No. 280.
Mr. Nelson to Mr. Fish.

No. 703.]

Sir: The opening of the railroad from Vera Cruz to Mexico was celebrated with great éclat in this capital, and has been the occasion of a number of balls, banquets, and other entertainments. The line of the railway was opened to the public on the 22d instant.

Public order on the west coast has been disturbed by a body of malcontents under the command of Manuel Lozada. During the present month several commissions from the military district of Tepic, in the state of Jalisco, have come to this capital to confer with the government in respect to certain discriminations which they desire the government to make in favor of the said district. The pretensions of the leaders of this movement are all more or less unfounded. The answer of the government was firm and decided; to the effect that the constitution and laws must prevail throughout the whole republic, and that the government could make no exceptions. This determination of the executive was not well received at Tepic, and on the 17th instant eighty-seven persons, calling themselves Mexican citizens, representing the village of Nayarit, met in the town of San Luis de Lozada, and there formed and adopted what they call a “liberative plan.” This plan or platform begins by an exposé of the state of the country, and vehemently attacks the present executive of the republic. The plan contains sixteen articles, but the most noticeable feature is the proposed restitution of the property of the church, which had been confiscated by the liberal government.

The first article declares that the villages of the Sierra de Alica (acknowledging as before that of Nayarit as the center) are met with the special object of deliberating with the best intentions how to avoid the unjust war the government has declared toward them, and to follow, as heretofore, their honest work.
The second article gives to the forces of Nayarit, the title of “The Mexican popular restorative army,” the general-in-chief being Manuel Lozada.
The third article delares that this liberative plan shall be presented to the congress of the union.
The fourth article threatens to punish any person of whatever rank who may protect the enemy.
The fifth article forbids Mexicans from leaving the country during the civil war without a passport from the general-in-chief of the insurrection.
The sixth article states that after the victory of the plan the chief of the insurrection will convoke “ayuntamientos,” as representatives of the people, to name for each state three representatives, who will meet at a place designated by the chief to deliberate on the form of government the country is to have, be it a republic, an empire, or a kingdom.
The seventh article proposes that in the mean while the nation will be governed by “municipes,” or citizens elected by the people, and who will be perfectly independent and sovereign.
The eight article states that the forces will only receive such pay as can be given them, or that they may take from the enemy.
The ninth article advises the treasury employés of the federation, and merchants, natives or foreigners, that, after the promulgation of the plan, all liquidations and transactions are prohibited in the public offices, under penalties.
The tenth article abolishes internal custom-houses, and gives power to the “ayuntamientos” to procure resources necessary for the expenses of the state.
According to the eleventh article, the public debt will be conscientiously paid, both foreign and national.
The twelfth article recommends public education.
The thirteenth article promises freedom to the press so long as it treats of progress and morality.
The fourteenth article gives power to the general-in-chief to declare what ports shall be opened.
The fifteenth article guarantees protection to life and property, including such public works as railroads, telegraphs, &c.
The sixteenth article is as follows:
“Let the present plan be communicated to foreign governments, manifesting to them the positive desire to renew with them the best relations of friendship and commerce. The general-in-chief is, with this end, invested with faculties to name, provisionally, diplomatic representatives near those nations.”

Immediately after the promulgation of this plan, some of the towns of Jalisco and Sinaloa were invaded by the insurgents. The government is meeting the emergency with great promptness, and no doubt the revolt will be speedily suppressed.

Telegrams received in the city yesterday announce the defeat of Lozada at Mojonera, about five leagues from Guadalajara, by a federal force under General Corona.

The rebels were six thousand strong, and, it is said, lost about one thousand in killed and wounded; the loss of the government forces is estimated at three hundred.

Another telegram states that Colonel Altamirano, on the 29th, routed two thousand rebels at Rosario, in Sinaloa.

I have, &c.,