Countries

A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Andorra

Summary

The Principality of Andorra is a co-principality, with the Bishop of Urgell (Spain) serving as one of its co-princes and the French president serving as the other. The governing arrangement dates back centuries and helps to explain why, in conjunction with its geographic location, Andorra has traditionally been isolated from European and international affairs. This began to change, however, with the ratification of its constitution in 1993, which established Andorra’s sovereignty as a “modern” representative democracy.

Modern Flag of Andorra

Modern Flag of Andorra

Since then the principality has become progressively more active within the international community. The United States and Andorra established diplomatic relations in 1995. All Ambassadors to Andorra have also been accredited to Spain and resident in Madrid. United States Consulate General Officials based in Barcelona are responsible for day-to-day conduct of relations with Andorra.

Recognition

U.S. Recognition of Andorra

Andorra has considered itself independent since medieval times, and therefore was already independent when the United States declared independence from the British Empire in 1776. Unlike many other independent states in the late eighteenth century, Andorra never signed a bilateral treaty with the United States, which would have legally constituted recognition of the new republic.

Andorra ratified a modern constitution on March 14, 1993, which provided for its independence and sovereignty as a “modern” representative democracy.

Diplomatic Relations

Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, 1995.

The United States established diplomatic relations with Andorra on February 21, 1995, with an exchange of letters between the Andorran government (requesting to establish full diplomatic relations) and the U.S. Secretary of State. Secretary of State Warren Christopher reciprocated by appointing the U.S. Consul General in Barcelona to also represent the United States to Andorra for diplomatic and consular affairs.

The first U.S. Ambassador to Andorra, Edward L. Romero, presented his credentials on October 30, 1998. All Ambassadors to Andorra have also been accredited to Spain and resident in Madrid.

Establishment of Andorran Embassy, 1996.

On February 6, 1996, Juli F. Minoves-Triquell presented credentials as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the United States. Ambassador Minoves-Triquell, at 26 years old, was the youngest ambassador on record to represent a foreign country at the time and was also accredited to the United Nations. The Andorran mission to the United Nations serves as the Andorran Embassy in the United States.

Resources

  • Department of State Country Fact Sheet: Andorra
  • Department of State Country Information: Andorra
  • CIA World Factbook: Andorra

Resources

  • Andorra in World Wide Diplomatic Archives Index