A Guide to the United States’ History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Peru


Peru and the United States first established diplomatic relations in 1826, five years following the proclamation of Peruvian independence in July 1821 under General San Martin. The area that became the Republic of Peru previously had been under Spanish sovereignty. Diplomatic relations have been interrupted due to intermittent territorial disputes with its neighbors, periods of military rule, and coups that have overthrown civilian constitutional government. However, diplomatic ties have never been severed between the two countries. Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949.

Modern Flag of Peru


United States Recognition of Peru, 1826.

The independence of Peru was recognized by the United States by the appointment of James Cooley as Charge d’Affaires on May 2, 1826.

United States Recognition of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, 1838.

Following its independence from Spain, in 1836 Peru joined the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. The United States recognized the Peru-Bolivian Confederation on March 16, 1837 by the appointment of James B. Thornton as Chargé d’Affaires. Thornton was commissioned to Peru but received by the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Succeeding Thornton, who died in Peru in January, 1838, J.C. Pickett was appointed Charge d’Affaires on June 8, 1838. He did not present his credentials until January, 1840. This lapse in diplomatic representation may be attributed to the dissolution of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation in 1839, and the return to separate U.S.-Peru diplomatic relations.

Diplomatic Relations

Establishment of Diplomatic Relations and the American Legation in Lima, 1827.

Diplomatic relations and the American Legation in Lima were established on May 21, 1827, when James Cooley presented his credentials as Chargé d’Affaires.

Establishment of the Peruvian Legation in the United States, 1846.

In 1846, the Government of Peru named Juan Ignacio de Osma, as its first Plenipotentiary Minister to the United States.

Elevation of American Legation to Embassy Status, 1920.

The Legation at Lima was raised to an Embassy on April 24, 1920, when Ambassador William E. Gonzales presented his credentials to the Peruvian Government.


  • Department of State Country Fact Sheet: Peru
  • Department of State Country Information: Peru
  • Library of Congress Country Study: Peru