Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Volume VI
Paris Peace Conf. 180.03401/71
Notes of a Meeting Held at President Wilson’s House in the Place des Etats-Unis, Paris, on Monday, June 16, 1919, at 12:30 p.m.
- United States of America
- President Wilson.
- British Empire
- The Rt. Hon. D. Lloyd George, M. P.
- Lt. Col. Sir M. P. A. Hankey, K. C. B.
- M. Clemenceau.
- M. Sonnino.
- H. E. Baron Makino.
- United States of America
- Also Present
- United States of America
- General Tasker H. Bliss.
- British Empire
- Major-General Hon. Sir C. J. Sackville-West, K. B. E., C. M. G.
- General Belin.
- Major Lacombe.
- Colonel Toni.
- Joint Secretariat
- British Empire—Major A. M. Caccia.
- France—M. Fould
- Interpreter—Prof. P. J. Mantoux
- United States of America
1. (The Council agreed to accept the Military Clauses as amended by the Military Representatives. Appendix I.) Conditions of Peace With Austia: (a) Revised Millitary Clauses
(The Council agreed to accept the Clauses relating to the Inter-Allied Commissions of Control. Appendix II.) (b) Inter-Allied Commissions of Control
(The Council agreed to accept the Military, Naval and Aerial Clauses (General Clauses) as amended at the meeting held on May 15th, 1919, (C. F. 15.)1 (For full text of General Clauses see Appendix III.)) (c) General Clauses
2. (The Council accepted Joint Note No. 44 to the Supreme War Council by its Military Representatives, on the subject of the Military Measures to be taken in Bulgaria. Appendix IV.) Military Measures To Be Taken in Bulgaraia
Villa Majestic, Paris, 16 June 1919.[Page 488]
Appendix I to CF–71
conditions of peace (austria)
Revised Military Clauses
Chapter I. General
Within three months of the coming into force of the terms of peace, the military forces of Austria shall be demobilised to the extent prescribed hereinafter.
Universal compulsory military service shall be abolished in Austria. The Army of Austria will in future only be constituted and recruited by means of voluntary enlistment.
Chapter II. Effectives and Cadres of the Army of Austria
The total number of military forces in the Austrian Army shall never exceed 30,000 men, including officers and depot troops.
The formations composing the Austrian army shall be fixed in accordance with the wishes of Austria, subject to the following reservations:
- The effectives of units shall be compulsorily fixed between the maximum and minimum figures shown in Table 4 attached.
- The proportion of officers, including personnel, staffs, and special services, shall not exceed one twentieth of the total effectives with the colours, and that of N. C. O.’s shall not exceed one fifteenth of the total effectives with the colours.
- The number of machine guns, guns, and howitzers shall not exceed those fixed in Table 5 attached per thousand men of the total effectives with the colours.
The Army of Austria shall be devoted exclusively to the maintenance of order within the territory of Austria, and to the control of her frontiers.
The maximum strengths of the Staffs and of all formations which Austria may be permitted to raise are given in the Tables annexed hereto; these figures need not be exactly followed, but must never be exceeded.
All other organisations for the command of troops, or for preparation for war are forbidden.
All measures of mobilisation, or appertaining to mobilisation, are forbidden.[Page 489]
In no case must formations, administrative services or staffs include supplementary cadres.
It is forbidden to carry out any preparatory measures, with a view to requisitioning animals or other means of military transport.
The number of gendarmes, customs officials, foresters, constables of local or municipal police, etc., may not exceed the number of men employed in a similar capacity in 1913 and existing within the boundaries as fixed by the present Treaty.
The number of these officials shall not be increased in the future except in such numbers as may be necessary to maintain the same proportion between the number of officials and the total of the population in the localities, or municipalities which employ them.
These officials, as well as officials employed in the railway service, must never be assembled for the purpose of taking part in any military exercises.
All formation of troops not included in the Tables attached is forbidden, and such other formations as may exist in excess of the 30,000 effectives authorised shall be suppressed within the period laid down by Article 1 of these terms.
Chapter III. Recruiting and Military Training
All officers must be regulars (officiers de carrière). The officers now serving, who are retained in the Army, must undertake the obligation to serve in it up to the age of 40 years at least. Officers now serving who do not join the new army will be released from all military obligations; they must not take part in any military exercises, whether theoretical or practical.
Officers newly appointed must undertake to serve on the active service list for 20 consecutive years at least.
The number of officers discharged for any reason before the expiration of their term of service must not exceed in any year l/20th of the total effectives of officers provided for in the 3rd paragraph of Article III. If this proportion is unavoidably exceeded the resulting shortage must not be made good by fresh appointments.
The period of enlistment for non-commissioned officers and privates must be for a total period of not less than 12 consecutive years, including at least 6 years with the colours.[Page 490]
The proportion of men discharged before the expiration of the period of their enlistment, for reasons of health or as a result of disciplinary measures, or for any other reason, must not in any year exceed l/20th of the total effectives, fixed by Article 3 of these terms. If this proportion is unavoidably exceeded, the resulting shortage must not be made good by fresh enlistments.
Chapter IV. Schools, Educational Establishments, Military Societies, Etc.
The number of students admitted to attend the courses of military schools will be strictly in proportion to the vacancies to be filled in the cadres of officers. The students and the cadres will be reckoned in the effectives fixed by Article 3 of the present Treaty.
Consequently during the period above fixed, all other schools in Austria will be abolished.
Educational establishments, other than those referred to in Article 10 above as well as all sporting and other clubs, must not occupy themselves with any military matters.
Chapter V. Armament, Munitions and Material, Fortifications
On the expiration of three months from the coming into force of the present terms, the armament of the Army of Austria shall not exceed the figures fixed per thousand men in Table 5 attached. Any excess in relation to effectives shall only be used for such replacements as may eventually be necessary.
The stock of munitions at the disposal of the Austria [n] Army shall never exceed the amounts fixed in Table 5 attached.
Within three months from the coming into force of the present conditions the Government of Austria shall deposit any existing surplus of armament and munitions in such places as shall be notified to it by the principal Allied and Associated Powers.
No other stock, depot, or reserve of munitions shall be formed.
The number and calibre of guns constituting the fixed normal armament of fortified places existing at the present moment in Austria shall be immediately notified to the principal Allied and Associated Powers, and will constitute maximum amounts which may never be exceeded.[Page 491]
Within three months of the coming into force of the present terms the maximum stock of ammunition for these guns will be reduced to and maintained at the following uniform rates:—
- 1500 rounds per gun for those, the calibre of which is 105 mm. and under.
- 500 rounds per gun for those of higher calibre.
The manufacture of arms, munitions and of war material shall only be carried on in one single factory, which shall be controlled by and belong to the State, and whose output shall be strictly limited to the manufacture of such arms, munitions and war material as is necessary for the military forces and armaments referred to in Articles 3, 6, 12, 13, and 14 above.
In three months from the coming into force of the present terms, all other establishments for the manufacture, preparation, storage, or design of arms, munitions, or any other war material, shall be abolished or converted to purely commercial uses.
Within the same length of time, all arsenals shall also be suppressed except those to be used as depots for the authorised stocks of munitions, and their staffs discharged.
The plant of any establishments or arsenals, existing in excess of the needs of the authorised manufactures, shall be rendered useless or converted to purely commercial uses, in accordance with the decisions of the Inter-Allied Commission of Control.
Within three months from the coming into force of the present Conditions, all arms, munitions and war material, including any kind of anti-aircraft material, of whatever origin existing in Austria, in excess of the authorised quantity, shall be handed over to the principal Allied and Associated Powers.*
This will also apply to special plant designed for the manufacture of military material with the exception of that which shall be considered necessary for authorised manufactures.
This delivery shall take place at such points in Austrian territory as may be appointed by the said Powers, who shall also decide on the disposal of such material.
The importation into Austria of arms, munitions and war material of all kinds is formally forbidden.[Page 492]
The manufacture for foreign countries and the exportation of arms, munitions and war material, shall also be forbidden.
The use of flame throwers, asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and all similar liquids, materials or processes being prohibited, their manufacture and importation are strictly forbidden in Austria.
Material specially intended for the manufacture, storage, or use of the said products or processes is equally forbidden.
The manufacture and importation into Austria of armoured cars, tanks, or any similar machines suitable for use in war, are equally forbidden.[Page 493]
Composition and Maximum Effectives of an Infantry Division
|Units||Maximum effectives of each Unit||Remarks|
|Headquarters of an Infantry Division.||25||70||(a) Each Regiment comprises 3 Battalions of Infantry, each Battalion comprises 3 Companies of Infantry and 1 Machine Gun Company.|
|Headquarters of Divisional Infantry.||5||50|
|Headquarters of Divisional Artillery.||4||30|
|3 Regiments of Infantry (a) (on the basis of 65 Officers and 2,000 men per Regiment).||195||6,000||(b) Each Battalion comprises 1 Headquarters, 2 Pioneer Companies, 1 Bridging Section, 1 Searchlight section.|
|1 Battalion of Trench Artillery (3 Companies).||14||500||(c) Each Regiment comprises 1 Headquarters, 3 Groups of Field or Mountain Artillery, comprising 8 batteries, each Battery comprising 4 guns or howitzers (field or mountain).|
|1 Battalion Pioneers (b) (3 Companies).||14||500|
|Regiment Field Artillery (c)||80||1,200|
|1 Battalion Cyclists (comprising 3 Companies).||18||450||(d) This detachment comprises: Telephone detachment|
|1 Signal Detachment (d)||11||330||1 Listening section|
|Divisional Medical Corps||28||550||1 carrier pigeon Section.|
|Divisional Parks and Trains||14||940|
|Total for an Infantry Division||414||10,780|
Composition and Maximum Effectives for a Cavalry Division
|Units||Maximum number authorised||Maximum effectives of each Unit||Remarks|
|Headquarters of a Cavalry Division.||1||15||50||(a) Each Regiment comprises 4 Squadrons.|
|Regt. of Cavalry (a)||6||30||720||(b) Each group comprises 9 fighting cars, each carrying one gun, 1 machine gun and 1 spare machine gun, 4 communication cars. 2 small lorries for stores, 7 lorries, including 1 repair lorry, 4 motor cars.|
|Group of Field Artillery (3 Batteries).||1||30||430|
|Group of motor machine gun and armoured cars (b)||1||4||80|
|Total for a Cavalry Division||259||5,380|
Note:—The large Cavalry Units may include a variable number of regiments and be divided into independent brigades within the limit of the effectives laid down above.[Page 494]
Composition and Maximum Effectives for a Mixed Brigade
|Units||Maximum effectives of each unit||Remarks|
|Headquarters of a Brigade||10||50||(a) Each Regiment comprises 3 Battalions of Infantry, each Battalion comprises 3 Companies of Infantry and 1 Machine gun Company.|
|2 Regiments of Infantry (a)||130||4,000|
|1 Cyclist Battalion||18||450|
|1 Cavalry Squadron||5||100|
|1 Group Field Artillery||20||400|
|1 Trench Mortar Company||5||150|
|Total for Mixed Brigade||198||5,350|
Minimum Effectives of Units Whatever Organisation is Adopted in the Army (Divisions, Mixed Brigades, etc.)
|Maximum effectives (for reference)||Units||Minimum effectives||Remarks|
|65||2,000||Regiment of Infantry||52||1,600|
|16||650||Battalion of Infantry||12||500|
|3||160||Company of Infantry of Machine-guns.||2||120|
|30||720||Regiment of Cavalry||20||450|
|6||160||Squadron of Cavalry||3||100|
|80||1,200||Regiment of Field Artillery.||60||1,000|
|4||150||Battery, Field Artillery||2||120|
|3||150||Company of Trench Mortars.||2||100|
|14||500||Battalion of Pioneers||8||300|
|5||320||Battery of Mountain Artillery.||3||200|
Maximum Authorised Armament and Munitions Supplies
|Material||Quantity for 1,000 men||Amount of munitions per arm (rifles, guns, etc.)||Remarks|
|Rifles or Carbines||1,150||500 rounds||Automatic rifles or carbines are counted as light machine guns.|
|Machine guns, heavy or light||15||10,000 rounds|
|Trench Mortars, light||1,000 rounds|
|Trench Mortars, medium||2||500 rounds|
|Guns or howitzers, (field or mountain).||3||1,000 rounds|
Note:—No heavy gun, i. e. of a calibre greater than 105 mm. is authorised, with the exception of the normal armament of fortified places.
Appendix II to CF–71
Inter-Allied Commissions of Control
All the Military, Naval and Air Clauses contained in the present Treaty, for the execution of which a time limit is prescribed, shall be executed by the State of Austria under the control of Inter-Allied Commissions (Military, Naval, Air) specially appointed for this purpose by the principal Allied and Associated Powers.
The above-mentioned Commissions will represent the Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers in dealing with the Government of the State of Austria in air matters concerning the execution of the Military, Naval or Air Clauses. They will communicate to the authorities of the State of Austria the decisions which the Principal Allied and Associated Powers have reserved the right to take or which the execution of the Clauses may necessitate.
The Inter-Allied Commissions of Control may establish their organisations at Vienna and shall be entitled, as often as they think desirable, to proceed to any point whatever in the territory of the State of Austria, or to send a sub-commission or to authorise one or more of their members to go to any such point.
The Government of the State of Austria must furnish to the Inter-Allied Commissions of Control all such information and documents as the latter may deem necessary to ensure the execution of their mission; and all means (both in personnel and in matériel) which [Page 496] the above mentioned Commissions might need to ensure the complete execution of the Military, Naval or Air Clauses.
The Government of the State of Austria must attach a qualified representative to each Inter-Allied Commission of Control with the duty of receiving from the latter any communications which it may have to address to the Government of the State of Austria and to furnish it with, or to procure, all information or documents demanded.
The upkeep and cost of the Commissions of Control and the expenses involved by their work shall be borne by the State of Austria.
It will be the special duty of the Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control to receive from the Government of the State of Austria the notifications relating to the location of the stocks and depots of munitions, the armament of the fortified works, fortresses and forts, and the location of the works or factories for the production of arms, munitions and war materiel and their operations.
It will take delivery of the arms, munitions, war material and plant intended for war construction, will select the points where such delivery is to be effected and will supervise the works of destruction, and rendering things useless, or of transformation of material, which are to be carried out in accordance with the present Treaty.
It will be the special duty of the Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control to proceed to the building yards and to supervise the breaking-up of the ships which are under construction there, to take delivery of arms, munitions and naval war material, and to supervise the destruction and breaking-up provided for.
The Government of the State of Austria must furnish to the Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control all such information and documents as the Commission may deem necessary to ensure the complete execution of the naval clauses, in particular the designs of the warships, the composition of their armaments, the details and models of the guns, munitions, torpedoes, mines, explosives, wireless telegraphic apparatus, and in general everything relating to naval war material, as well as all legislative or administrative documents or regulations.
It will be the special duty of the Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commission of Control to make an inventory of the Aeronautical material which is actually in the possession of the Government of the State of Austria, to inspect aeroplane, balloon and motor manufactories, [Page 497] and factories producing arms, munitions and explosives capable of being used by aircraft, to visit all aerodromes, sheds, landing grounds, parks and depots which are now in Austrian territory and to authorise where necessary a removal of material and to take delivery of such material.
The Government of the State of Austria must furnish to the Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commission of Control all such information and legislative, administrative or other documents which the Commission may consider necessary to ensure the complete execution of the Air Clauses and in particular a list of the personnel belonging to all the air services of the State of Austria and of the existing material; as well as of that in process of manufacture or on order; and a list of all establishments working for aviation, of their positions, and of all sheds and landing grounds.
Appendix III to CF–71
After the expiration of a period of three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty the laws of the State of Austria must have been modified and shall be maintained by the Government of the State of Austria in conformity with the first part of the present Treaty.
Within the same period all the administrative or other measures relating to the execution of this part of the Treaty must have been taken.
The following portions of the Armistice of 3rd November, 1918, (Villa Giusti):—
- Paragraphs 2, 3, 4 of Chapter 1 (Military Clauses),
- Paragraphs 2, 3, 6 of Chapter 1 of the annexed Protocol, (Military Clauses),
remain in force so far as they are not inconsistent with the above stipulations.
The State of Austria undertakes from the coming into force of the present Treaty not to accredit to any foreign country any Military, Naval or Air Mission and not to send, or allow to leave, any such Mission; it undertakes, moreover, to take the necessary measures [Page 498] to prevent nationals of the State of Austria leaving its territory in order to enlist in the Army, the Fleet, or the Air Service of any foreign power, or to be attached to such with a view to helping in its training, or generally to give any assistance to the Military, Naval, or Air instruction in a foreign country.
The Allied and Associated Powers undertake, on their part, that from the coming into force of the present Treaty they will neither enlist in nor attach to their Armies, Fleets or Air Forces any national of the State of Austria with the object of helping in military training or in general employ any national of the State of Austria as a military, naval, or air instructor.
The present provision, however, in no way hinders the right of France to recruit her Foreign Legion in accordance with French Military laws and regulations.
So long as the present Treaty shall remain in force the State of Austria undertakes to respond to any enquiry that the League of Nations by a majority vote may consider necessary.
Appendix IV to CF–71
Joint Note to the Supreme War Council by Its Military Representatives
Joint Note No. 44.
Subject:—Military Measures to be taken in Bulgaria.
To:—The Supreme War Council.
From the latest information received regarding the political situation in Bulgaria it appears that there is general unrest throughout the country arising mainly from the following causes:—
General distress due to the increased cost of living and to the impossibility of establishing commercial relations with neighbouring countries.
The fear of hostile decisions of the Peace Conference arrived at in order to comply with Serbian. Greek and Roumanian claims.
The Military Representatives of the Supreme War Council[Page 499]
- That it is possible that this unrest might, as soon as the conditions of peace are notified to Bulgaria, be changed into disturbances, which might hinder and even prevent for a long time the carrying out of the said conditions.
- That nevertheless it is absolutely necessary to ensure in every case the maintenance of order and the carrying out of the decisions of the Peace Conference.
- That as such decisions will be taken jointly by the Great Powers it is desirable that such steps as may be taken for carrying them out should also be of an Inter-Allied nature.
- That, on the other hand, in order to prevent any premature agitation it seems necessary to authorise no military intervention by the neighbouring Powers directly interested (Greece, Serbia and Roumania).
Are of Opinion:
- That it is desirable to establish in Bulgaria Allied
Military forces including:—
- French forces. (2 French divisions).
- An Italian detachment representing the Italian Army.
- A British detachment representing the British Army.
- That the Greek forces from Macedonia might form a reserve ready to be brought in at the invitation of the Allied Governments if events should take a serious turn.
- That the General Commanding-in-Chief, the Allied Armies in the East, who is responsible for the measures eventually to be taken in Bulgaria for the maintenance of order and the carrying out in that country of the decision of the Peace Conference, should have entire control of the forces constituting this Army of Occupation which would be under his orders.
The Military Representatives think it their duty respectfully to draw the attention of the Supreme War Council to the urgency of the decision to be taken owing to the inevitable delay in carrying out such steps as would result from this decision (2 months from the notification of the decision according to information furnished by the General Commanding-in-Chief the Allied Armies in the East).
The American Military Representative ties submitted the following reservation:—
“This is not a matter in which the United States is concerned.
No objection is offered to what the interested Allied nations agree to with the reservation that The Government of the United States [Page 500] of America is not committed to any participation in the Bulgarian matter by the contribution of men, money or supplies”.
Supreme War Council.
Supreme War Council.
Supreme War Council.
Supreme War Council.
Certified to be a true copy of the original document.
Secretary, British Section, Supreme War Council.