudenitch.
705
Aug. 27 (389) From the Commissioner at Helsingfors (tel.)
Probability that Esthonia will make peace with Soviets, as result of capture of Pskov by Bolsheviks.
705
Aug. 29 From the Russian Embassy
Statement that agreement between Yudenitch and Esthonia for recognition of independence of Esthonia was unauthorized and contrary to Kolchak’s policy; that assistance rendered to existing governmental bodies should not be construed as entailing recognition; and that British General’s encouragement of agreement was unauthorized by British Government.
705
Aug. 30 (3958) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Hoover’s statement (text printed) estimating adequacy of supplies on hand for Yudenitch, whom he believes should be supported in his efforts to occupy Petrograd.
707
Sept. 9 (4060) From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Estimate of present situation in Baltic Provinces as regards political, naval, military, economic, financial, and industrial affairs—a situation so desperate that, lacking friendly support, the Bolsheviks are likely to overrun whole Baltic region.
707
Sept. 9 (3074) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk and Hoover: The President’s approval of charter for certain U. S. shipping to transport supplies from British and French ports for Yudenitch.
709
Sept. 15 (101) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Position of Russian Whites opposing Bolsheviks in Narva-Pskov district; report that morale and discipline are good and that British munitions have arrived.
710
Sept. 18 From the Russian Embassy
Request that United States cease all material and moral support to Esthonia, in view of Esthonia’s cessation of hostilities and peace arrangements with Bolsheviks.
710
Sept. 19 (421) From the Commissioner at Helsingfors (tel.)
Account of Esthonian fear of recurrence of Bolshevik outrages and desperate, unbearable conditions which are driving Government to make peace with Bolsheviks.
711
Sept. 20 (3184) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Message from vice consul at Viborg (text printed) calling attention to danger that U. S. food sent Esthonia may reach Bolsheviks. Inquiry as to British attitude toward Esthonian-Bolshevik peace, and as to safeguards against U. S. relief reaching Bolsheviks.
712
Sept. 23 The Russian Delegation in Paris to the President of the Peace Conference
Urgent request for Associated Powers to intervene to prevent conclusion of peace between Esthonia and Bolsheviks.
712
[Page XCIV]Sept. 26 (435) From the Commissioner at Helsingfors (tel.)
Certainty of Esthonian-Latvian peace with Bolsheviks.
713
Sept. 29 (4436) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Aide-mémoire by Sazonov, Foreign Minister for Omsk and South Russian governments (text printed), making urgent plea for food supplies for Petrograd, should that city be taken. Comments.
714
Sept. 30 The Secretariat-General of the Paris Peace Conference to the Secretariat of the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Letter from President pro tem. of Esthonian delegation at Paris, dated September 29, to President of Peace Conference (text printed) giving information regarding negotiations with Bolsheviks, which will be carried on in common with other Baltic states; justification of action in view of desperate situation, and assurance that sentiments toward Allies remain same.
714
Oct. 2 (3319) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Reply to appeal of Omsk and South Russian governments for food supply for Petrograd, referring to Hoover’s supplies at Viborg and stating that no more funds are available, although the President will be requested to present plan to Congress.
721
Oct. 4 (442) From the Commissioner at Helsingfors (tel.)
Decision at Dorpat meeting that Lithuania, Latvia, and Esthonia will begin peace negotiations with Bolsheviks about October 25. Finland’s decision not yet reached.
721
Oct. 14 (115) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Beginning of offensive by Russian Northwestern Corps; the taking of Pskov and Yamburg.
722
Oct. 14 (6078) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Information for transmission to Paris and Scandinavian missions regarding mission of Gade to Baltic Provinces as special representative to observe conditions, not being accredited to any government.
722
Oct. 15 (6081) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Instructions to discuss informally Baltic situation and ascertain British views and policy. Transmittal of U. S. views.
722
Oct. 15 (3443) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Letter to Lithuanian National Committee (text printed) in line with U. S. policy of maximum autonomy and self-government for Baltic Provinces without commitment as to their independence and with sovereignty of Russia unimpaired. Russian Ambassador’s disapproval of British policy. Request for views.
(Instructions to repeat to London for information.)
723
Oct. 16 (116) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Attack by Russian Whites on Krasnaya Gorka fort under cover of fire from British Fleet; continued advance of Whites, Bolsheviks retreating.
724
[Page XCV]Oct. 16 (465) From the Commissioner at Helsingfors (tel.)
Report of capture of Gatchina by Northwestern Army and likelihood of fall of Petrograd in few days.
724
Oct. 16 (467) From the Commissioner at Helsingfors (tel.)
Reported capture of Petrograd and Kronstadt.
725
Oct. 17 To the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Instructions to proceed to Petrograd, if Petrograd falls, and report needs of population, etc.
725
Oct. 18 (119) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Report by Finnish General Staff that White forces have occupied Petrograd, and that White flag flies from Kronstadt.
725
Oct. 20 (122) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Report that Reds intend to defend Petrograd, fighting at Putiloffski works on outskirts of city, and holding Finnish border. Destruction of one railway, sole egress from city being toward Vologda.
725
Oct. 22 (125) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Untruth of statement that Kronstadt had been captured by Whites, statement having been made for political reasons. Soviet call for reenforcements to defend Petrograd and convention at Moscow to discuss plans for saving Soviet Government.
726
Oct. 22 (124) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Continued fighting on outskirts of Petrograd, Whites being unable to advance and Bolsheviks bringing up reenforcements.
726
Oct. 22 President Wilson to the United States Wheat Director and President of the United States Grain Corporation
Authorization to sell to Russian Embassy, on credit or otherwise, wheat flour for relief of civilian population of Petrograd and such adjoining regions as may be freed from Bolshevik control.
726
Oct. 23 (6116) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Kolchak’s refusal to follow British proposal that he recognize the independence of the Baltic Provinces, as a deterrent against the Bolshevik bargain to recognize their independence as peace price. Russian Ambassador’s suggestion that it be pointed out to the Baltic Governments that Allied support was predicated on resistance to Bolsheviki and would be withdrawn if they made peace. Department’s suggestion that representations be made to Great Britain, as United States had not supported Baltic Provinces.
(Instructions to repeat to American Mission for Polk’s information.)
727
Oct. 23 (3287) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Informal discussion on subject of independence of Baltic nationalities, Great Britain having refused de jure recognition to them on ground it was matter for Peace Conference or League of Nations. Consideration of recognition of Kolchak also.
728
[Page XCVI]Oct. 23 (4789) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Reported imminence of fall of Petrograd. Preparations for rushing food to starving citizens. Further plans to secure food from various other sources immediately, in view of early freezing of waterways and because of destruction of railways.
729
Oct. 24 (4159) From the Ambassador in Sweden (tel.)
Information that Yudenitch has requested no help from Finland, as he and Denikin are opposed to possible capture of Petrograd by Finnish troops.
731
Oct. 25 (127) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Proximity of Whites to Petrograd, still in control of Nikolaevsk railroad and attempting to isolate Petrograd by destroying bridges. Trotsky’s control in Petrograd.
732
Oct. 25 (4162) From the Ambassador in Sweden (tel.)
Status of peace negotiations between Baltic Provinces, Finland, and Soviet Russia. Dorpat conference of Baltic Provinces and Finland to decide on conditions upon acceptance of which by Bolsheviks negotiations might begin. Postponement of negotiations because of military activities on both sides.
732
Oct. 25 (3564) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Further preparations for relief of Petrograd in case city falls. Advisability of using South Russian grain as far as possible.
733
Oct. 28 (132) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Bolshevik preparations for offensive, with Red Army of 100,000 available for defending Petrograd. Bombardment of Kronstadt by British monitor.
733
Oct. 28 (243) From the Minister in Denmark (tel.)
Report from military attaché at Riga (text printed) giving summary of Prime Minister’s account of Latvia’s struggle against Germans and Bolsheviks, requesting aid of Associated Powers and specifying that Latvia’s future actions depend upon reply.
734
Oct. 29 (3315) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
British concurrence in U. S. views regarding recognition of independence of Baltic nationalities.
735
Nov. 3 (487) From the Commissioner at Helsingfors (tel.)
French and British pressure upon Finland to intervene in Russia. Finland’s reply that, in absence of guaranties by Entente or future Russian Government, it declines to assist in military deliverance of Petrograd.
735
Nov. 3 (489) From the Commissioner at Helsingfors (tel.)
Official report of retreat of Yudenitch from Gatchina and Luga and their occupation by Bolsheviks.
736
Nov. 4 (4211) From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Scheme of Baltic barons and German industrialists and private bankers to finance efforts of Von der Goltz and Bermondt to crush Soviet Government, gain ascendancy, and open Russian market to Germany. Latvia’s refusal of right of passage to German troops under Bermondt and his attack on Latvia. Yudenitch’s refusal to join Bermondt’s forces.
736
[Page XCVII]Nov. 5 (1722) To the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Finnish cooperation in attacks on Petrograd is matter for Finland alone to decide. Caution against other than noncommittal attitude.
(Instructions to repeat to Commissioner at Helsingfors.)
737
Nov. 11 (6171) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Bakhmeteff’s repetition of request that efforts be made to restrain Baltic Governments from making peace with Soviets; no change in U. S. attitude. Inquiry whether British Baltic policy is regarded as unsuccessful and whether there is again a disposition to negotiate with Soviets.
738
Nov. 13 (5156) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Gade on board U. S. S. Chattanooga: Summary of campaign against Petrograd and resulting disaster to Russian forces. British pessimism and preparations to withdraw naval forces when gulf freezes.
738
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 13] (5158) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Gade on board U. S. S. Chattanooga: Terms of armistice which Esthonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian delegates intend to present to Soviet Government. Note from delegates to America and Peace Conference (text printed) proposing neutral zone between Soviets and Baltic States to be controlled by power nominated by Peace Conference.
740
Nov. 18 (4236) From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Yudenitch’s appeal to British and French missions to exert pressure on Esthonia to the end that his army be permitted to retreat on Esthonian soil without disarming.
741
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 19] (5280) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Gade at Riga: Defeat of Bermondt by Latvians; their victory over Bolsheviks on eastern front. Latvia’s statement that peace with Bolsheviks will not be concluded if Allies disapprove; their inquiry as to U. S. attitude.
741
Nov. 19 (4240) From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.)
Report of satisfactory agreement between Yudenitch and Esthonia, and that troops are not to be interned.
742
Nov. 21 (5334) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Gade at Riga: Report that portion of Yudenitch’s troops have been disarmed in Esthonia; grave danger of such measures. Inquiry as to steps to be taken regarding probable refusal of entry into Esthonia to Bermondt’s Russians, wishing to join Northwestern Army.
742
Nov. 21 (3844) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Gade: Instructions to make no formal representations to Latvia regarding proposed peace with Bolsheviks; however, informal personal advice may be given against any compromise with them.
742
Nov. 22 (5361) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Gade at Riga: Message from Eberhardt, German commander, to Latvia (text printed) stating that Russian west army has placed itself under German protection and proposing cessation of hostilities. Stiffening of Bolshevik demands on Baltic Provinces.
743
[Page XCVIII]Nov. 25 (3882) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Gade: Unwisdom of interfering in any formal way with problem of Bermondt’s Russians; no objections, however, to unofficial advice given in line with U. S. policy.
743
Nov. 26 From the Commissioner at Riga (tel.)
Indecision of delegates at Dorpat, hoping for favorable action on part of Associated Governments. Agreement for joint Polish, Latvian, and Lithuanian offensive against Bolsheviks. Esthonia’s separate negotiations with Moscow. Bolshevik demand for free passage through Reval.
744
Nov. 27 (5437) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Message from Hoover’s Child Fund representative (text printed) calling attention to movement to disband remainder of Russian Army and turn over supplies to Esthonian command. Suggestion that steps be taken to protect these and Viborg stocks from being misappropriated.
744
Nov. 28 (154) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Bitter feeling among White Russians against British, their indifference toward French, and a turning to Americans as only friends. Proposal of official statement of friendliness to White cause, for without U. S. support they will be forced to accept assistance from Germany.
745
Nov. 29 (5467) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Gade at Riga: Responsibility of Yudenitch for provisioning of Northwestern Army; his indecision as to next step because of insufficiency of supplies.
746
Dec. 3 (5537) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Consideration by Council of Heads of Delegations at Paris of relations between Yudenitch and Esthonia and decision to take steps to bring about agreement between them.
746
Dec. 13 To the Commissioner at Riga (tel.)
Instructions informally to warn Esthonia that accession to Bolshevik proposal for free transit through Esthonia and use of Esthonian port would tend to nullify independence which Bolsheviks pretend to be willing to grant to Esthonia.
747
Dec. 13 (40) From the Consul at Reval (tel.)
From Gade: Esthonian reply to Paris stating Esthonia can not risk danger of not disarming Yudenitch’s army, unless Associated Powers are willing to recognize Esthonian independence and give considerable support.
747
Dec. 15 (165) From the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Request for instructions regarding Yudenitch’s appeal that Viborg stores, with exception of one week’s supply for Petrograd, be sent to Reval for his army and for refugees.
748
Dec. 15 To the Commissioner at Riga (tel.)
Instructions to cooperate with Imbrie and Miller in using Viborg and Reval stores for assisting Yudenitch’s army and refugees in Esthonia.
748
Dec. 19 To the Vice Consul at Viborg (tel.)
Instructions that Viborg stores should be sent to Reval for relief of Yudenitch’s army and refugees.
749
[Page XCIX]Dec. 31 To the Commissioner at Riga (tel.)
No objections to use of food supplies now at Reval for general and army relief; Miller to be so instructed.
749
1920 Jan. 1 (55) From the Commissioner at Riga (tel.)
Reported armistice between Esthonia and Bolsheviks to take effect January 3.
749

CHAPTER V

SOUTHERN RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE

Military and Political Situation in Southern Russia as Reported by American Observers

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Jan. 25 (461) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Information that Consul Jenkins, with Randolph, Doolittle, Lehrs, and Burri, is being sent to Odessa to open consulate.
750
Feb. 14 (730) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Departure of field party for Odessa to report on political, economic, and military conditions in Southern Russia. Personnel and instructions; Lt. Col. E. F. Riggs, chief of mission.
750
Mar. 1 (21) Admiral Bristol to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Riggs to Tyler: Report of arrival of field party at Constantinople; separation into three parties going direct to Odessa, Ekaterinodar, and Tiflis.
751
Mar. 15 The Chief of the Mission to Southern Russia to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Serious situation at Odessa; recommendations for Allied assistance in food supplies and for settlement of conflicting authorities, as French are backing Petlyura and British, Denikin. British opinion that weak Petlyura government is advance guard of Bolshevism.
751
Mar. 17 (1189) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Jenkins at Odessa: Report on various portions of South Russia as controlled by French, Greek, and Rumanian troops, by Volunteer Army of Denikin, by Petlyura, by Don Cossacks, and by Bolsheviks.
752
Mar. 26 (1329) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Jenkins at Odessa: Report on serious economic and financial situation, due mainly to speculation; information as to unsatisfactory military situation.
753
Mar. 28 (12) The Chief of the Mission to Southern Russia to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Churchill: Opinion that Russia cannot be occupied militarily by Allies and cannot be conquered by Cossacks or Siberians if peasants remain neutral. Suggestion that moral support of peasants be gained by Allied guaranty of land reforms in Russia; and that speculation be checked by Allied arrangements for supplies and their distribution.
755
[Page C]Apr. 2 (12) From the Consul at Odessa (tel.)
News of evacuation of Odessa. Arrangements for Americans to board British warship pending arrival of U. S. ship.
757
Apr. 11 (1560) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Jenkins at Odessa: Withdrawal of Allied forces to Bessarabia and control of Odessa by local Bolsheviks; general mismanagement and poor morale of insufficient French forces; closing of consulate and placing of U. S. interests in hands of Swiss vice consul.
757
Apr. 11 (171) Admiral Bristol to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Berry to Churchill: Report on situation along various fronts: French evacuation of Odessa on April 5 without warning, deserting Greek and Volunteer Forces; evacuation of Crimea by Volunteer Forces, in consequence of French action.
758
Apr. 21 (172) Admiral Bristol to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Riggs to Tyler: Arrival at Ekaterinodar via Sevastopol, Yalta, and Novorossiisk. Evacuation of remainder of party to Constantinople.
759
Undated [Rec’d Apr. 22] (1729) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Ravndal at Constantinople: Jenkins’ message (text printed) regarding evacuation from Crimea of former Russian Imperial family by British. Bolshevik occupation of practically all of Crimea and north coast of Azov including coal port of Donets Basin.
759
May 2 The Consul General at Constantinople to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Burri’s report (text printed) regarding situation in Kuban region, Denikin’s army being strengthened by British supplies; Denikin’s military plans and Bolshevik plans; complex political situation.
760
Undated [Rec’d May 3] (1939) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Ravndal at Constantinople: Jenkins’ message (text printed) containing declaration by Volunteer Army (text printed) of purpose to overthrow Bolshevik anarchy and restore law and order in Russia with universal suffrage, local self-government, land reforms, etc., under united Russia.
761
Undated [Rec’d May 7] (2026) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Ravndal at Constantinople: Jenkins’ message (text printed) reporting complete evacuation of Sevastopol, leaving Bolsheviks in control.
762
May 6 [7?] (2027) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Ravndal at Constantinople: Jenkins’ message (text printed) containing appeal for Red Cross assistance for Volunteer Army of North Caucasus.
762
June 7 (384) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Naval Station at Constantinople (tel.)
For Berry at Ekaterinodar: Inquiry regarding report of extermination at Novorossiisk of mutinous Russians repatriated from France; inquiries also regarding attitude of Volunteer Army and Kuban government toward Allied note to Kolchak.
762
[Page CI]June 23 (2735) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Return of Riggs to Paris, strongly recommending recognition of Kolchak. Reports of various sections of the field party.
763
Undated [Rec’d June 26] (2777) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Naval Station: Message from Ekaterinodar (text printed) containing Denikin’s declaration of fealty to Kolchak as Supreme Governor of Russia and commander in chief of Army (text printed).
764
June 27 (943) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
From Ravndal at Constantinople: Telegram from Burri at Ekaterinodar (text printed) stating Volunteer Army government requests monthly supply of flour for industrial workers of Don Basin, payment in raw materials.
764
June 28 (963) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
From Ravndal at Constantinople: Departure of Bolsheviks from Crimea. Growing confidence of Volunteer Army, supported by British tanks.
764
June 30 (971) Admiral Bristol to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Berry at Ekaterinodar: Denial that Russian repatriates from France mutinied at Novorossiisk or were exterminated. Account of mutiny of Russian detachment on French front. Attitude of South Russia toward Allies’ note to Kolchak and his acceptance of it.
765
July 12 The Secretariat-General of the Paris Peace Conference to the Secretariat of the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Note dated June 28 from delegations of Esthonia, Latvia, Lithuanian Poles, Georgia, Republic of North Caucasus, Azerbaidzhan and Poland at Paris (text printed) protesting intervention by Associated Governments in assisting Denikin as contrary to professed policy of right to self-determination of nations.
765
Aug. 20 (360) From the Commissioner at Constantinople (tel.)
Account of chaos and Red terror in Odessa as result of Bolshevik rule, and increasing opposition of peasants in neighboring villages to Bolshevik regime.
768
Aug. 20 (2886) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Request to be informed whether officers of U. S. military mission are operating with Denikin or elsewhere in South Russia; desire to know conditions they report.
769
Aug. 30 (3955) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Information that U. S. officers were part of field party sent out by Commission to observe conditions in South Russia, and that reports were of technical military nature.
769
Sept. 1 (6) From the High Commissioner at Constantinople (tel.)
From Ravndal: Capture of Odessa and Kiev from Bolsheviks; bitterness in Denikin circles because United States lends no aid; recommendation of appointment of U. S. economic commission for South Russia and exchange of goods for raw material.
770
[Page CII]Sept. 18 (4266) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Denikin’s message to President Wilson (text printed) deploring withdrawal of South Russian field mission and requesting U. S. moral and material assistance in fight against Bolshevism.
771
Oct. 10 (4609) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Summary of telegram from Denikin dated September 26 (text printed) reporting the arrest and execution by the Bolsheviks of large numbers of persons in consequence of Denikin’s advance north; and requesting Allies to take measures to prevent wholesale massacre.
772
Oct. 13 (229) To the Commissioner at Constantinople (tel.)
For Burri: Instructions to proceed to certain points in South Russia to report on political and economic conditions.
773
Oct. 20 (1805) To the Minister in Denmark (tel.)
Instructions to inform Government of Denikin’s telegram concerning Bolshevik arrests and executions and to request Government to appeal to Bolsheviks through Danish Red Cross, or otherwise, with the hope of preventing additional acts of terror and barbarity. Information that Denikin has also been cautioned to prevent similar acts of barbarity by his followers.
773
Undated [Rec’d Oct. 26] (4835) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Ravndal at Constantinople: Progress of Volunteer Army, which is attracting widespread attention. Denikin’s purpose to reconstitute Black Sea Fleet and undertake naval program. Advocacy of U. S. acceptance of mandate for Transcaucasia.
774
Nov. 12 To the Secretary of War
Recommendation that shipments of surplus materials to South Russia be encouraged because of great need and because their exchange for raw products will assist rehabilitation of Russia.
775
Nov. 20 (265) From the Minister in Denmark (tel.)
Danish transmission of Bolshevik note (text printed) refusing to reply to question contained in appeal of Danish Red Cross, as beneath dignity, and calling attention to acts of ferocity committed by followers of Denikin, Kolchak, etc.
775
Nov. 24 From the Secretary of War
Desire to cooperate in furnishing surplus stocks to inhabitants of Russia, as requested; information that contracts on favorable credit terms have already been made with cooperative societies and sales being made through Russian Embassy.
776
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 12] (1742) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
From Bristol at Constantinople: Recommendation that U. S. consul be sent to Odessa to assist in establishing regular trade. Report of sufficient food, but lack of clothing and manufactured articles.
776
Dec. 11 (108) From the High Commissioner at Constantinople (tel.)
Precarious position of Denikin. Bolshevik drive against Kharkov and peasant menace in rear. Denikin’s chance to recover dependent upon military assistance from Poles; his refusal to promise them eastern Galicia as reward for such assistance.
777
[Page CIII]

Remonstrance by the Department of State Against Credit Sales to the Ukraine of Surplus American Stocks in France

Date and number Subject Page
1919 June 11 (2515) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Report of Major Martin, U. S. A., on political and economic conditions in Galician Ukraine, expressing opinion that government under Petlyura is competent and effective and that sections of Ukraine under Petlyura and Holubowitz are non-Bolshevik. Opinion that this report should be accepted with considerable reserve.
778
Oct. 8 (3370) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Red Cross cablegram from Paris (text printed) announcing the sending of Red Cross mission to Ukraine to investigate conditions, and commenting on purchase of U. S. Army supplies by Ukrainian mission in Paris for Petlyura government. Inquiry as to what is Ukrainian mission and whether Red Cross mission has Polk’s approval.
778
Oct. 17 (4700) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: No objections to Red Cross mission to Ukrain, whose report will be useful. Unrecognized status of Ukrainian mission to Paris. Opinion that sale of U. S. Army supplies to Ukrainian mission without asking views of Department was extraordinary action.
779
Oct. 21 (3512) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Polk: Inquiry as to details of supposed transaction between Ukrainian mission and U. S. military authorities. Request for Red Cross report on condition of Jews in Ukraine and practicability of relief.
780
Oct. 26 (4828) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Details of Liquidation Commission sale of U. S. surplus supplies to Ukrainian Republic; amount delivered; cancellation of delivery of motor equipment, due to French objection. Comment that Peace Commission was not consulted on transaction.
780
[Oct. 26] (4829) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Summary of Jadwin’s report (text printed) relating Petlyura’s loss of area, his relations with Germans, and declaration of war on Denikin; expansion of Denikin’s area, replusion of Bolsheviks at Kiev and Kursk, welcome extended him after reign of Red terror, and steps taken by him to protect Jews.
781
Oct. 29 (3595) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Inquiry whether Ukrainian Republic paid cash for U. S. surplus supplies, and, if not, what terms and securities were offered.
783
Oct. 29 (3596) To the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
U. S. general policy in respect to Ukraine, believing separatist movement to be result of Austrian and German propaganda, and favoring local autonomy under modern democratic government in Russia. Request for Jadwin’s opinion of above views and of role Petlyura is playing.
783
[Page CIV]Nov. 17 From the Secretary-General of the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Letter from chairman of Liquidation Commission dated November 12 (text printed) explaining details of sale of U. S. surplus supplies to Ukrainian Republic, action having been taken under suggestion of President Wilson in letter of March 24 (text printed), urgent representations by Hoover, and commission’s own judgment after careful investigation.
78
Dec. 5 (5558) From the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
From Polk: Report that bulk of U. S. surplus supplies sold to Ukrainian Republic is still stored in France; possibility that Ukrainians may liquidate such supplies and use funds for other purposes. Possible courses of action in order to prevent misuse of the supplies in view of the collapse of Petlyura movement and its anti-Polish and anti-Denikin trend.
78
Dec. 23 (9404) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Expression of regret over sale of U. S. supplies to Ukrainians and undesirability of their obtaining funds in France through sale of these supplies; suggestion that medical material be distributed in Russia by Red Cross; inquiry concerning method to prevent Ukrainian use of other supplies.
78
1920 Jan. 20 (196) From the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Summary of note from Ukrainian mission protesting the annulment of the contract for sale of U. S. surplus supplies to Ukrainian Republic, on assumption that the de facto government no longer existed. Request for advice as to reply.
78
Jan. 28 (207) To the Ambassador in France (tel.)
Instructions to inform Ukrainian mission informally that matter rests in hands of Liquidation Commission and that Department can take no action.
79
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