711.75/2–2846: Telegram

The Representative in Albania (Jacobs) to the Secretary of State


135. Mytel 123, February 23.24a Having heard nothing from Hoxha, [Page 13] inquired whether he intended send me memorandum or desired sehle [apparent garble] regarding Dept’s memo. His secretary replied General wished to see me and fixed February 27, noon, as time. Accordingly, we discussed matter hour and half with following results:

Treaties and agreements consumed more than hour interview; Hoxha constantly reiterating while some international treaties seemed acceptable, his Government could not agree in advance continued validity any treaties either bilateral or multilateral. Position his Government remained same as set forth his notes November 15 and 22,25 to effect that after US recognition accord [apparent omission] has arrived first task would be re-examine treaties with us, revise or abrogate them and submit those to be continued or new ones to Constituent Assembly for ratification. Said we should trust his Government but I replied it was not matter of trust as in view recent developments here most-favored-nation agreement and naturalization treaty were more important to us than ever. When I inquired whether assuming US would accept Albanian Government’s assurances with respect to re-examination after recognition, his Government would be willing exchange notes assuring American officials and nationals most-favored-nation treatment pending examination treaties and agreements, he replied in negative.
This occasion there was little time discuss treatment Mission but Hoxha did try in unconvincing way explain expulsion our [servants among the?] first group Italians was not intended discourtesy. I replied I disagreed but as these Italians had now left (gardener and family February 27) all authorities could best demonstrate good faith in this respect by approving continued residence Marinschaks which Hoxha said he would look into again giving impression he might be permitted stay. When, however, I mentioned entry Marinschak’s wife he shook his head and said he was afraid that would not be possible. As his case has been taken up not only with Hoxha but also with Resident Permit Bureau which is aware my approach Hoxha shall await some word from authorities before permitting Marinschak take further steps himself because if he appears at Bureau he might be arrested as were two servants Fultz and Hoffman. Also mentioned Hoxha that last Saturday three stenographers my office applied permit visit Scutari Sunday and although British majors who applied same time and were to take ladies with them were advised permits could not be issued, my Mission was not given courtesy reply of any kind. This seemed to irritate Hoxha who made note and said he would look into matter immediately. As Permit Bureau under direct supervision Koci-Xoxe, head Security Police and arch Communist operating with Russian Commissar in his office, there is more than suspicion Hoxha himself does not know what goes on there.

My comments on foregoing and situation created thereby are as follows:

Feel certain all authorities will not recognize continued validity [Page 14] treaties and agreements in advance complete recognition and no changed diplomatic representatives.
While possibility treatment accorded Mission may improve slightly some respects (at least until next consideration Albania’s application admission UNO) am certain that as long as Government and Yugoslav so-called military and civilian advisers are wandering over country and as long as any vestige opposition exists members Mission will continue be restricted Tirana and only occasionally permitted travel outside accompanied by Partisan guard. Equally certain Mission will not be permitted employ any one except Americans or Albanians and that not only would Mrs. Marinschak not be permitted to enter but doubt whether Marinschak himself will be permitted remain much longer. Moreover can be expected treatment accorded Mission in future will follow identically treatment accorded foreign missions Moscow with more unfortunate results here for staff because whereas Moscow is large city with opportunity for amusement and recreation, Tirana is still small town with few such facilities. Also through fear and intimidation, as in Moscow, contacts with local Albanians have practically ceased.
Is clear Albania has become nothing more than satellite state Soviet Union and Yugoslavia with probability only interest those two countries have in maintenance independent Albania is hope it may eventually be admitted UNO and thus add another vote Soviet bloc. If at next session UNO Albania not admitted, Albania may become unit Yugoslav federation. Notwithstanding foregoing statement, feel certain majority Albanians opposed Russian infiltration and domination and to federation.
According official pronouncements and provisions of proposed new constitution now under consideration, it is clear present regime and its Russian advisers determined set up in Albania state-controlled economic system along Soviet lines; which will deny US participation in trade and development country. Likewise new restrictions on dissemination foreign publications will prevent US from carrying on cultural and info activities or at least such activities will be greatly circumscribed. Also as part this Sovietization process, all foreigners (Hoxha has insinuated as much), including Americans (one already has had residence permit renewed to April 30 only) will eventually be expelled from country except such types persons as are now permitted remain Soviet Union. As corollary this step, Albanians, barring officials, are forbidden emigrate or travel except Soviet and its satellite states.
Also in Sovietization process, every form opposition will be exterminated ruthlessly with Soviet and Yugoslav assistance if necessary. Even school children are being urged and given prizes for spying on teachers and parents and more important indication trend is arrest Kokoshi-Aslani group which tried form second party election time November, December last year.
With regard Albanian regime itself are some members Government not at all in favor turn events but are helpless. Government in hands shrewd, determined and unscrupulous Communist group which granting sincerity in its beliefs is in bringing Russia here no better than previous regime which sold Albania either to Yugo or Italy.

[Page 15]

In view foregoing following possible courses action submitted for Department’s consideration in connection with such plans as it may have in contemplation:

I should be instructed advise Hoxha attitude taken by his Government toward treaties and agreements not acceptable and that US Government cannot proceed with recognition and exchange diplomatic representatives until such time as Albanian authorities are willing to reconsider. Note or memo should then include one alternatives paragraph 2 below.
Mission here should be withdrawn completely or I and part of staff recalled, leaving Fultz in charge reduced Mission. Suggestions as to staff and property will be submitted if second alternative decided upon.
As Department has in past kept London and Moscow and sometimes Paris advised may wish confer with or advise Foreign Office those capitals its intentions. British Foreign Office now waiting Department’s decision before instructing British Minister proceed and head French Military Mission here advises new French Minister scheduled arrive Tirana next week.
[sic] Before taking any other action Department may wish make representations Moscow suggested mytel 95 February 8.
In view fact Albania’s history since last war to present time reveals one unscrupulous group after another has got control and sold out some foreign power, am beginning come round view Albanian people may not be qualified for independence. On other hand Albanians are sufficiently large and virile minority to preclude their inclusion in or division between Yugo and Greece without creating grave minority problem those countries and aggravating Balkan unrest. It begins look therefore that solution might be trusteeship under UNO but Russia and Yugo are now so strongly entrenched fear they can not be got out except by force or on quid pro quo basis.
In view these developments need seems greater than ever reconsider UNRRA Albania program suggested A5 February 16 and telegrams 119 February 20 and 121 February 21.26

  1. Not printed.
  2. For texts of Hoxha’s notes, see Foreign Relations, 1945, vol. iv, pp. 71 and 73, respectively.
  3. None printed.