After Argentina gained independence from the Spanish in 1816, the nation was paralyzed by tension between Centralist and Federalist forces. In 1854 the Federalist provinces ratified a constitution that established the Argentine Confederation, which Centralists in Buenos Aires repudiated while declaring themselves independent. Resistance forces expelled a brief Federalist incursion into Buenos Aires and the Confederation collapsed in 1861, paving way for the national rule under the Argentine Republic that same year.Modern Flag of Argentina
The United States recognized the Government of Buenos Ayres (predecessor of Argentina) on January 27, 1823, when Caesar Rodney was appointed as American Minister Plenipotentiary to that government. Buenos Ayres had declared independence from Spain on July 9, 1816.
Diplomatic relations were established on December 27, 1823, when American Minister Plenipotentiary Caesar Rodney presented his credentials to the Government of Buenos Ayres.
James A. Peden was commissioned as Charge d’Affaires to the Republic of Buenos Aires on May 22, 1854 but did not proceed to post in that capacity. Soon after Peden was nominated as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Argentine Confederation, eventually receiving a commission in 1856 with letters of credence to both Buenos Aires and the Confederation. Peden resided at Buenos Aires until about May 1, 1857, when he closed the Legation at that city and moved to Parana.
Following the collapse of the Argentine Confederation and national reunification as the Argentine Republic, Peden returned the U.S. Legation to Buenos Aires on February 25, 1862.
After a 1942 military coup, General Pedro Ramirez assumed power and maintained Argentinean neutrality in World War II, causing the United States to refuse Argentine requests for Lend-Lease aid. Ramirez eventually broke relations with Germany and Japan on January 26, 1944, but resigned in favor of his vice-president, General Edelmiro Farrell a few weeks later on February 25, 1944. The United States believed the Farrell regime was "not in sympathy to the declared Argentine policy of joining the defense of the hemisphere," and instructed Ambassador Norman Armour to refrain from entering official relations with the new government. Armour was instructed to return to Washington on June 27, 1944. Edward L. Reed subsequently became Charges d’Affaires of the Embassy in Buenos Aires.
The United States resumed normal diplomatic relations with Argentina and formally recognized the Farrell government on April 19, 1945, according to a State Department notice released that same day. The decision came from a meeting of the Inter-American Conference in Mexico City, where all the participants agreed to resume relations with Argentina following its declaration of war against the Axis powers.