Countries

A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Central American Federation

Summary

The states that composed the Central American Federation (also referred to as the Federation of the Centre of America) were the states known today as Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. These areas declared independence from Spain on September 15, 1821. In 1823, the United Provinces of Central America was formed of the five Central American states under Gen. Manuel Jose Arce.

The federation began to dissolve in 1838 and by the early 1840s was all but defunct. Throughout the 1840s, the United States recognized the independence of the five former components of the Central American Federation in their own right: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

Recognition

U.S. Recognition of the Federation of the Centre of America’s Independence, 1824.

The United States recognized the independence of the Federation of Central American States from Spain on August 4, 1824, when President James Monroe received Antonio Jose Cañas as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.

Diplomatic Relations

Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, 1824.

Diplomatic relations between the United States and the Federation of the Centre of America were established when U.S. President James Monroe received Antonio Jose Cañas as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Federation of the Centre of America on August 4, 1824.

Establishment of the American Legation in Guatemala City, 1826.

U.S. Chargé d’Affaires John Williams presented his credentials to the Federation of Central American States on May 3, 1826.

Cessation of Relations, 1838-40.

The Central American Federation began to dissolve during 1838-40 due to civil war, although the last U.S. diplomatic representative accredited to the Central American Federation, Special and Confidential Agent of the United States to Central America William S. Murphy, did not take formal leave of his post until March 1842. From April 1844 through April 1853, the United States recognized the various members of the Central American Federation as separate states. See individual country entries for Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Honduras.

Treaties and Agreements

Treaty of Peace, Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, 1825.

On December 5, 1825, the United States and the Central American Federation signed a Treaty of Peace, Amity, Commerce, and Navigation in Washington, D.C. The agreement was signed by U.S. Secretary of State Henry Clay and Antonio Jose Cañas, Minister of San Salvador to the United States on behalf of the Federation of the Centre of America. The treaty was modeled on a similar one signed by the United States and Colombia of October 3, 1824.

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