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List of papers

[Page VII]

[Unless otherwise specified, the correspondence is from or to the Secretary of State or other official of the Department of State.]

THE WORLD WAR:
PERIOD OF AMERICAN NEUTRALITY

Efforts at Neutralization of the Far East

Date and number Subject Page
1914 Aug. 3 From the Chinese Legation
Proposal for a suspension of hostilities in the Far East.
1
Aug. 7 Memorandum by the Counselor for the Department of State Observations on a course to be pursued to preserve the status quo in China. 1
Aug. 14 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Recommendation that no immediate action be taken regarding the situation in China.
3
Aug. 16 Memorandum by the Counselor for the Department of State
Interview with the Chancellor of the German Embassy regarding the forwarding of communications between the German Foreign Office and the German Ambassador at Tokyo by the Department of State.
4
Aug. 17 From President Wilson
Comments on the rapid development of events in the Far East.
5

Peace Proposals

[Page VIII]
Date and number Subject Page
1914 Aug. 21 From President Wilson
Transmits telegram from Niagara Section of the New York Peace Society (text printed) proposing the raising of a million-dollar fund for the purpose of investigating the causes of the European War.
6
Aug. 28 To President Wilson
Transmits Russian reply (text printed) to President Wilson’s offer of mediation. Comments on replies received from other European governments.
7
Sept. 5 To President Wilson
Opinion that the investigation of the causes of the European War by a commission of inquiry is impracticable at the time.
7
Sept. 17 From President Wilson
Refers to an interview with the Secretary of State concerning a despatch from the German Chancellor regarding proposals of peace.
8
Sept. 18 To President Wilson
Opinion that the despatch needs no reply at present.
9
Oct. 7 To President Wilson
Reports suggestions of mediation by Latin American nations in the European War.
9
1914 Dec. 1 To President Wilson
Suggestions for a further effort at mediation by the United States.
10
1915 Apr. 19 To President Wilson
Suggests that the United States should propose a conference at which terms of peace would be discussed.
11
Apr. 26 To President Wilson
Reports the receipt of a communication from the Japanese Ambassador regarding prospects for peace.
12
Apr. 27 From President Wilson
Opinion that prospects for peace are not favorable.
13
Aug. 18 To President Wilson
Discussion of prospects for peace.
13
1916 May 3 To President Wilson
Transmits a message from the Ambassador in Germany to the effect that Germany would welcome mediation.
15
May 15 From President Wilson
Transmits a communication from the Pope (text printed) regarding American negotiations with Germany on submarine warfare.
15
May 15 To President Wilson
Transmits a suggested reply to the Pope (text printed).
15
May 25 To President Wilson
Discusses the ideas of the League to Enforce Peace.
16
1917 Undated [Rec’d Feb. 7] Memorandum by President Wilson
Four bases of peace.
19
Feb. 7 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Notes on President Wilson’s four bases of peace.
20
Feb. 9 From President Wilson
Transmits a memorandum on the four bases of peace, with a suggestion for a reply to the Swiss Federal Council on the subject (texts printed).
22
Mar. 17 To President Wilson
Comments on the attitude of the Austro-Hungarian Government toward peace negotiations.
24

Recruiting of American Citizens

[Page IX]
Date and number Subject Page
1914 Aug. 22 Memorandum by the Counselor for the Department of State
Interview with the Secretary of the Germany Embassy regarding the reported recruiting in Paris of a body of American “Rough Riders”.
26
1914 Aug. 27 From President Wilson
Mr. Lansing’s attitude approved.
27
Sept. 29 From the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives
Transmits text of House Concurrent Resolution 48.
27
Sept. 30 From Mr. J. P. Tumulty
The resolution disapproved by President Wilson.
28

Attitude of the United States Toward Methods of Warfare Employed by Belligerents

[Page X]
Date and number Subject Page
1914 Aug. 28 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Discussion of the advisability of protesting the German bombardment of Antwerp.
29
Sept. 3 To President Wilson
Discussion of the bombardment of Antwerp.
32
Sept. 4 From President Wilson
Opinion that the United States should be slow to make formal protests.
33
Undated Memorandum by the Counselor for the Department of State
Discussion with Mr. Adee of the procedure to be followed in the reception of a Belgian delegation by President Wilson.
33
Sept. 8 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Further discussion of procedure in receiving Belgian delegation.
34
Oct. 19 (445) To the Ambassador in Germany (tel.)
Transmits a message from President Wilson to the Ambassador in Germany (text printed) regarding American attitude toward bombing of cities.
35
Nov. 23 To President Wilson
Discussion of reasons for failure to protest against alleged violations of The Hague Conventions by belligerents.
35
Nov. 26 From President Wilson
Approves Mr. Lansing’s comments upon our obligations under The Hague Conventions.
37
1915 Feb. 18 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Proposal for identical protests against the use of mines on the high seas.
37
June 15 To President Wilson
Reports an interview with the British Ambassador regarding the American attitude toward Zeppelin attacks on London.
38
June 17 From President Wilson
Comments on the British Ambassador’s views as expressed in the previous.
38
Aug. 30 To President Wilson
Comments on the attack on the Nicosian.
39
1916 Nov. 15 To President Wilson
Reports an interview with the Belgian Minister regarding deportation of Belgian subjects to Germany.
39
Nov. 15 To President Wilson
Discussion of the American attitude toward deportation of Belgian subjects.
40
Nov. 21 To President Wilson
Suggestion that moral pressure be brought upon Germany to abandon policy of deportation of Belgian subjects.
42
Nov. 27 From President Wilson
Encloses telegram (text printed) from a group of citizens requesting available information about Belgian deportations.
45
Dec. 1 To President Wilson
Opinion that request should not be complied with.
45
Dec. 3 From President Wilson
Requests that Secretary Lansing answer the telegram forwarded in his letter of November 27 regarding Belgian deportations.
46
Dec. 7 To President Wilson
Transmits telegram from the Chargé in Germany regarding representations made on the subject of Belgian deportations.
46
Dec. 8 From President Wilson
Opinion that protests which are not likely to be followed by action are of little avail.
47

Action by the American Legation in Belgium on Behalf of Miss Edith Cavell

[Page XI]
Date and number Subject Page
1915 Oct. 19 (186) From the Minister in Belgium
Transmits correspondence (texts printed) with the Ambassador at London and the German General Government in Belgium regarding action by the American Legation in Belgium on behalf of Miss Edith Cavell.
48
Oct. 30 (416) From the Minister in Belgium (tel.)
Reports views of Baron von der Lancken, Chief of the Political Department of the German General Government in Belgium, on the subject of the publication of the Cavell correspondence and the German attitude toward Maître de Leval, Legal Adviser of the American Legation at Brussels.
62
Oct. 29 From the Minister in Belgium (tel.)
Reports statement agreed upon between himself and Baron von der Lancken regarding publication of the Cavell correspondence and the version of that statement published by the German authorities.
65
1915 Nov. 2 (185) To the Minister in Belgium (tel.)
Instructions to inform Baron von Bissing that the American Government would not wish to retain in the Legation anyone who was persona non grata to the German authorities.
65
Nov. 19 (205) From the Chargé in Belgium
Transmits text of German news poster regarding publication of the Cavell correspondence.
66

Conduct of Foreign Diplomats in the United States

[Page XII][Page XIII]
Date and number Subject Page
1914 Sept. 12 From the Turkish Ambassador
Acknowledges his statement as published in the Washington Evening Star (text printed) to be a faithful reproduction of language used by him.
68
Sept. 14 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Opinion that the usefulness of the Turkish Ambassador at Washington has ended.
71
Sept. 16 To the Counselor for the Department of State
Opinion that the Turkish Ambassador’s published interview cannot be overlooked, but that the American Government, recognizing the tension caused by the situation in Europe, might permit him to remain should he offer an expression of regret.
72
Sept. 17 From President Wilson
Suggests a conference regarding the attitude of the Turkish Ambassador.
72
Sept. 19 To the Turkish Ambassador
Information that the Ambassador’s note of September 12 is regarded by the President as unsatisfactory but that the President is disposed to pass over the incident should the Ambassador offer an expression of regret.
73
Sept. 20 From the Turkish Ambassador
Requests that the President be informed that the Turkish Ambassador is not able to accept his point of view and that the Ambassador is departing for Constantinople on leave of absence.
74
Sept. 22 To President Wilson
Transmits a draft telegram (text printed) to the Ambassador in Turkey stating the facts in the Rustem Bey incident.
74
Sept. 25 To President Wilson
Transmits the text of a newspaper interview alleged to have been given by Baron von Schoen of the German Embassy.
75
Sept. 26 From President Wilson
Returns the text of the alleged interview with Baron von Schoen and suggests that the matter be taken up with the German Ambassador.
77
1914 Sept. 28 To the German Ambassador
States that the President is much annoyed over the von Schoen interview and suggests that the Ambassador call at the Department to discuss the matter.
77
Sept. 30 To President Wilson
Transmits a letter from the German Ambassador (text printed) reporting that Baron von Schoen denied making the statements in the alleged interview.
78
Oct. 1 From President Wilson
Opinion that the matter of the von Schoen interview should not be dropped.
79
1915 Sept. 2 To President Wilson
Comments on the conduct of the Austrian Ambassador in the employment of the American citizen, Archibald, as a messenger.
79
Sept. 3 From President Wilson
Takes a serious view of the activities of the German and Austro-Hungarian Ambassadors.
80
Sept. 7 To President Wilson
Reports an interview with the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador on the Archibald incident and transmits the text of a memorandum left by the Ambassador in which his conduct is defended.
80
Sept. 8 From President Wilson
Impressed unfavorably by the memorandum left by the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador.
82
Sept. 15 From President Wilson
Acknowledges receipt of a letter forwarded by Secretary Lansing containing comments on the conduct of Ambassador Dumba.
83
Nov. 29 To President Wilson
Reports increasing criticism of the Government’s attitude with regard to the activities of Boy-Ed, von Papen, and von Nuber.
83
Nov. 29 From President Wilson
Directs that immediate action be taken toward the cancellation of the exequatur of von Nuber and that the German Ambassador be informed that Boy-Ed and von Papen are personae non gratae.
84
Dec. 1 To President Wilson
Reports interviews with the German Ambassador regarding withdrawal of Boy-Ed and von Papen and with the Austrian Chargé on the von Nuber case.
84
Dec. 2 From President Wilson
Belief that prompt action should be taken in the von Nuber case.
87
Dec. 2 To President Wilson
Discussion of the evidence in the cases of von Nuber and the German commercial attaché, Albert.
87
1915 Dec. 2 From Colonel E. M. House
Suggests that the announcement of the request for the recall of Boy-Ed and von Papen be delayed.
88
Dec. 3 To Colonel E. M. House
Informs that the suggestion to delay public announcement of the request for the recall of the attachés arrived too late.
88
Dec. 3 To President Wilson
Discussion of the activities of the German commercial attaché, Albert.
89
Dec. 5 From President Wilson
Opinion that Albert is the directing influence in German intrigue in this country.
90
Dec. 5 From President Wilson
Belief that conclusive evidence against Albert is not necessary to justify a statement that he is persona non grata.
90
Dec. 6 Memorandum From the Office of the Assistant Secretary of War
Reports remarks of Captain von Papen regarding his activities in the United States.
90
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the German Ambassador, December 10, 1915, 4:30 p. m.
Delivery by the German Ambassador in person of a communication on the Boy-Ed and von Papen incident.
93
Dec. 11 Memorandum by the Secretary of State of an Interview With the Austro-Hungarian Chargé
Discussion of the situation created by the sinking of the Ancona and the activities of alleged Austro-Hungarian agents in the United States.
93
1916 Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the German Ambassador, April 19, 1916, 11:30 a. m.
Discussion of the procedure followed in the seizure of the papers of the German attaché, von Igel.
95
Apr. 22 To President Wilson
Opinion that the von Igel papers do not pertain to the legitimate purposes of an Embassy.
97
Apr. 23 From President Wilson
Approves the course of Secretary Lansing in calling upon the German Ambassador to examine the von Igel papers and declare which of them he claims as official.
98
Apr. 25 To President Wilson
Information that the German Ambassador is more worried over the submarine question than over the von Igel case.
99
1917 Jan. 22 To President Wilson
Transmits revocation of the exequatur of the German consul general at San Francisco, Franz Bopp.
99
Jan. 24 From President Wilson
Expresses pleasure in signing revocation of Bopp’s exequatur.
99
[Page XIV]

Transfer of Foreign Vessels to American Registry

Date and number Subject Page
1914 Aug. 21 Mr. J. P. Morgan to President Wilson
Reports communications from his London firm regarding the attitude of the British Government on the question of the purchase of German ships by the United States Government or by American citizens.
100
Aug. 22 From President Wilson
Regards the reported attitude of the British Government as unjustifiable.
101
Aug. 24 To President Wilson
Reports belief that there should be no difficulty in removing British objections to purchase of German merchant vessels in neutral harbors.
101
Aug. 25 From President Wilson
Belief that the question of the purchase of German ships is clearing up satisfactorily.
103
Oct. 14 From the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury
Requests opinion as to treatment, for purposes of issuance of war risk insurance, of vessels newly transferred to American registry which were formerly owned by citizens of belligerent countries.
103
Oct. 19 To President Wilson
Requests opinion as to answer which should be given to the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.
104
Oct. 20 To President Wilson
Reports seizure by the British of the American steamer Brindilla.
106
Oct. 22 From President Wilson
Approves of vigorous protest against British seizure of the Brindilla.
106
Nov. 23 From President Wilson
Requests opinion as to probable attitude of the British and French Governments toward the purchase of German vessels by a corporation in which the United States Government was interested.
107
Nov. 23 To President Wilson
Discussion of attitude of British and French Governments toward transfer of German merchant vessels to American registry.
107
1915 Jan. 22 To President Wilson
Discussion of the contents of the proposed communication to Great Britain, outlining the American position with regard to transfer of foreign merchant ships to the American flag.
110
Jan. 23 To President Wilson
Further suggestions regarding handling of the question of transfer of merchant vessels to American registry.
111
[Page XV]

Sale of Munitions to Belligerents

[Page XVI]
Date and number Subject Page
1914 Oct. 10 To President Wilson
Suggests the issuance of a public statement to answer inquiries and complaints regarding the effect of the sale of contraband articles to belligerents upon the neutrality of the United States.
113
Oct. 13 From President Wilson
Approves the issuance of such a statement.
113
Nov. 12 To President Wilson
Belief that permitting the sale of submarines in parts would be considered an unneutral action.
114
Nov. 28 To President Wilson
Discussion of the legal aspects of the sale of submarines in parts.
114
Nov. 30 From President Wilson
Belief that it is the duty of the United States to prevent the shipment of submarines in parts.
115
Dec. 24 To President Wilson
Transmits a note from the German Ambassador regarding sales of munitions to belligerents.
115
Dec. 26 From President Wilson
Approves the reply to the German memorandum on sales of munitions.
116
1915 Jan. 7 From President Wilson
Agrees with Secretary Bryan that any interference with the right of belligerents to buy arms in the United States could be construed as an unneutral act.
116
Jan. 29 To President Wilson
Comments on the question of whether hydroairplanes constitute contraband.
117
Apr. 11 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Opinion that the language of the memorandum of April 4 from the German Ambassador is objectionable.
117
Apr. 13 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Suggests that it be learned whether the German Ambassador or his Government is responsible for the memorandum of April 4.
118
Apr. 17 From the Third Assistant Secretary of State to the Counselor for the Department of State
Reports a conversation with Mr. Oscar Straus who had discussed the memorandum of April 4 with Count Bernstorff.
119
Apr. 19 From President Wilson
Transmits draft of reply to German memorandum of April 4.
119
Apr. 20 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Transmits President’s draft reply to German memorandum, with additional suggestions.
120
1915 Apr. 20 To President Wilson
Transmits Mr. Lansing’s letter of April 20, with further suggestions for the reply to the German memorandum.
121
Apr. 21 From President Wilson
Approves of certain of Mr. Lansing’s emendations.
122
June 7 To Dr. Charles Noble Gregory
Congratulations on Dr. Gregory’s paper on “Neutrality and Arms Shipments.”
122
July 8 To President Wilson
Opinion that the Austrian statement offers an opportunity to make clear the American policy regarding the sale of arms and ammunition.
122
Aug. 2 (2670) From the Ambassador in Germany (tel.)
Reports a conversation between an unnamed friend and the German Emperor.
123
Aug. 2 To President Wilson
Transmits draft of reply to the Austrian statement in regard to the exportation of arms and ammunition.
124
Aug. 5 From President Wilson
Expresses doubts as to possible interpretation of Secretary Lansing’s draft reply.
125
Aug. 6 To President Wilson
Further considerations regarding a proposed insert (text printed) for the reply to the Austrian statement on exportation of arms and ammunition.
125
Aug. 9 From President Wilson
Approves Secretary Lansing’s proposed insert with certain changes.
127
Aug. 10 To President Wilson
Informs that reply to Austrian statement on exportation of arms and ammunition will be prepared and sent as soon as possible.
127
Aug. 16 From Mr. W. J. Bryan
Approval of the reply to Austria on the subject of the exportation of arms and ammunition.
128
Aug. 17 From Colonel E. M. House
Congratulations on the reply to Austria.
128
Aug. 19 To Colonel E. M. House
Acknowledges Colonel House’s congratulations.
128
Aug. 20 To Mr. W. J. Bryan
Acknowledges Mr. Bryan’s letter approving the reply to Austria.
129
Aug. 21 From President Wilson
Returns Mr. Bryan’s letter approving the reply to Austria.
130
Sept. 14 From the Ambassador in Germany
Congratulations on the reply to Austria.
130
[Page XVII]

Loans to Belligerents

[Page XVIII]
Date and number Subject Page
1914 Aug. 10 To President Wilson
Reports that J. P. Morgan & Company have inquired whether there would be objection to a loan to the French Government. Secretary Bryan’s ideas on foreign loans.
131
Sept. 5 (40) From the Ambassador in Germany (tel.)
Expresses hope that Americans will not subscribe to reported French loan.
132
Sept. 15 (159) To the Ambassador in Germany (tel.)
Informs that inquiry has not disclosed any attempt to float French loan in the United States.
133
Oct. 16 (67) From the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Reports interview with Count Witte regarding the floating of a proposed Russian loan in the United States.
133
Oct. 19 To President Wilson
Transmits telegram of October 16 from the Chargé in Russia with the Secretary’s comments thereon.
134
Oct. 20 (39) To the Chargé in Russia (tel.)
Opinion that it would be improper for this Government to take part in facilitating a loan to a belligerent government.
134
Oct. 20 To President Wilson
Transmits memorandum from the Russian Ambassador (text printed) regarding issuance of short-term obligations in the United States.
135
Oct. 23 From the Vice President of the National City Bank
Opinion that owing to war conditions short-term banking credits should be extended to belligerent governments.
136
Oct. 23 To President Wilson
Reports conversation with representative of certain banking interests regarding use of French Treasury notes for payment of purchases in this country. Transmits memorandum (text printed) containing information regarding credits of foreign governments in this country and their relation to trade.
137
Oct. 23 Memorandum by the Acting Secretary of State of a Conversation With President Wilson, October 23, 1914, 8:30 p. m.
Discussion of bank credits for belligerent governments in this country.
140
1915 Mar. 25 From J. P. Morgan and Company, the National City Bank, and the First National Bank of New York
Informing that the banking group are arranging to place 50 million dollars’ worth of French Treasury 1-year notes.
141
Aug. 23 From the Secretary of the Treasury
Encloses letter (text printed) from the president of the First National Bank of Chicago to the Vice Governor of the Federal Reserve Board requesting information as to the probable attitude of the Government on the subject of the issuance of a large British loan in the United States.
141
Aug. 24 From the Governor of the Federal Reserve Board
Transmits additional copy of letter enclosed with the preceding.
143
1915 Aug. 25 To President Wilson
Transmits copy of the letter from the president of the First National Bank of Chicago. Expresses opinion that conditions have changed since the autumn of 1914.
143
Aug. 26 From President Wilson
Directs that the interested bankers be orally informed that the Government would take no action either for or against such a transaction.
144
Aug. 26 To the Secretary of the Treasury
Communicates President’s opinion on the subject of the issuance of loans for the governments of belligerent nations.
144
Sept. 6 To President Wilson
Reviews the situation regarding extension of credits to belligerent nations and advances reasons for permitting the flotation in the United States of general loans to belligerents.
144
Sept. 8 From President Wilson
Opinion that oral discussion of the subject on the preceding day is sufficient.
147
Sept. 11 From the National Chairman, Friends of Peace
Protests against floating of British war loans in this country.
147
Sept. 15 From President Wilson
Acknowledges receipt of the preceding letter.
148
1916 May 20 From the Ambassador in Russia
Reports conversation with Mr. J. J. Korostovetz regarding proposed flotation of a Russian loan by the National City Bank of New York.
148
June 8 (860) To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.)
Informs that the Department cannot facilitate the raising of war loans by belligerents.
149
June 10 (600) From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.)
Acknowledges receipt of Department’s telegram stating position with regard to facilitating raising of war loans by belligerents.
150
June 19 (619) From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.)
Reports the completion of negotiations for the issuance of a Russian loan in the United States.
150

Enforcement of American Neutrality—Statements Concerning American Neutrality Policy

[Page XIX][Page XX][Page XXI][Page XXII][Page XXIII]
Date and number Subject Page
1914 Aug. 9 Memorandum by the Counselor for the Department of State
Discussion of means for securing the preservation of neutrality by the people of the United States.
151
Aug. 12 Memorandum by the Counselor for the Department of State
Discussion of the use by belligerents of wireless stations and submarine telegraph cables on neutral territory.
152
1914 Aug. 13 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Reports information received from Assistant Secretary of the Navy Roosevelt to the effect that a vessel at sea is unable to receive a wireless message at a greater distance than halfway across the Atlantic Ocean.
157
Sept. 13 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Submits memorandum regarding treatment of armed merchant vessels in neutral ports.
157
Sept. 13 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Submits proposed statement regarding policy of the Government in dealing with merchant vessels in American ports which are suspected of furnishing supplies to belligerent warships.
158
Sept. 17 From President Wilson
Approves the preceding statement.
159
Oct. 26 To President Wilson
Encloses article from The Fatherland regarding “Neutrality and Trade in Contraband.”
159
Oct. 28 From President Wilson
Deems The Fatherland article unworthy of attention.
159
Nov. 5 To President Wilson
Suggests that the preservation and enforcement of neutrality be placed in the hands of the Navy Department, but with the cooperation and assistance of the Treasury Department.
160
Nov. 6 From President Wilson
Directs that a conference between the Secretaries of State, Treasury, and Navy be held to effect cooperation in the enforcement of neutrality.
161
Dec. 1 From President Wilson
Encloses letter (text printed) from Professor Hugo Münsterberg regarding the neutrality policy of the Government as it affected Germany. Request for Mr. Lansing’s comments.
161
Dec. 9 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Transmits a memorandum (text printed) containing comments on the Münsterberg letter.
166
Dec. 10 From President Wilson
Transmits a telegram received (text printed) containing a protest against alteration of the rules of neutrality during war.
179
Dec. 10 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Comments on the telegram enclosed with the preceding.
180
Dec. 14 From President Wilson
Acknowledges receipt of Mr. Lansing’s comments.
182
Dec. 17 To President Wilson
Discussion of proposals for a conference of neutral nations to discuss questions arising from the war.
182
1914 Dec. 23 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Transmits note of December 15 from the German Ambassador regarding supplies of coal for belligerent warships and the use of neutral ports as bases of naval operations. Calls attention to the German admission that under general principles of international law no exception can be taken to neutral states’ letting war material go to Germany’s enemies.
183
Dec. 26 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Suggests that steps be taken to refute charges that the Administration’s neutrality policy is unfair to Germany.
184
Dec. 29 From President Wilson
Agrees that the German admission with regard to the sale of munitions of war should be gotten before the public.
185
1915 Jan. 1 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Discussion of possible courses in meeting charges of partiality for Great Britain and her allies.
185
Jan. 9 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Submits proposed statement for the press (text printed) regarding the attitude of the Government as to a possible protest to Germany over violation of the neutrality of Belgium.
188
Jan. 9 To President Wilson Suggests issuing the preceding statement. 191
Jan. 12 From President Wilson
Opinion that the statement might be regarded as merely a technical defense against nonperformance of a moral duty.
191
Jan. 13 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Consideration of the argument that the American Government is morally bound to protest against the violation of Belgian neutrality.
191
Jan. 23 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Further comments on the advisability of issuing a statement setting forth the Government’s position in regard to a protest against German violation of the neutrality of Belgium.
192
Jan. 29 From President Wilson
Transmits a letter (text printed) from Mr. L. W. Nieman requesting an additional statement answering charges of partiality.
194
Feb. 9 To President Wilson
Transmits a letter (text printed) from Judge J. M. Dickinson regarding the neutrality policy of the Government.
195
Feb. 10 To President Wilson
Returns letter from Mr. Nieman with comments.
198
Feb. 10 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Submits memorandum (text printed) for a public statement regarding failure of the Government to protest against alleged violations of The Hague Conventions by Germany.
199
1915 Mar. 11 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Describes procedure followed by the Department in regard to complaints from the British Ambassador on the subject of suspected violations of neutrality. Suggests proposed note to the British Ambassador explaining the duty of this Government in such cases.
210
Mar. 11 To President Wilson
Opinion that Mr. Lansing’s proposed note should not be sent.
211
Mar. 11 From President Wilson
Agrees that Mr. Lansing’s proposed note should not be sent.
211
Mar. 11 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Suggests that Treasury Department withhold clearances for German vessels at New York and Boston until such applications have been reported to Washington.
212
Mar. 15 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Transmits memorandum from the British Ambassador calling attention to circulars encouraging an attack upon Canada from the United States.
212
Mar. 27 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Transmits memorandum from the German Embassy regarding clearance for the steamship Pisa.
213
Mar. 27 To President Wilson
Opinion that clearance should be granted for the Pisa.
213
Mar. 31 From President Wilson
Opinion that the proposed operations of the Pisa would constitute use of American territory for the supply of warships at sea and that therefore clearance should not be granted.
214
Apr. 2 To President Wilson
Transmits a memorandum by Mr. Lansing (text printed) reporting an interview with the Counselor of the German Embassy regarding clearance for the Pisa.
214
Apr. 3 From President Wilson
Concurs with Mr. Lansing’s judgment in the Pisa case.
215
Apr. 10 To President Wilson
Transmits proposed reply to the German Ambassador in Pisa case.
215
Apr. 12 From President Wilson
Approves reply to the German Ambassador in the Pisa case.
216
Aug. 6 To President Wilson
Discusses views of the British Ambassador regarding German activities in the United States.
216
Nov. 16 To President Wilson
Transmits letter from the German Ambassador regarding the trial of officials of the Hamburg-American Line and proposed reply.
216
1915 Nov. 17 From President Wilson
Approves Secretary Lansing’s reply transmitted with the preceding.
217
Nov. 17 To President Wilson
Reports conversation with Mr. L. W. Nieman regarding public opinion in the Middle West.
217
Nov. 20 To President Wilson
Proposes that a suggestion be made in the President’s message to Congress for legislation covering foreign intrigue in the United States.
218
Nov. 20 To President Wilson
Transmits memorandum (text printed) regarding cooperation between the different Government departments charged with investigation of violations of law arising from the activities of agents of belligerent governments.
218
Dec. 21 To President Wilson
Reports conversation with Senator Stone in regard to relations with the belligerents.
221
Dec. 24 From President Wilson
Refers to Senator Stone’s attitude as disturbing.
222
1916 Mar. 1 To President Wilson
Encloses draft note to the German Ambassador in the Appam case.
222
Mar. 1 From President Wilson
Approves Secretary Lansing’s draft note in the Appam case.
223
Apr. 3 To President Wilson
Opinion that it is not advisable to submit the Appam case to arbitration. Submits proposed reply to the German Government’s memorandum.
223
Apr. 7 From President Wilson
Approves proposed reply in the Appam case transmitted with the preceding.
223
Sept. 25 From the British Embassy
Protest against German intrigues against British possessions in the East alleged to be carried on by correspondence passing between the United States and China.
223
Oct. 27 (514) To Mr. Charles B. Parker, Representing American Interests in Mexico City (tel.)
Directs that General Carranza be informed that any violation of Mexican neutrality would have serious results.
224
Nov. 23 To President Wilson
Transmits a memorandum from the Swedish Minister (text printed) relating to a plan for a conference of neutral nations adopted by Sweden, Norway, and Denmark in which the United States would be afforded an opportunity to take part.
225
Nov. 26 From President Wilson
Suggests discussion of the Swedish proposal.
226
1916 Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the Swedish Minister, December 1, 1916
The Minister was informed that it would be inadvisable for the United States to participate in a neutral conference at the time.
227
Dec. 1 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
General considerations on the subject of neutrality.
227
1917 Feb. 27 To President Wilson
Transmits text of memorandum to be sent to the British Embassy regarding British charges of violations of neutrality through alleged intrigues in the United States against British possessions in the East.
237
Feb. 28 From President Wilson
Approves memorandum to the British Embassy transmitted with the preceding.
246
Mar. 7 To President Wilson
Opinion that the Minister of Ecuador should be informed that in view of existing conditions the United States could not endorse the proposed Congress of Neutrals.
246

Interference With American Commerce by Great Britain and Her Allies

[Page XXIV][Page XXV][Page XXVI][Page XXVII][Page XXVIII]
Date and number Subject Page
1914 Sept. 27 To President Wilson
Requests President’s approval of instruction to the Ambassador in Great Britain regarding the proposal that the Declaration of London as modified by a British Order in Council be accepted as the law of naval warfare.
247
Sept. 28 To President Wilson
Enclosing draft telegram (text printed) to the Ambassador in Great Britain outlining American attitude toward British proposals to use the Declaration of London in a modified form as a code of naval warfare.
248
Sept. 29 The Acting Secretary of State to the Secretary of State
Reasons for preparing proposed instruction to the Ambassador in Great Britain.
249
Oct. 1 Statement for the Press by the Counselor for the Department of State
Denial that the British Ambassador had given notice of British intention to seize conditional contraband destined for Germany or Austria even though carried on neutral ships.
249
Oct. 15 From the British Ambassador to President Wilson
Enclosing telegram (text printed) received by the British Ambassador from the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs regarding interference with neutral trade. Declares British Government is doing all in its power to avoid interfering with American trade.
250
1914 Oct. 15 From President Wilson
Opinion that in view of the tone of the communication from the British Ambassador a reply should be sent at once.
252
Oct. 15 To President Wilson
Outlines objections to proposed further British modifications in the Declaration of London as a code for naval warfare.
252
Oct. 20 To President Wilson
Belief that an agreement with the British Government on the Declaration of London is impossible and that the United States should stand on the rules of international law.
255
Oct. 21 To President Wilson
Enclosing telegram to the Ambassador in Great Britain relating to the negotiations for the acceptance of the Declaration of London.
256
Oct. 23 To President Wilson
Suggestion that notice be given belligerent governments of the withdrawal of the American suggestion for the adoption of the Declaration of London and that this Government will stand upon its rights as defined in international law.
256
Undated From the British Embassy
Forwards copy of a telegram of October 24, 1914, received by the British Ambassador from the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs expressing pleasure that the United States no longer insists upon the Declaration of London.
257
Dec. 17 To President Wilson
Transmits draft instruction to the Ambassador in Great Britain regarding interference with American trade.
257
Dec. 26 From President Wilson
Approves revised draft instruction to the Ambassador in Great Britain regarding interference with American trade.
258
Dec. 28 From the Ambassador in Great Britain
Comments on relations between the United States and Great Britain.
259
1915 Jan. 11 To President Wilson
Encloses notes (text printed) on the communication of January 7, 1915, from the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
261
Jan. 14 From President Wilson
Suggests that discussion with Great Britain over interference with neutral trade be directed to practicable methods of handling the matter.
266
Feb. 1 Memorandum by the Counselor for the Department of State
Reviews the negotiations for the adoption by the belligerents of the Declaration of London as a code of naval warfare.
266
Mar. 2 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Considerations on the subject of British and French declarations of intended retaliation upon commerce with Germany.
270
1915 Mar. 3 To President Wilson
Encloses draft telegram (text printed) to the Ambassador in Great Britain regarding the British and French declaration on the subject of commerce with Germany.
271
Mar. 4 From President Wilson
Opinion that the proposed telegram is too abrupt and that a different version with alterations by the President should be sent.
273
Mar. 15 Newspaper Text of the British Order in Council of March 11, 1915, With Comments by the Counselor for the Department of State 273
Mar. 19 From President Wilson
Encloses outline (text printed) of a note to Great Britain regarding the British blockade.
277
Mar. 22 To President Wilson
Encloses memorandum by Mr. Lansing on the British Order in Council of March 11, 1915.
279
Mar. 22 From President Wilson
Suggestions for a note to Great Britain on the subject of the Order in Council.
281
Mar. 22 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Enclosing memorandum (text printed) on a proposed reply to the British note of March 15, 1915.
281
Mar. 22 To President Wilson
Transmitting Mr. Lansing’s memorandum enclosed with the preceding.
285
Mar. 23 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Observations on the British blockade.
286
Mar. 23 To President Wilson
Transmitting Mr. Lansing’s observations on the British blockade with additional comments.
287
Mar. 24 From President Wilson
Opinion that Mr. Lansing’s notes to Great Britain lead only to debate and are of no practical avail.
288
Mar. 24 Memorandum by the Counselor for the Department of State
Considerations on proposed reply to the British note of March 15, 1915.
290
Mar. 25 To President Wilson
Transmitting telegram to the Ambassador in Great Britain on the subject of the British blockade, as drafted by Mr. Lansing.
291
Undated Memorandum by the Counselor for the Department of State of an Interview With Mr. Samuel K. Ratcliffe, March 25, 1915
Discussion of relations between the United States and Great Britain.
291
1915 Mar. 28 From President Wilson
Transmitting a reply to Great Britain on the subject of the British blockade, with alterations by President Wilson.
293
Mar. 28 To President Wilson
Opinion that the reply to Great Britain on the subject of the British blockade fully protects American legal rights.
294
Mar. 28 From President Wilson
Transmits a reply to Great Britain on the subject of the British blockade, as further rewritten by President Wilson.
294
Mar. 29 To President Wilson
Returns note to Great Britain on the subject of the British blockade, with suggestions from Mr. Lansing and Secretary Bryan.
295
Mar. 30 From President Wilson
Approves note to Great Britain on the subject of the blockade.
296
May 15 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Encloses draft note (text printed) to the Ambassador in Great Britain regarding interference with American trade resulting from the Order in Council of March 11, 1915.
296
June 12 To President Wilson
Encloses draft telegram (text printed) to the Ambassador in Great Britain regarding British reply to American note of March 30.
299
June 14 From President Wilson
Approves draft telegram enclosed with the preceding, but expresses belief that the return of Colonel House from London should be awaited before sending it.
300
July 27 To President Wilson
Informs that Sir Edward Grey requests delay in publication of British reply to American note of March 30.
301
July 27 From President Wilson (tel.)
Deeply concerned about British position on the cotton question.
301
July 28 To President Wilson (tel.)
Confirms President Wilson’s impression that there had been a British assurance that cotton was regarded as noncontraband and would continue to be so treated.
301
July 29 From President Wilson
Transmits samples of guarantees required of shippers to insure passage of goods through the British blockade.
302
Oct. 9 To President Wilson
Transmits draft of further note to Great Britain regarding British interference with neutral ships and cargoes.
303
Oct. 15 (3025) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Impressions of British public opinion.
303
1915 Oct. 21 From President Wilson
Approves note to Great Britain regarding interference with American trade.
304
Oct. 21 To President Wilson
Opinion that the note to Great Britain should be sent by telegraph.
304
1916 Jan. 15 (3585) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Requests opinion as to probable attitude of the United States Government in case of change in character of British blockade.
305
Jan. 20 (2753) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Declines to express opinion as to probable attitude of Department in the hypothetical case outlined in the preceding.
305
Jan. 22 (3622) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Considerations regarding American attitude toward the British blockade, and opinion that the war has reached a critical stage.
306
Jan. 24 To President Wilson
Transmits the preceding telegram.
307
Jan. 24 From President Wilson
Opinion that the telegram of January 22 represents Ambassador Page’s views rather than those of Colonel House.
308
May 20 To President Wilson
Encloses draft note to the British Ambassador dealing with interference with the mails.
308
May 22 From President Wilson
Approves the note on British interference with the mails.
309
May 22 From the Ambassador in Great Britain
Describes the British Government’s handling of the China case.
309
June 23 To President Wilson
Comments on resolutions adopted by the Economic Conference of the Allied Powers.
311
July 8 To the Ambassador in Great Britain
Discussion of the cases of the China, the Henry S., and the Ausable.
312
Sept. 18 To President Wilson
Transmits communication from Sir Edward Grey left with Secretary Lansing by the British Ambassador, referring to American neutrality policy. Expresses belief that the attitude of the British Government does not make for an amicable settlement of difficulties.
313
Sept. 22 To President Wilson
Transmits draft telegram (text printed) to the Chargé in Great Britain to be used in communicating American views on British interference with neutral trade to the British Foreign Office.
314
1916 Sept. 29 From President Wilson
Belief that Secretary Lansing’s proposed message would be unwise.
319
Sept. 30 To President Wilson
Explanation of the purpose of his proposed message to the Chargé in Great Britain.
319
Oct. 2 To President Wilson
Declaration that the conduct of foreign affairs would be kept entirely separate from the political campaign.
320
Oct. 13 To President Wilson
Opinion that the reply of the Allied Governments to the American note on interference with the mails indicates a conciliatory attitude.
321
Oct. 17 To President Wilson
Encloses a memorandum (text printed) regarding censorship of the mails by belligerents.
321
Nov. 14 From President Wilson
Comments on Secretary Lansing’s memorandum regarding censorship of the mails.
325
Nov. 14 To President Wilson
Expresses belief that President Wilson misunderstood the purpose of Secretary Lansing’s memorandum on censorship of the mails.
326
Nov. 23 To President Wilson
Encloses copies of a proposed communication to the British Government on the China case and of a proposed communication in regard to cases involving removal of seamen from American vessels since the case of the China.
327
Nov. 26 From President Wilson
Approves with suggestions for modification Secretary Lansing’s draft communication to Great Britain regarding removal of persons from American vessels.
328
Nov. 26 From President Wilson
Further comments regarding Secretary Lansing’s memorandum on censorship of the mails.
329
Dec. 27 From President Wilson
Returns papers regarding interference with the mails.
329

Armed Merchant Ships

[Page XXIX][Page XXX][Page XXXI]
Date and number Subject Page
1914 Sept. 9 To the British Ambassador (tel.)
Informs that an answer to the British Ambassador’s note of September 4 seems unnecessary because, notwithstanding the Ambassador’s assurance, the Merion sailed with guns and ammunition on board.
330
1915 Sept. 12 To President Wilson
Discusses treatment of armed merchant vessels, especially the British vessel Waimana.
330
Sept. 13 From President Wilson
Approves permitting the Waimana to sail upon a promise by the British Admiralty and a bond by the owners that her arms will not be used for offensive purposes.
331
1916 Jan. 2 To President Wilson
Advises the issuance of a new statement of policy regarding armed merchant vessels made necessary by changed conditions brought about by submarine warfare.
332
Jan. 7 To President Wilson
Encloses memorandum (text printed) on armed merchant vessels and submarine warfare, proposing a modus vivendi to be suggested to the belligerent nations, according to which a merchant vessel carrying armament would be treated as an armed ship.
334
Jan. 10 From President Wilson
Approves Secretary Lansing’s proposal.
335
Jan. 17 To President Wilson
Encloses draft letter to the British Ambassador suggesting a modus vivendi in dealing with the question of submarine warfare and armed merchant vessels.
336
Jan. 17 From President Wilson
Approves Secretary Lansing’s draft letter to the British Ambassador.
336
Jan. 26 (J. Nr. A 627) From the German Embassy
Requests the forwarding of a wireless message (text printed) from the Austro-Hungarian Chargé to the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Office stating that the Secretary of State would welcome a declaration by the Central Powers that armed merchantmen would be treated as auxiliary cruisers.
337
Jan. 26 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Attention of Austrian Chargé to be called to the fact that the Secretary did not use the word “welcome.”
337
Jan. 27 To President Wilson
Refers to a communication from Sir Edward Grey to the British Ambassador handed by the Ambassador to Secretary Lansing indicating British disappointment at the proposal for a modus vivendi. Regards Ambassador Page’s attitude as disturbing.
338
Feb. 2 To Colonel E. M. House (tel.)
Expresses opinion that the modus vivendi proposal is fair and a humane solution of the submarine warfare question.
339
Feb. 6 (29) The German Foreign Office to the German Embassy (tel.)
Informs that Germany and Austria-Hungary will soon publish declaration that armed merchant vessels are to be treated as auxiliary cruisers.
339
1916 Feb. 9 (A 936) From the German Embassy
Wireless messages from the German Ambassador to the German Foreign Office and from the Austro-Hungarian Chargé to the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Office (text printed) reporting that Secretary Lansing has been informed of the contents of the preceding.
340
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the Austro-Hungarian Chargé, February 9, 1916
Discussion of the question of whether Secretary Lansing had stated that he would “welcome” the German and Austro-Hungarian declaration on armed merchant vessels.
341
Feb. 14 From Colonel E. M. House (tel.)
Expresses hope that the question of armed merchantmen will be left in abeyance until his return.
342
Feb. 25 To President Wilson
Reports conversation with Representative David J. Lewis concerning the advisability of proposing arbitration on the subject of the rights of belligerents in respect to arming merchant vessels and the question of submarine attacks on such vessels.
342
Mar. 1 From President Wilson
Acknowledges receipt of the note of February 29, 1916, from the German Ambassador.
343
Mar. 3 To the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives
Encloses a memorandum (text printed) containing arguments against the approval of House Resolution 147.
343
Mar. 6 To President Wilson
Transmits a memorandum outlining the negotiations on the question of armed merchant vessels.
348
Mar. 8 From President Wilson
Acknowledges Secretary Lansing’s letter regarding Representative Lewis’ suggestion of possible arbitration of these questions.
348
Mar. 8 To President Wilson
Encloses draft telegram to be sent to Berlin and Vienna explaining the armed merchant vessel question to the American Ambassadors at those capitals.
348
Mar. 8 From President Wilson
Approves draft telegram enclosed with the preceding.
349
Mar. 30 To President Wilson
Encloses draft note (text printed) to the British Ambassador, with similar notes to be sent to the French, Russian, and Italian Ambassadors and the Belgian Minister, in reply to the rejection by these powers of the modus vivendi.
349
Mar. 30 From President Wilson
Disapproves Secretary Lansing’s note to the Allied Governments on the modus vivendi proposal.
350
1916 Apr. 3 To President Wilson
Enclosing a new draft letter replying to the rejection of the modus vivendi proposal.
351
Apr. 7 From President Wilson
Approves Secretary Lansing’s draft note, with alterations.
351
Apr. 24 To President Wilson
Encloses a memorandum on the status of armed merchant vessels.
351

Relations With Germany and Austria-Hungary—German Submarine Warfare—Severance of Diplomatic Relations and Outbreak of War With Germany

[Page XXXII][Page XXXIII][Page XXXIV][Page XXXV][Page XXXVI][Page XXXVII][Page XXXVIII][Page XXXIX][Page XL][Page XLI][Page XLII][Page XLIII][Page XLIV][Page XLV][Page XLVI][Page XLVII][Page XLVIII][Page XLIX][Page L][Page LI][Page LII][Page LIII][Page LIV]
Date and number Subject Page
1915 Feb. 15 To President Wilson
Encloses three communications from the German Ambassador regarding the blockade and the war zone.
353
[Feb. 18] Newspaper Text of the German Note of February 16, 1915, With Comments by the Counselor for the Department of State of February 18, 1915 354
Feb. 18 To President Wilson
Consideration of the German note on the war zone.
361
Feb. 19 From President Wilson
Comments regarding the situation created by the German note on the war zone.
363
Feb. 19 To President Wilson
Encloses draft telegram to the Ambassador in Great Britain containing proposals for an agreement between the belligerents restricting the use of mines, submarines, and neutral flags and for the admission of foodstuffs into Germany.
363
Feb. 27 (1716) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Opinion that the British Government will not accept the American proposals of February 20.
364
Apr. 2 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Discussion of questions raised by the death of an American citizen through the sinking of the British steamship Falaba.
365
Apr. 2 To President Wilson
Discussion of questions raised by the presence of American citizens on British vessels.
366
Apr. 3 To President Wilson
Encloses a memorandum (text printed) by Mr. Lansing on relations between the United States and Germany and possible changes in case of a war between the two countries.
366
Apr. 3 From President Wilson
Regards the Thrasher case as disturbing.
368
Apr. 5 From President Wilson
Comments on Mr. Lansing’s memorandum on relations between the United States and Germany.
369
1915 Apr. 5 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Encloses draft instruction to the Ambassador in Germany (text printed) regarding attack on the Falaba and the death of Leon C. Thrasher.
369
Apr. 6 From President Wilson
Acknowledges Mr. Lansing’s draft note on the Thrasher case.
372
Apr. 6 To President Wilson
Considerations as to whether an American citizen might involve the country in complications by taking unnecessary risks in time of war.
372
Apr. 6 From President Wilson
Intention to discuss the Thrasher case at a meeting of the Cabinet.
372
Apr. 7 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Discussion of the course to be followed in the Thrasher case and other similar cases should they occur.
373
Apr. 7 To President Wilson
Encloses draft instruction prepared by Mr. Lansing on the Thrasher case.
374
Apr. 8 To President Wilson
Considers question raised by presence of American citizens on British vessels.
376
Apr. 10 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Opinion that the commander of the submarine attacking the Falaba did not act on the suspicion that the vessel was armed.
377
Apr. 22 From President Wilson
Suggests outline of a note to the German Government on the Thrasher case.
377
Apr. 23 To President Wilson
Indicates that he has not been able to reach the same conclusion as President Wilson in regard to the Thrasher case.
378
Apr. 28 From President Wilson
Regrets that he has not been able to accept Secretary Bryan’s views on the Thrasher case.
380
May 1 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Discussion of published notice of the German Embassy warning American citizens against travel on vessels of Great Britain or of the Allies.
381
May 3 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Opinion that German attacks on American vessels must provoke radical action by this Government and that attacks on the Cushing and the Gulflight might make changes necessary in the tone of the note to Germany on the Thrasher case.
383
May 5 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Suggests action in the Thrasher case before the receipt of full reports on the attacks on Cushing and Gulflight.
384
1915 May 8 From the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury
Information from the Collector of the Port of New York regarding the character of the cargo of the Lusitania.
385
May 9 To President Wilson
Comments on an editorial in the Washington Post which suggested that ships carrying contraband should not be permitted to carry passengers.
386
May 10 From President Wilson
Comments on Ambassador Page’s despatch regarding British public opinion on the sinking of the Lusitania.
387
May 10 To President Wilson
Enclosing a memorandum (text printed) by Mr. Lansing on the subject of the German published “Warning.”
387
May 10 To President Wilson
Enclosing a memorandum by Mr. Lansing (text printed) regarding possible German defenses in connection with the sinking of the Lusitania and a letter from Mr. Lansing (text printed) outlining possible courses of procedure in the Lusitania case.
389
May 11 From President Wilson
Opinion that Mr. Lansing’s arguments on the subject of the German “Warning” are unanswerable.
392
Undated To President Wilson
Acknowledges receipt of draft of protest to Germany on the Lusitania case. States that he joins in this document with a heavy heart.
392
Undated To the Counselor for the Department of State
Encloses the President’s draft note to Germany with a request for further suggestions.
394
May 12 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Returns the President’s draft note on the Lusitania case with suggested changes.
394
May 12 To President Wilson
Comments on the language used in the draft note to Germany.
399
May 12 To President Wilson
Fears that the note to Germany will be interpreted as meaning war.
400
May 12 From President Wilson
Forwards text of note to Germany in its final form.
401
May 12 (1658) To the Ambassador in Germany (tel.)
Instruction to ask the Minister for Foreign Affairs to disregard press conjectures and await the official communication of the American note.
401
1915 May 13 From President Wilson
Proposes a notice (text printed) to be given out for publication indicating that the Administration believes that Germany will respond to the American note in a spirit of accommodation.
402
May 13 To President Wilson
Informs that Mr. Tumulty had no knowledge of the proposed press statement.
402
May 13 From President Wilson
Informs that he had changed his mind regarding issuing the proposed press statement.
403
May 13 To President Wilson
Calls attention to the absence of a concluding reiteration of friendship in the note to Germany.
403
May 13 From President Wilson
Opinion that the note is of a sufficiently friendly tone.
404
May 14 From President Wilson
Expresses regret at having found it necessary not to issue the proposed statement to the press.
404
May 14 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Draft of a notice prepared at the request of Secretary Bryan advising Americans not to take passage on belligerent vessels endangered by submarine warfare.
404
May 14 To President Wilson
Sends notice prepared by Mr. Lansing at Secretary Bryan’s request, advising Americans against taking passage on belligerent vessels endangered by submarine warefare. States that Mr. Lansing is doubtful about the wisdom of issuing such a notice.
406
May 14 From President Wilson
Disapproves of the issuance of the notice suggested by Secretary Bryan.
406
May 14 From President Wilson
Further reasons for his disapproval of the proposed notice requesting Americans not to take passage on belligerent ships.
406
May 17 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Forwards suggestions as to possible action in the event Germany should refuse to comply with the American demands.
407
May 17 To President Wilson
Reports conversation with the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador concerning relations between Germany and the United States.
408
May 20 From President Wilson
Approves position taken by Secretary Bryan in his conversation with the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador.
410
1915 May 20 From President Wilson
Acknowledges suggestions of Mr. Lansing as to possible courses of action in the event Germany should refuse to comply with the American demands.
411
May 20 From President Wilson
Opinion that the proposed note of protest to Great Britain regarding interference with neutral trade should not be sent until the German reply in the Lusitania case has been received.
411
May 20 From President Wilson
Continued belief that action to warn American citizens against traveling on armed merchant ships would be inopportune.
412
May 23 From President Wilson
Comments on a message from Colonel House regarding the British attitude toward the proposals contained in the American note of February 20, 1915.
412
May 24 To the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador
Discussion of a report received in a telegram from Berlin to the effect that Ambassador Dumba had sent a telegram saying in substance that the Lusitania note was not meant in earnest. Outline of the course of the conversation between Secretary Bryan and Ambassador Dumba. Request that the Ambassador endorse its correctness or submit such changes as he might desire. Request that the Ambassador call at the Department to discuss the situation.
413
May 24 From the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador
Opinion that Secretary Bryan’s memorandum represents the substance of their conversation faithfully. Gives the text of the Ambassador’s communication to the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Office sent via Berlin.
415
May 27 From President Wilson
Comments on telegram of May 25, 1915, from the Ambassador in Germany regarding German attitude toward proposals contained in the American note of February 20, 1915.
416
June 1 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Belief that the German reply to the Lusitania note does not evince a friendly sentiment for the United States.
417
June 2 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Discussion of arguments contained in German note based on the allegation that the Lusitania was an armed vessel.
418
June 2 From President Wilson
Requests suggestions for a reply to Germany in the Lusitania case.
418
June 2 To President Wilson
Forwards suggestions contained in Mr. Lansing’s letter of June 1 with additional comments.
419
1915 June 2 From President Wilson
Acknowledges receipt of Secretary Bryan’s suggestions. Opinion that the German Government should be made to feel that the United States regards the matter as pressing.
421
June 2 From President Wilson
Opinion that the German Foreign Office evades the distinction between England’s violation of neutral rights and Germany’s violation of the rights of humanity.
421
June 3 To President Wilson
Consideration of points raised in the German note on the Lusitania case and the general question of risks taken by American citizens in war zones.
422
June 3 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Discussion of the allegations contained in the German note of May 28, 1915, to the effect that the Lusitania was an armed vessel and that the commander of the submarine feared that the Lusitania would ram him.
426
June 3 To President Wilson
Consideration of Mr. Lansing’s views on the Lusitania case.
427
June 4 From the Collector of Customs of the Port of New York to the Secretary of the Treasury
Report on the equipment, passengers, and cargo of the Lusitania when she sailed from New York on May 1, 1915, together with a summary of the manifest of the Lusitania (text printed).
428
June 4 To President Wilson
Reports a conversation with Senator Martin and Representative Flood, who were of the opinion that the Lusitania case would not justify a resort to hostilities.
436
June 5 To President Wilson
Presents suggestions for steps to be taken to insure the country against war with Germany.
437
June 5 From President Wilson
Disapproves Secretary Bryan’s suggestions regarding resort to arbitration, the taking of steps to prevent passenger ships from carrying ammunition, and the dispatch of a renewed protest to Great Britain. Requests further suggestions for the note to Germany on the Lusitania case.
438
June 5 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Requests time to study the President’s draft note at home.
438
June 7 From President Wilson
Deeply impressed by views of Senator Martin and Representative Flood.
439
June 7 From President Wilson
Acknowledges receipt of a telegram in which arbitration of the Lusitania case was suggested.
439
1915 June 7 From the Counselor for the Department of State to the Secretary of the Treasury
Encloses proposed paragraph (text printed) for insertion in note to Germany embodying suggestions made by Mr. McAdoo.
440
June 7 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Encloses President’s draft of note to Germany with suggested changes.
440
June 7 To President Wilson
Forwards redraft of the note to Germany, together with Mr. Lansing’s suggestions and additional comments on the language of the draft note. Suggests renewed representations to Great Britain.
445
June 7 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Discussion of Secretary Bryan’s letter to President Wilson in regard to the redraft of the note to Germany.
449
June 15 To President Wilson
Encloses memorandum from the British Ambassador (text printed) requesting that the British Government be supplied with copies of sworn declarations of American officials who examined the Lusitania prior to its departure from New York.
451
June 16 From President Wilson
Approves supplying the British Ambassador with sworn statements of customs officers, but disapproves sending the Collector’s report.
452
July 2 From President Wilson
Regards Ambassador Gerard’s suggestions of an effort to prevent shipment of arms and ammunition on passenger vessels as impossible of acceptance.
452
July 7 To President Wilson (tel.)
Reports the dispatch of a telegram to Ambassador Gerard outlining the American position in the Lusitania negotiations.
453
July 7 From President Wilson (tel.)
Comments on the Austrian note on shipment of munitions and directs that Ambassador Gerard be instructed to inform the German Government that the President, while determined not to surrender or compromise the rights of the United States or its citizens, would be willing to exercise good offices in effecting arrangements tending to lessen the dangers to nonbelligerents in traversing the high seas.
453
July 9 From President Wilson
Requests suggestions for a reply to the German note of July 8.
454
July 11 From President Wilson to Mr. J. P. Tumulty (tel.)
Secretary of State not to confer with President at summer home without previous consultation.
454
1915 July 12 To President Wilson
Regrets that newspapers gathered the impression that Secretary Lansing was to consult with President Wilson at his summer home with regard to the German note.
455
July 13 From President Wilson
Discussion of position to be taken in answering German note of July 8, 1915.
455
July 14 From President Wilson
Discusses misunderstanding with respect to reports that Secretary Lansing was to confer with President Wilson at his summer home.
457
July 14 To President Wilson
Encloses preliminary notes for a reply to the German communication of July 8, 1915.
457
July 15 To President Wilson
Comments on President Wilson’s suggestions contained in his letter of July 13.
458
July 16 From the Solicitor for the Department of State
Expresses belief that the Lusitania case should be brought to a conclusion as soon as possible and encloses notes (texts printed) regarding the reply to be made to Germany on the Lusitania case.
460
July 21 To President Wilson
Suggestions in regard to President Wilson’s draft reply to the German note of July 8.
463
July 21 From President Wilson
Acknowledges Secretary Lansing’s suggestions.
464
July 24 From the Vice President (tel.)
Congratulations on the note to Germany of July 21, 1915.
465
Aug. 7 To President Wilson
Encloses memorandum (text printed) by Mr. Chandler P. Anderson on the Frye case, together with a draft reply to the German note on the Frye case.
465
Aug. 9 From President Wilson
Approves note on the Frye case.
466
Aug. 20 To President Wilson
Discussion of situation created by the torpedoing of the Arabic.
467
Aug. 21 From President Wilson
Opinion that an immediate summons of the Cabinet would not be wise.
468
Aug. 21 From Mr. Rudolph Forsler
Forwarding copy of a note (text printed) from Mr. J. P. Tumulty to President Wilson regarding public opinion in connection with the Arabic case.
468
1915 Aug. 23 From Mr. Chandler P. Anderson
Reports interview with the German Ambassador in which the Frye and Lusitania cases were discussed.
469
Aug. 24 To President Wilson
Outlines the general effect of a state of war between the United States and Germany.
470
Aug. 26 From President Wilson
Acknowledges Secretary Lansing’s letter on the possible effects of hostilities with Germany.
471
Aug. 26 To President Wilson
Describes an interview with the German Ambassador in which the situation created by the sinking of the Arabic was discussed.
471
Aug. 27 From President Wilson
Disapproves of language of the German Ambassador’s proposed wireless message to Berlin.
473
Aug. 27 To President Wilson
Reports conversation with the German Ambassador regarding his communications with the Foreign Office on the subject of the negotiations regarding submarine warfare.
473
Aug. 28 To Colonel E. M. House
Believes that there is a tendency on the part of the German Government to reach an amicable settlement.
474
Sept. 2 To President Wilson
Forwards congratulations from Mr. Bryan and Mr. David R. Francis on the German promise of September 1, 1915, not to sink liners without warning.
474
Sept. 4 To President Wilson
Forwards letter from the German Ambassador explaining delay in connection with the Arabic case.
475
Sept. 7 From President Wilson
Suggests that German Government be informed that it would not be wise to wait too long in stating their attitude and the action they intend to take in regard to the Arabic. Advises no action on Hesperian until facts are in.
475
Sept. 9 To President Wilson
Encloses three letters from the German Ambassador, stating that he has not replied to them.
476
Sept. 9 To President Wilson
Encloses telegram of September 8 from Ambassador Page on public opinion in Great Britain on American policy.
476
Sept. 10 From President Wilson
Acknowledges Secretary Lansing’s letter of September 9 on the controversy with Germany.
477
Sept. 10 From President Wilson
Believes no answer necessary to Ambassador Page’s telegram relating to British public opinion on American policy.
477
1915 Sept. 11 To President Wilson
States that he does not wish to discuss the Arabic case further with the German Ambassador before a conference with the President.
477
Sept. 11 To President Wilson
Summarizes the evidence in the Arabic case and comments on the German note as very unsatisfactory.
478
Sept. 13 To President Wilson
Reports conversation with the German Ambassador, who suggested that the evidence in the hands of the United States Government be placed before the German Government and expressed a willingness to do anything to avoid a break.
480
Sept. 26 From Colonel E. M. House to President Wilson
Reports an interview with the German Ambassador in which the progress of negotiations in the submarine warfare controversy was discussed.
482
Sept. 30 From President Wilson
Encloses letter of September 26 from Colonel House.
482
Oct. 2 From the German Ambassador
Informs of German willingness to pay an indemnity for loss of American lives on the Arabic.
483
Oct. 2 From the German Ambassador
Encloses a tentative letter (text printed) reporting German willingness to settle the questions arising out of the Lusitania case.
484
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of an Interview With the German Ambassador, October 5, 1915, 10:80 a. m.
Discussion of the Ambassador’s letter of October 2 on the Arabic case and of changes suggested by Secretary Lansing.
485
Oct. 6 To Colonel E. M. House
Discusses outcome of the negotiations regarding the Arabic case.
486
Oct. 8 To President Wilson
Encloses instruction to the Ambassador in Germany regarding the Frye case, accepting the proposal for a joint commission of experts to fix the amount of indemnity.
486
Oct. 12 From President Wilson
Approves Secretary Lansing’s instruction to the Ambassador in Germany on the Frye case enclosed with the preceding.
487
Oct. 30 From Colonel E. M. House
Reports a conversation with the German Ambassador, who wondered whether it was not a propitious time for something to be done about the doctrine of the freedom of the seas.
487
Nov. 2 To President Wilson
Reports a discussion with the German Ambassador with regard to the Lusitania case.
488
1915 Nov. 11 To President Wilson
Submits a proposed formula (text printed) for settlement of the Lusitania case as a basis for discussion with the German Ambassador.
489
Nov. 17 From President Wilson
Opinion that the proposed formula is not entirely satisfactory but that it should be presented to the German Government.
490
Nov. 17 Memorandum by the Secretary of State of an Interview With the German Ambassador
Informed the German Ambassador that it seemed necessary that the Lusitania case be settled as soon as possible.
490
Nov. 19 To President Wilson
Reports that the formula for settlement of the Lusitania case, placed before President Wilson on November 11, was submitted to the German Ambassador, who stated that he would lay it before his Government. Suggests that either diplomatic relations with Germany be broken or that the facts in the whole controversy be laid before Congress.
491
Nov. 21 From President Wilson
Belief that in conversations with the German Ambassador and in dealings with the German Government the position should be taken that the Lusitania case is as acute as ever.
493
Nov. 22 To President Wilson
Encloses memorandum of information at hand in regard to the Ancona case.
494
Nov. 24 From President Wilson
Opinion that the information on the Ancona case is incomplete and inconclusive.
494
Nov. 24 From President Wilson
Forwards two letters from Colonel House indicating that the German Ambassador wants to use House as a channel of communication in the Lusitania case.
494
Nov. 24 To President Wilson
Opinion that the present time would be opportune for a speedy settlement of the Lusitania case, in view of the military and diplomatic situation in Europe.
495
Nov. 24 To the German Ambassador
States that a speedy settlement of the Lusitania case is imperative.
496
Nov. 25 (J. No. A 7615) From the German Ambassador
States that the Lusitania case has been under discussion with the German Government but that the Ambassador has been handicapped by the difficulty of communication with Germany.
496
Dec. 3 To President Wilson
Encloses draft instruction to Ambassador Penfield in regard to the Ancona case.
497
1915 Dec. 5 From President Wilson
Approves Secretary Lansing’s draft note to Austria on the Ancona case enclosed with the preceding.
498
Dec. 15 To the German Ambassador
Urges prompt action in regard to the Lusitania case.
498
Dec. 16 From the German Ambassador (tel.)
States that he is again taking up the Lusitania case with the Foreign Office.
498
Dec. 17 To President Wilson
Encloses Austrian reply in the Ancona case. Expresses opinion that it represents special pleading.
499
Dec. 17 To President Wilson
Encloses draft of reply (text printed) to Austrian note in the Ancona case. Believes that extensive correspondence should be avoided.
499
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the Austro-Hungarian Chargé, December 18, 1915
Discussion of the Ancona case and questions involved in submarine warfare against merchant vessels.
501
Dec. 20 (J. No. A 8326) From the German Ambassador
Informs that the German Government has mailed instructions on the Lusitania case.
502
Dec. 20 To the German Ambassador
Regrets that the German Ambassador’s instructions were mailed rather than telegraphed.
502
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the Austro-Hungarian Chargé, December 21, 1915
Discussion of two telegrams (text printed) relating to the Ancona case received by the Austro-Hungarian Chargé from the Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs.
503
Dec. 23 (1049) From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (tel.)
Reports that a suggestion for settlement of the Ancona case through arbitration is probable should settlement through diplomatic channels prove impossible.
505
Dec. 24 From President Wilson
Approves position taken by Secretary Lansing in conversation with the Austro-Hungarian Chargé on December 21.
505
Dec. 24 To President Wilson
Encloses telegram (text printed) from the Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs to the Austro-Hungarian Chargé indicating that the Austrian answer in the Ancona case would be guided by concern for good relations between the two countries.
506
Dec. 26 From President Wilson
Regards the message from the Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs as encouraging.
506
1915 Dec. 27 From President Wilson
Comments on telegram from Ambassador Penfield which stated that Austria-Hungary would probably ask arbitration of the Ancona dispute.
506
Dec. 28 To President Wilson
Consideration of possible courses of action in case demands on Austria-Hungary in the Ancona case should fail to be met.
507
Dec. 29 To the German Ambassador
Informs that the continued suspension of negotiations in the Lusitania case is causing anxiety.
508
Dec. 29 (J. No. A 8578) From the German Ambassador
Informs that a communication from the German Foreign Office on the Lusitania case should be received very soon.
508
Dec. 29 From President Wilson
Discussion of Secretary Lansing’s views on relations with Austria as expressed in his letter of December 28.
508
Dec. 29 (1063) From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (tel.)
Reports receipt of Austrian answer in the Ancona case. Regards it as a practical compliance with American demands.
509
Dec. 30 To President Wilson Encloses Ambassador Penfield’s telegram of December 29. 510
Dec. 31 From President Wilson
Expresses relief at reported tone of Austrian reply.
510
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the German Ambassador, December 31, 1915
Discussion of communication (text printed) from the German Foreign Office to the German Embassy regarding submarine warfare and the Lusitania case.
510
1916 Jan. 2 From President Wilson (tel.)
Inquires whether the facts in the case of the Persia afford a basis for action.
512
Jan. 7 To President Wilson
Encloses communication (text printed) from the German Embassy outlining German position in regard to submarine warfare and containing an expression of regret at the death of American citizens in the sinking of the Lusitania and an offer to pay indemnity for losses suffered.
513
Jan. 7 (1) To Colonel E. M. House (tel.)
Outlines state of public opinion with regard to controversy with Germany and Austria over submarine warfare.
515
Jan. 10 From President Wilson
Finds proposed German settlement of the Lusitania case unsatisfactory.
515
Jan. 10 Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the German Ambassador
Discussion of a communication received by the German Ambassador from his Government regarding submarine warfare and the British blockade.
516
1916 Jan. 10 The German Foreign Office to the German Embassy
Reports that submarine warfare has been modified to meet American wishes and suggests that steps be taken to establish freedom of the seas.
517
Jan. 11 To President Wilson
Encloses memorandum of interview with the German Ambassador on January 10.
518
Jan. 11 (2) To Colonel E. M. House (tel.)
Reports progress in the Lusitania negotiations.
518
Jan. 19 (3) To Colonel E. M. House (tel.)
Believes that favorable action in the case of the Lusitania is probable.
518
Jan. 32 (J. No. A 530) From the German Ambassador
Encloses two drafts of memoranda from the German Embassy to the Department of State constituting proposed settlement of the submarine warfare controversy and the Lusitania case.
519
Jan. 24 To President Wilson
Opinion that neither of the two German drafts is satisfactory.
521
Jan. 24 From President Wilson
Agrees that proposed German settlement of the Lusitania case is unsatisfactory.
522
Jan. 25 From President Wilson
Opinion that Ambassador Gerard ought to be fully informed regarding the progress of the Lusitania negotiations.
522
Jan. 25 To President Wilson
Encloses memorandum (text printed) of a conference with the German Ambassador at which the proposals for settlement of the Lusitania case were discussed.
523
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the German Ambassador, January 26, 1916
Presentation by the German Ambassador of another memorandum outlining a formula for settlement of the Lusitania case. Secretary Lansing stated that he regarded this memorandum also as unsatisfactory. Suggestion by Secretary Lansing of certain changes in the proposed memorandum.
525
Jan. 26 (2645) To the Ambassador in Germany (tel.)
Informs Ambassador Gerard and Colonel House of progress of the Lusitania negotiations and transmits memorandum submitted by the German Ambassador in his conversation with Secretary Lansing on January 26. Expresses belief that if the German Government agrees to memorandum the Lusitania case will be satisfactorily ended.
525
Jan. 26 Draft Note to the German Ambassador
Note proposed for use in case of entire failure of informal negotiations on the Lusitania case.
527
1916 Jan. 31 To President Wilson
Encloses two telegrams from Berlin. Expresses belief that Ambassador Gerard and Colonel House do not appreciate that the real point at issue is that the German Government should admit the wrongdoing of the submarine commander in torpedoing the Lusitania.
529
Jan. 31 (2661) To the Ambassador in Germany (tel.)
Instruction that no encouragement should be given that the offer forwarded in the Ambassador’s telegram of January 29, 10 p. m., would be acceptable.
530
Feb. 2 From President Wilson (tel.)
Directs that a message be framed and sent explaining the point referred to in Secretary Lansing’s letter of January 31.
530
Feb. 3 From President Wilson (tel.)
Directs that the message suggested in his telegram of the previous day be withheld.
530
Feb. 4 To President Wilson
Encloses memorandum from the German Ambassador which he stated was as far as his Government could go in complying with American requests.
530
Feb. 8 To President Wilson
Reports a conversation with the German Ambassador and a discussion of suggested changes in his memorandum referred to in Secretary Lansing’s letter of February 4.
531
Feb. 16 To President Wilson
Reports a conversation with the German Ambassador, who left a letter embodying the German reply to the American note of July 21, 1915. Opinion that it cannot be accepted as a settlement of the Lusitania case.
531
Feb. 16 From President Wilson
Opinion that the German note could be accepted as satisfactory except for the recent announcement of the Central Powers regarding their intentions as to the treatment of armed merchant vessels. Suggests further conversation with the German Ambassador on this point.
532
Feb. 19 To the German Ambassador
Encloses clipping from the Washington Post of February 18, 1916 (text printed) attributing to an official of the German Embassy the belief that the United States Government is not anxious to make an immediate settlement of the Lusitania controversy. Requests information as to the authenticity of the statement and the official responsible for it.
533
Feb. 22 (J. No. A 1225) From the German Ambassador
Declaration that no member of the German Embassy had made any press statement with regard to the Lusitania negotiations and that the contents of the statement were in contradiction to the policy of the German Government.
534
1916 Mar. 8 To President Wilson
Encloses memorandum from the German Ambassador reviewing the submarine warfare question. Indicates that the Ambassador desires to give publicity to the memorandum.
535
Mar. 8 From President Wilson
Opinion that the memorandum of the German Ambassador was not intended for the information of the Government but as an appeal to American public opinion.
535
Mar. 24 To President Wilson
Encloses draft note (text printed) to the German Ambassador indicating that his memorandum of March 8 on the submarine warfare question constituted an appeal to public opinion in a matter under diplomatic discussion between the two Governments and that the memorandum and the way in which it was laid before the public had produced an unfavorable impression.
536
Mar. 27 To President Wilson
Expresses opinion that the attack on the Sussex had created a serious situation and suggests that if it were shown that the Sussex was torpedoed the most practical course would be severance of diplomatic relations with Germany.
537
Mar. 30 From President Wilson
Not in agreement with Secretary Lansing’s impressions on the Sussex case. Regards proof that the disaster was caused by a torpedo as not yet conclusive. Necessity for a personal conference.
539
Apr. 6 Draft Instructions to the Ambassador in Germany
Preliminary draft instructions to the Ambassador in Germany on the Sussex case handed to the President for his consideration.
540
Apr. 10 To President Wilson
Encloses suggested insertion (text printed) to be added to the draft instructions to the Ambassador in Germany on the Sussex case.
542
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the German Ambassador, April 10, 1916, 3 p. m.
Discussion of situation created by the attack on the Sussex.
544
Apr. 11 (130) From the German Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the German Ambassador (tel.)
States that investigation shows no German submarine responsible for attack on the Sussex.
545
Apr. 12 To President Wilson
Discussion of proposed redraft of instructions to Ambassador Gerard in the Sussex case. Suggests an alternative concluding portion to the instruction, according to which diplomatic relations with Germany would be broken.
546
Apr. 14 From the German Ambassador to Colonel E. M. House
Transmits copy of telegram of April 11 from the German Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
547
1916 Apr. 14 From the French Ambassador
Transmits copy of telegram (text printed) conveying French information on the subject of the submarine involved in the attack on the Sussex.
548
Apr. 15 To President Wilson
Reports interview with the French Ambassador regarding the case of the Sussex.
548
Apr. 15 To President Wilson
Further discussion of the proposed conclusion of the instruction to Ambassador Gerard on the Sussex case.
549
Apr. 15 To President Wilson
Discussion of information contained in affidavits taken in the Sussex case.
550
Apr. 17 From President Wilson
Acknowledges receipt of statement of fact to accompany the note to Germany on the Sussex case.
550
Apr. 17 From President Wilson
Discussion of information received from the French Ambassador on the Sussex case.
551
Apr. 17 From President Wilson
Transmits final draft of communication to Germany on the Sussex case. Advises extraordinary precautions in handling the communication.
551
Apr. 18 From the French Ambassador
Transmits additional French information regarding the submarine alleged to be responsible for the attack on the Sussex.
552
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the German Ambassador, April 18, 1916
Discussion of methods employed in submarine warfare.
552
Apr. 18 (J. No. A 2813/16) From the German Foreign Office to the German Embassy (tel.)
Statement that submarine warfare is being conducted in accordance with principles of international law with the exception of destruction of enemy freight ships in English war zone, which is regarded as a measure of retaliation.
554
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With the German Ambassador, April 20, 1916
Discussion of situation created by continued submarine warfare.
555
Apr. 20 From the French Ambassador
Transmits further French information regarding the submarine alleged to be responsible for the attack on the Sussex.
559
Apr. 24 (3797) From the Ambassador in Germany (tel.)
Forwards message for Colonel House informing that he has the impression that the German Chancellor would be willing to agree that Germany would not attack unarmed passenger vessels without previous warning.
560
1916 Apr. 24 From President Wilson
Comments on proposed memorandum regarding status of armed merchant vessels.
560
Apr. 25 To President Wilson
Impression that the German Government would attempt to compromise in any declaration they might make in regard to the abandonment of submarine warfare. Transmits a memorandum (text printed) by the Counselor for the Department of State regarding an interview between Colonel House and the German Ambassador on the subject of the submarine situation.
561
Apr. 26 To President Wilson
Encloses proposed telegram to Ambassador Gerard indicating that a prompt reply to the American note of April 18, 1916, on the Sussex case is expected.
562
May 5 To President Wilson
Encloses report from Ambassador Gerard of his interview with the Kaiser.
563
May 6 To President Wilson
Encloses German note of May 4, 1916. Expresses opinion that it has a decidedly insolent tone. Encloses memorandum (text printed) on the new orders to German submarine commanders contained in the German note of May 4, 1916.
563
May 8 To President Wilson
Considerations on President’s draft of an answer to the German note of May 4, 1916. Belief that expression of relief on the avoidance of a break with Germany should be omitted. Encloses an alternative draft.
565
May 8 From President Wilson
Approves of Secretary Lansing’s amended note.
566
May 8 To President Wilson
Encloses proposed statement for the press (text printed) to be given out at the same time as the reply to Germany.
566
May 10 To President Wilson
Discussion of possible situation created in case of a German attack on a belligerent merchant vessel with no Americans on board.
568
May 17 From President Wilson
Opinion that the United States would not be justified in assuming general representation of neutral rights in such a case as Secretary Lansing outlined in his letter of May 10, 1916.
568
Sept. 14 (4338) From the Ambassador in Germany (tel.)
Reports bitter feeling of German Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs over continued shipment of munitions from the United States to the Allies.
569
Sept. 21 To President Wilson
Reports attacks on the Administration made in the course of the political campaign over the failure to protest against the German invasion of Belgium and the delay in the settlement of the Lusitania case.
569
1916 Sept. 29 From President Wilson
Expresses belief that the position of the Government in the matter of protesting against the German invasion of Belgium has been made sufficiently plain, but that the settlement of the Lusitania case might well be again taken up with the German Ambassador.
570
Oct. 2 To President Wilson
Doubts wisdom of resuming negotiations on the Lusitania case until after the election.
571
Oct. 6 From President Wilson
Pleased by Secretary Lansing’s agreement that negotiations with Germany should not be resumed at the moment.
572
Oct. 16 To President Wilson
Belief that further delay in summoning Ambassador Gerard for an interview would be inadvisable.
572
Undated Memorandum by Colonel E. M. House of a Conversation With the German Ambassador, November 20, 1916
Ambassador informed that the next move in the controversy would be to break diplomatic relations. Statement that the President would move for peace at the first opportunity.
573
Nov. 22 To President Wilson
Discussion of facts in the case of the Marina.
573
Nov. 23 From the German Ambassador to Colonel E. M. House
Expresses belief that the German Government would be prepared to make reparation in the Arabia and Marina cases.
574
Dec. 8 To President Wilson
Serious situation created by the sinking of the Marina and Arabia. Opinion that a crisis has come in the submarine controversy. Encloses letter from the German Ambassador (text printed) expressing a readiness to effect a speedy and satisfactory settlement of the Marina and Arabia cases when information on those cases is available.
575
1917 Jan. 3 To President Wilson
Encloses a letter from Mr. Leland Harrison (text printed) regarding the views of Mr. Arthur Page on prospects for peace in Europe and a report (text printed) furnished by the Office of Naval Intelligence on the operations of the German submarine U-53 and other German submarine activities.
576
Jan. 4 From President Wilson
Acknowledges receipt of the preceding.
579
Jan. 12 To President Wilson
Encloses letter from the German Ambassador transmitting a memorandum on the subject of armed enemy merchant ships. Expresses belief that the memorandum is sent for the purpose of laying the groundwork in beginning more drastic submarine warfare.
579
1917 Jan. 17 To President Wilson
Encloses a report from Ambassador Page concerning the British point of view on the question of armed merchant vessels. Expresses opinion that determination of a definite policy in this matter cannot be long delayed.
580
Jan. 23 To President Wilson
Transmits telegram of January 21, 1917, from Ambassador Gerard in which resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare is predicted.
580
Jan. 24 From President Wilson
Opinion that Gerard’s conjectures are well founded.
581
Jan. 31 From President Wilson
Opinion that activities of armed merchant ships in attacking submarines present a most difficult problem.
581
Jan. 31 To President Wilson
Expresses conviction that Germany intends to renew unrestricted submarine warfare in the near future.
581
Jan. 31 To President Wilson
Encloses memorandum (text printed) on armed merchantmen.
582
Feb. 2 To President Wilson
Encloses considerations on submarine warfare as a crime against humanity.
591
Feb. 2 To President Wilson
Expresses belief that diplomatic relations with Germany should be broken at once.
591
Feb. 5 To President Wilson
Encloses telegram from the Minister in Cuba. Advises that serious consideration should be given a request to the Cuban Government to remove the German consuls and to break off relations with Germany.
593
Feb. 5 To President Wilson
Encloses telegram from the Minister in Panama. Expresses belief that Panama should remove German consuls and break off relations with Germany.
593
Feb. 5 To President Wilson
Reports that the British Ambassador had called upon Mr. Phillips and expressed on behalf of the Governor General and the people of Canada their admiration for the course recently taken by President Wilson.
593
Feb. 6 From President Wilson
Believes that acknowledgment of the preceding might be made through the Department.
594
Feb. 6 From President Wilson
Agrees with Secretary Lansing’s suggestions with regard to Panama. Suggests possibility of German attack on Cuba in case of break in relations.
594
1917 Feb. 6 (827) From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.)
Discusses the Vatican’s attitude toward submarine controversy between the United States and Germany.
595
Feb. 6 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Declaration that the Government cannot advise private persons as to whether or not their merchant vessels should sail on voyages on which they would pass through the German zone of submarine warfare.
595
Feb. 7 Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Reports advising Cuban Minister that it would be unwise for Cuba to break with Germany.
596
Feb. 10 To President Wilson
Expresses belief that Austrian dependence on Germany would be lessened if the Allied Governments so modified their peace terms as not to involve the dismemberment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
596
Feb. 12 To President Wilson
Reports interview between Mr. Polk and the Swiss Minister, who left a memorandum stating that the Swiss Government had been requested by the German Government to state that the latter was still willing to negotiate with the United States provided that the submarine blockade against England would not thereby be broken. Expresses belief that the plan for resuming negotiations originated in Washington.
597
Feb. 12 From President Wilson
Expresses agreement with Secretary Lansing’s conclusions in regard to the memorandum transmitted by the Swiss Minister and suggests a form of reply.
598
Feb. 12 From the President of the American Peace Society
Recounts his recent unofficial negotiations intended to bring about a restoration of friendly relations between the United States and Germany.
599
Feb. 13 To President Wilson
Reports impression received by a newspaper correspondent to the effect that sentiment in the Entente Embassies was against the participation of the United States in the war.
604
Feb. 14 To President Wilson
Discusses problem raised by arming of American merchant vessels with the aid of the British Government.
605
Feb. 14 To President Wilson
Transmits a letter (text printed) from Senator Stone containing the text of Senate Bill 8236. Reports request of Senator Saulsbury for the views of the Secretary thereon.
605
Feb. 15 From President Wilson
Expresses belief that the proposed act would be unconstitutional.
607
1917 Feb. 15 To the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
Transmits the President’s views on Senator Saulsbury’s resolution.
607
Feb. 17 To the Secretary of the Treasury
Discussion of right of merchant vessels to carry armament.
607
Feb. 17 From the Counselor for the Department of State
Reports interview with the Swiss Minister, who declared that his suggestion of February 10 had been made on specific instructions from his Government to do so at the request of the German Minister at Berne.
608
Feb. 17 To President Wilson
Forwards letter from Dr. Kirchwey regarding his unofficial negotiations intended to improve relations between the United States and Germany.
609
Feb. 19 From President Wilson
Comments on Dr. Kirchwey’s activities.
609
Feb. 21 To President Wilson
Encloses a memorandum (text printed) on the subject of supplying arms and trained men to American vessels passing through the submarine danger zone.
609
Mar. 6 To President Wilson
Discussion of reasons for his belief that the statute of 1819 in no way restricts the power to arm merchant vessels against submarine attacks.
613
Mar. 8 To President Wilson
Encloses telegram (text printed) from Mr. Richard Olney, who expressed his agreement that nothing in the statutes impaired the right of the President to arm American merchant vessels for protection against attack.
616
Mar. 8 To President Wilson
Expresses belief that action to be taken in regard to arming merchant vessels should be based upon the hypothesis that the country would soon be at war with Germany.
616
Mar. 9 From Mrs. Edith Boiling Wilson
Transmits a letter from the Secretary of the Navy to President Wilson (text printed) regarding course of action to be followed in arming merchant vessels.
618
Mar. 9 To President Wilson
Discussion of Secretary Daniels’ suggestions with regard to the course of action to be followed in arming merchant vessels.
621
Mar. 11 From the Secretary of the Navy
Encloses tentative regulations (text printed) governing the conduct of American merchant vessels on which armed guards have been placed.
622
Mar. 16 [17?] To President Wilson
Reports request of Swiss Minister for a reply to his note of February 10 relating to a protocol suggested by the German Government in relation to article 23 of the treaty of 1799.
626
1917 Mar. 19 To President Wilson
Expresses belief that while recent attacks by German submarines on American vessels do not of themselves constitute a reason for declaring war against Germany, yet these attacks as indicating German intentions make it only a question of time before the United States is forced to recognize such attacks as hostile acts. Expresses belief that war will come within a short time. Discusses question as to whether the advantages of delay outweigh the advantages of immediate participation in the war.
626
Mar. 19 To Colonel E. M. House
Informs that the President is not disposed to summon Congress at once. Suggests that if Colonel House is favorable to immediate action he should put his shoulder to the wheel.
628
Mar. 20 From Colonel E. M. House
Expresses belief that in proceeding as rapidly as possible with preparations for war it would be inadvisable for the President to summon Congress before April 16.
629
Mar. 26 To President Wilson
Encloses proposed statement to the press (text printed) intended to offset possible public criticism of the President for not taking immediate action against Germany.
630
Mar. 26 To President Wilson
Consideration of the position of Cuba and Panama in the event of war between the United States and Germany.
631
Mar. 27 From President Wilson
Opinion that Cuba and Panama should be urged to follow the course of the United States in case of war between the United States and Germany.
632
Mar. 27 To President Wilson
Reports a conversation with Count Tarnowski and encloses a letter from Count Tarnowski to Secretary Lansing (text printed) informing that he has been instructed by Count Czernin to call attention to the difficult situation caused by the long delay in his being received by the President.
632
Mar. 27 From President Wilson
Count Tarnowski should be told that the Austrian acceptance of the German policy leading to the breach of diplomatic relations between the United States and Germany makes it impossible to receive him.
633
Apr. 1 From President Wilson
Requests the drafting of a resolution declaring war against Germany.
634
Apr. 2 Draft of Joint Resolution To Be Introduced in Congress, April 2, 1917 635
Apr. 3 To President Wilson
Encloses draft (text printed) of a proclamation to be issued by the President calling for the support of all citizens in the prosecution of war.
635
1917 Apr. 4 To Colonel E. M. House
Expresses gratification at the reception of the President’s message throughout the country.
636
Apr. 4 To President Wilson
Suggests issuance of proclamation of a state of war at once, followed by a proclamation dealing with enemy aliens on the next day.
637
Apr. 4 From President Wilson
Disapproves of Secretary Lansing’s suggestion for two proclamations.
637
Apr. 4 To President Wilson
Forwards proclamation declaring the existence of a state of war between the United States and Germany and setting forth regulations prescribing conduct toward enemy aliens.
638
Apr. 5 From Colonel E. M. House
Praises President’s statement that democracy is essential to permanent peace.
638

Correspondence Between the Secretary of State and American Ambassadors in Europe

austria-hungary

[Page LV]
1915 Nov. 4 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Reports return of Ambassador Dumba. Comments on the political and military situation in Austria-Hungary.
639
Nov. 11 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Comments on conditions in Austria-Hungary.
642
Nov. 25 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Reports conversation with Baron Burián on the course of the war.
645
Dec. 5 From President Wilson
Comments on Ambassador Penfield’s letter of November 11.
648
Dec. 9 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Comments on financial and political situation in Austria-Hungary.
648
1916 Jan. 13 To the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Acknowledges Ambassador Penfield’s letter of November 25.
651
Feb. 21 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Describes visit of King Ferdinand of Bulgaria to Vienna.
652
Apr. 15 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Reports public opinion in Austria-Hungary on the continuation of the war.
654
June 3 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Reports public sentiment in Austria-Hungary on the subject of bringing the war to a close.
655
1916 June 15 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Reports that the Austro-Hungarian Government does not intend sending an Ambassador to Washington at present.
657
June 21 From President Wilson
Comments on Ambassador Penfield’s letter of June 3, 1916.
658
July 3 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Discusses prospects of Rumania entering the war.
658
July 27 From President Wilson
Acknowledges receipt of Ambassador Penfield’s letter of July 3.
659
Aug. 1 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Further discussion of prospects of Rumania entering the war.
659
Sept. 2 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Discussion of activities of American Red Cross in Serbia.
661
Sept. 23 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary
Description of conditions in Austria-Hungary.
662

germany

[Page LVI][Page LVII][Page LVIII]
Date and number Subject Page
1915 Oct. 25 From the Ambassador in Germany
Reports an interview with the Kaiser. Comments on conditions in Germany.
664
[Nov.1?] From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
665
Nov. 9 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
666
Nov. 22 From the Ambassador in Germany
Discussion of the trade in dyestuffs and chemicals. Comments on conditions in Germany.
667
Nov. 30 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
669
Dec. 2 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
670
Dec. 7 From the Ambassador in Germany
Reports peace talk. Comments on conditions in Germany.
671
Dec. 14 From the Ambassador in Germany
Discussion of recall of von Papen and Boy-Ed and the Ancona controversy with Austria-Hungary. Comments on conditions in Germany.
672
[Dec. 20?] From the Ambassador in Germany
Reports interview with the Chancellor, who complained of the difficulty of communicating with Ambassador Bernstorff.
673
1915 Dec. 28 From the Ambassador in Germany
Reports impression that Austria-Hungary would give in on the Ancona case. Comments on conditions in Germany.
674
1916 Jan. 3 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
675
Jan. 11 To the Ambassador in Germany
Acknowledges Ambassador Gerard’s letter of November 22, 1916, on the trade in dyestuffs and chemicals. Informs that manufacturers in the United States are being affected by the shortage of these commodities.
676
Feb. 8 From the Ambassador in Germany
Reports Colonel House’s interviews with German officials. Comments on conditions in Germany.
676
Feb. 16 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany. Looks upon the visit of Colonel House as a success.
678
Feb. 29 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany and on the report that Secretary Lansing had said to the Austro-Hungarian Chargé that he approved of Germany’s declaration on the subject of armed merchant ships.
678
Mar. 7 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
679
Mar. 14 From the Ambassador in Germany
Reports reading Secretary Lansing’s memorandum on his interview with the Austro-Hungarian Chargé to the German Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Reports that questions have come from some Germans asking whether the sending of a German unofficial agent similar to Colonel House would be agreeable to the President. Further comments on conditions in Germany.
680
Mar. 20 From the Ambassador in Germany
Reports an interview with the Chancellor. Comments on conditions in Germany.
681
Apr. 7 From President Wilson
Opinion that it is too late to answer Ambassador Gerard’s question about the advisability of sending a German special representative to this country, but that in case of a renewal of the suggestion it might be answered that any messenger of friendly counsel from the Emperor would be welcomed.
682
Apr. 11 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
683
May 10 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
684
May 17 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on the food situation in Germany.
685
1916 May 24 From the Ambassador in Germany
Reports an interview with the Chancellor on the subject of Polish relief. Comments on conditions in Germany.
686
May 31 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
687
June 7 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany. Expresses belief that neither Austria-Hungary nor Germany wishes President Wilson to lay down peace conditions.
688
June 14 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
688
June 21 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany. Describes methods used for communication with Ambassador Bernstorff.
689
July 18 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
690
July 25 From the Ambassador in Germany
Discussion of Turkish situation. Comments on conditions in Germany.
690
Aug. 8 From the Ambassador in Germany
Reports an interview with Count Andrassy. Suggests that the Ambassador be supplied with letters of credence to the King of Bavaria. Comments on conditions in Germany.
692
Aug. 16 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
693
Aug. 23 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
694
Aug. 30 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on the military situation.
695
Sept. 13 From the Ambassador in Germany
Reports that the German Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs told him that the Allied offensive could not continue without the supply of munitions from America. Further comments on conditions in Germany.
696
1917 Jan. 3 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany. Expresses opinion that the great danger in connection with the submarine controversy is the possibility of a movement in the United States directed against the policy of the President, which would encourage Germany in the belief that the United States was divided.
697
Jan. 9 From the Ambassador in Germany
Comments on conditions in Germany.
698
1917 Jan. 16 From the Ambassador in Germany
Regards the President’s peace note as a wise move. Comments on conditions in Germany.
699
Jan. 31 From President Wilson
Returns Ambassador Gerard’s letter of January 9, 1917. Comments on impressions received from Gerard’s letters.
700

great britain

[Page LIX]
Date and number Subject Page
1915 Apr. 8 From the Ambassador in Great Britain
Reports conditions under which note regarding British interference with American trade was received. Suggests that such notes be sent by mail.
700
July 15 (2462) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Comments on public opinion in Great Britain.
701
Oct. 25 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Expresses hope that no foundation exists for rumors that the Ambassador intends to resign.
702
Oct. 29 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Expresses gratification at learning that the Ambassador does not intend to resign.
702
1916 Jan. 3 (3500) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Summarizes and discusses London press comment and British public opinion on the submarine controversy between the United States and Germany.
703
Feb. 17 (3783) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Transmits a message for the President in which Ambassador Page expresses his views regarding the long delay in settling the Lusitania controversy.
705
Feb. 18 To President Wilson
Regards the message from Ambassador Page as expressing Mr. Page’s opinions rather than those of Colonel House.
706
Mar. 26 (4032) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Transmits a message to the President stating that British opinion is agreed that a break between the United States and Germany would quickly end the war and would not lead to war between the two countries.
706
May 6 (4256) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Reports that British newspaper comment and private opinion regard the German reply on the Sussex case as merely an effort to prolong discussion.
707
May 6 (4260) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Reports widespread belief that Germany will renew efforts for peace.
707
1916 Sept. 15 Memorandum by the Ambassador in Great Britain
Notes toward an explanation of the British feeling toward the United States.
708
1917 Jan. 7 From the Ambassador in Great Britain
Comments on irritation caused by British interference with American trade. Reports British view that such interference is necessary.
713
Jan. 20 (5514) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Suggests that the President alter his speech to eliminate the phrase “Peace without victory.”
715
Feb. 5 (4395) To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Informs that in view of the present situation, the President hopes that Ambassador Page will continue in service.
716
Feb. 6 (5611) From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)
Reports his willingness to continue to serve since the President wishes him to remain.
716

italy

[Page LX][Page LXI]
Date and number Subject Page
1914 Dec. 25 From the Ambassador in Italy
Discussion of interference with American commerce with Italy, Switzerland, and other countries. Comments on conditions in Italy.
717
1915 Mar. 17 From the Ambassador in Italy
Comments on prospects of Italy’s entering the European War. Further comments on conditions in Italy.
720
July 30 To the Ambassador in Italy
Expresses hope that the Ambassador will continue to write him personally and confidentially. Explains American public opinion with regard to the submarine controversy with Germany.
722
Aug. 21 From the Ambassador in Italy
Foresees early outbreak of war between Italy and Turkey.
723
Aug. 31 From the Ambassador in Italy
Comments on conditions in Italy and on the progress of the war. Reports an interview with the Minister for Foreign Affairs who expressed the opinion that the United States would exert a great moral influence by declaring war on Germany. Adds that he was informed by the Under Secretary in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs that Italy had placed an embargo on the exportation of arms and munitions of war in the autumn of 1914 solely because these articles were needed at home.
725
Oct. 5 From the Ambassador in Italy
Comments on the progress of the war and conditions in Italy.
728
1915 Oct. 8 From the Ambassador in Italy
Comments on events in Greece.
729
Dec. 4 From the Ambassador in Italy
Encloses report on the Ancona sinking. Comments on the Balkan situation. Further comments on conditions in Italy.
730
Dec. 4 From the Ambassador in Italy
Discusses American policy of “preparedness.”
732
Dec. 29 From President Wilson
Acknowledges receipt of letters from Ambassador Page at Rome. Believes them lacking in definiteness of impression.
733
1916 Feb. 9 From the Ambassador in Italy
Comments on the political situation in Italy and on causes leading to differences between the Allies.
733
Mar. 18 From the Ambassador in Italy
Expresses desire to publish an article defending the President’s foreign policy and suggests that the article be submitted to Colonel House.
735
Apr. 20 From Colonel E. M. House
Expresses opinion that it would not be entirely fitting for an Ambassador to publish such an article as Mr. Page proposed.
736
Aug. 14 From the Ambassador in Italy
Discusses proposed Italian blacklist regulations. Comments on conditions in Italy.
737
Aug. 28 From the Ambassador in Italy
Reports declaration of war by Italy on Germany. Comments on the course of the war and on the prospects in the American political campaign.
738
Nov. 25 From the Ambassador in Italy
Comments on the results of the presidential election and on conditions in Italy. Expresses opinion that European Governments will recognize the power of the Administration to be greater than before.
740
Dec. 26 From President Wilson
Acknowledges the receipt of Ambassador Page’s letter of November 25, 1916.
742
Dec. 29 From the Ambassador in Italy
Reports on favorable reception of President’s circular note to the belligerents regarding their terms of peace.
742
Dec. 29 From the Ambassador in Italy
Reports a suggestion supposed to have come from the Vatican concerning the power of the United States to bring about peace.
744
1917 Jan. 7 From the Ambassador in Italy
Discusses unfriendly attitude toward the Administration of certain members of American colonies at Rome and other European capitals.
745
1917 Jan. 15 From the Ambassador in Italy
Comments on replies to the President’s note to the belligerents regarding terms of peace. Comments on conditions in Italy. Reports an apparent effort to draw the Latin-American countries into closer relations with Europe and to divide them from the United States.
747
Jan. 22 From the Ambassador in Italy
Comments on diplomatic activities of the Vatican.
750
Jan. 22 From the Ambassador in Italy to President Wilson
Comments on the situation in Russia. Comments on the situation in Switzerland. Further comments on the reception of the President’s note of December 18, 1916, to the belligerents regarding peace terms.
751
Feb. 17 From the Ambassador in Italy
Reports conversation with Baron Sonnino. Discusses sinking of the schooner Lyman M. Law.
755
Mar. 20 From the Ambassador in Italy
Comments on conditions in Italy.
757
Mar. 20 From the Ambassador in Italy
Requests delivery to the President personally of his comments on the diplomatic activity of the Vatican.
760

turkey

[Page LXII]
Date and number Subject Page
1915 Nov. 4 From the Ambassador in Turkey
Comments on political conditions in Turkey.
762
Nov. 18 From the Ambassador in Turkey
Comments on the conduct of the war by Turkey.
766
Dec. 1 From the Ambassador in Turkey
Reports that Enver Pasha had asked him to inform the President that peace terms more favorable for the Entente Powers could be arranged for before the annihilation of Serbia and the invasion of Egypt. Reports talks with the German Ambassador at Constantinople regarding possibilities of peace. Discusses economic condition of Turkey.
769
Dec. 22 From the Ambassador in Turkey
Discusses relations between Turkey and Germany.
774
1916 Sept. 15 From the Ambassador in Turkey
Comments on conditions in Germany as observed during his visit there en route to Constantinople.
775
Sept. 26 From the Ambassador in Turkey
Comments on conditions in Vienna and Austria-Hungary as observed en route to Constantinople. Reports Turkey’s ill feeling against the Germans.
780
1916 Nov. 17 From the Ambassador in Turkey
Comments on political and economic conditions in Turkey.
783
1917 Mar. 2 From the Ambassador in Turkey
Reports information reaching him that Turkey would not break off relations with the United States even if there should be war between the United States and Germany. Reports cordial attitude of Turkish Ministers and other officials.
787