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A Guide to the United States’ History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Brunswick and Lüneburg

Summary

When the United States announced its independence from Great Britain in 1776, the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg was a sovereign, independent state. Incorporated into the Kingdom of Westphalia during the Napoleonic wars of the early nineteenth century, the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg regained independence in 1813. Mutual recognition between Brunswick and Lüneburg and the United States was established in 1848.

The Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg joined the North German Confederation in 1867, to which the U.S. appointed George Bancroft, then U.S. Minister to Prussia, to serve as the U.S. Minister to the North German Confederation. From this point forward, foreign policy of the North German Confederation, and later, after 1871 the German Empire, was made in Berlin, with the German Kaiser (who was also the King of Prussia) accrediting ambassadors of foreign nations. Relations with Imperial Germany were severed when the U.S. declared war in 1917.

Recognition

Mutual Recognition, 1848.

On April 5, 1848 U.S. Secretary of State James Buchanan acknowledged the Consul-General of Brunswick and Lüneburg at New York as John Dreyer Esq., which constitutes the first known act of mutual recognition between the United States and the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg.

Consular Presence

Consulate opened in the Duchy of Brunswick and Luneburg, March 17, 1856.

The United States opened its first consulate in the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg on March 17, 1856. This post closed on July 25, 1916.

Diplomatic Relations

Establishment of Diplomatic Relations.

The United States and the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg never established diplomatic relations.

Treaties and Agreements

Convention Respecting the Disposition of Property, 1854.

On August 21, 1854, the U.S. Secretary of State William L. Marcy and the Consul of the Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg at Mobile, Ala., Dr. Julius Samson, signed a Convention Respecting the Disposition of Property, as they were “animated by the desire to secure and extend, by an amicable convention, the relations happily existing between the two countries.” The treaty was negotiated and signed in Washington, DC.

Key Diplomatic Events

Brunswick and Lüneburg Join the North German Confederation, 1867.

On July 1, 1867, the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg joined the North German Confederation.

German Empire, 1871.

The Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg joined the German Empire, which was proclaimed on January 18, 1871.

German Unification.

Brunswick and Lüneburg was involved in the process of German unification during the mid-nineteenth century. See “Unification of German States” for greater detail.

Resources

  • Charles I. Beavans, Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776-1949, (Department of State: Washington, DC, 1971), Volume 8.
  • William M. Malloy, Treaties, Conventions, International Acts, Protocols, and Agreements Between The United States of American and Other Powers, 1776-1909 (Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1910).
  • John Bassett Moore, A Digest of International Law (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1906).