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Deposition of Mr. John T. Doyle, with exhibits.

United States of America,
State of California, County of San Mateo, ss:

Be it remembered that on the 26th day of August, 1902, before me, Jas. T. O’Keefe, a notary public in and for the county of San Mateo, State of California, United States of America, personally appeared John T. Doyle, who, being by me first duly sworn according to the laws of the State of California, deposed and said as follows:

My name is John T. Doyle, age eighty-two and a half years, residence Menlo Park, near San Francisco, California. I was born in the city of New York. I was admitted to the bar in May, 1842, in New York; afterwards I practiced law in San Francisco for very many years, but ceased to do so about 1889. Since then I have been a person of leisure. I am and have been from the time this claim was first presented to the Government of the United States one of the counsel [Page 400]for the bishops of California in the demand for the interest of the Pious Fund. I am interested personally in the case to the extent of any fee I may receive for my services, and have the natural interest a lawyer feels in the success of a case to which he has devoted much time and attention. If such things could bias my testimony (which I do not believe they could) I must be accounted a biased witness.

My first connection with this business resulted from being professionally employed by Bishop Joseph S. Alemany, then bishop of Monterey, and the immediate successor of Francisco Garcia Diego, the first bishop of the Californias, to recover from the Government of the United States the mission buildings, churches, graveyards, vineyards, and orchards belonging to twenty-one missions within the State of California, and one or two ranches claimed under grants from Mexico. The decision in that case was in favor of the claimant, and patents were afterwards issued in pursuance of the adjudication of the land commission for these properties. During the course of that proceeding Bishop Alemany called on me, I should say from memory, about the summer of 1854, though it may have been earlier, and showed me a bundle of papers which he had found in the archives of the diocese, transmitted to him from his predecessor in office, from which it seemed to him he had some claim perhaps against the Government of the United States as successor of Mexico in the sovereignty of California. He wished me to read the papers over and tell him what I thought of it. The papers consisted of five small pamphlets printed in Mexico and the collection of letters (copies) constituting a correspondence between Don Pedro Ramirez (the apoderado of Bishop Diego) and General Gabriel Valencia, appointed by the Mexican Government to administer the Pious Fund under a decree of February 8, 1842, and some other papers which were put in evidence on the first arbitration.

I examined these papers and advised the bishop that he had no claim against the Government of the United States, but I thought he had a valid claim against the Republic of Mexico, which at some time or other might be recoverable whenever a claims convention might be agreed upon between the two Governments. After that—but I can not fix the date—he spoke to Mr. Casserly and myself about employing us in the effort to recover whatever was due to him from the Pious Fund, and in the spring of 1857, as I was then about to remove to New York, he pressed us to enter into a contract with him and Bishop Amat for professional services in the case for a percentage of the amount collected. We assented, and as I was leaving before the contract could be executed, I asked Mr. Casserly to draw it up and sign for me. Some time in June or July, 1857, I learned from Mr. Casserly that he had signed such a contract, but I never saw the text of it nor knew its exact terms till long afterwards, I received a power of attorney from Bishop Alemany who had by that time been translated to the newly created see of San Francisco, as well as one from Bishop Thadeus Amat, who had succeeded him in the diocese of Monterey, authorizing me to represent them in the demand on Mexico for whatever they were entitled to from the Pious Fund and to request the interposition of the United States Government to that end. In July, 1859, on their behalf, I addressed a letter to the Hon. Lewis Cass, then Secretary of State of the United States, outlining in a general way the right of the bishops to the Pious Fund and asking his interposition with Mexico for redress.

[Page 401]

My object in presenting the claim at that time to him was to have it on the files of the Department of State so that if afterwards a claims commission were constituted it might be included. Not knowing what view of the claim might be taken by the United States authorities or what the terms of the possible future convention, the claim was stated in a very general way, the facts given, and the aid of the Government “asked. Thereafter I continued to search for information concerning the Pious Fund, concerning which all I had learned so far was what was shown by the papers the bishop showed me. I read all the Mexican history and politics I came across, and everything that held out any hope of information on the subject. The political condition of Mexico at that time, and for many years thereafter, was so disturbed that the prospects of a claims convention seemed very remote, and my study of the case was rather a matter of duty, and to a certain extent for historical interest, than with any immediate hope of being able to present it judicially. I returned from New York to San Francisco and resumed practice there in the summer of 1863.

In 1868 Mr. Casserly was elected to the United States Senate and took his seat in Washington in 1869. On the 27th of March, 1870, I learned of the convention of July 4, 1868, between the United States and Mexico and having examined it, sent, on the 28th of March, a telegram to Mr. Casserly, who was in Washington, of which I now hand the notary a copy transcribed from one made by me at the time. It is marked by him “Exhibit No. 1” to this deposition. I was not then on good terms with Mr. Casserly, and as Archbishop Alemany was absent from the State, I thought it judicious to have my telegram confirmed and countersigned by the vicar-general of the diocese, Reverend James Croke, as coming authentically and by authority, which was done. I learned afterwards from him that Mr. Casserly wrote him that he had received it seasonably and had presented the claim, but I had no answer from Mr. Casserly himself. I never knew till after the case was decided the form in which Mr. Casserly had presented the claim to the commission. I learned, however, that he had employed Mr. Nathaniel Wilson, in Washington, to act with him in the case, at or about the time of receiving my telegram, and after vain efforts to obtain from them a copy of the rules of the commission, I was finally fortunate enough to obtain a copy of them in the city of San Francisco from Don Juan Robinson, and drew up the memorial of the claim for the commission. It was printed, signed, and sworn to by Bishop Alemany, who had by that time returned, and sent to Mr. Wilson seasonably to file with the commission within the time allowed by law. Somebody there—I presume Mr. Casserly and Mr. Wilson—detached the last leaf of the memorial, containing a few lines of the text, viz., beginning with the word “estrangeros” and ending with the words “page 516,” and the signatures and jurat, printed my concluding lines with two additional paragraphs, added my name to it, and had it verified by Reverned Hugh Gallagher, who was in Washington and held a power of attorney from the bishops, and in that altered condition, as shown on page 15 of the printed transcript, it was filed. I state these facts because Mr. Avila in his argument of the case suggests that my memorial was an ingenious effort to change the form of the claim from that adopted by Mr. Casserly; but that is an error on his part, as will be seen from the above.

[Page 402]

Among the papers given me by Archbishop Alemany in 1853 or 1854, whichever it was, was the one which I now produce authenticated by my signature (and which the notary marks “Exhibit No. 2” to this deposition), being the answer to his demand on Mexico for moneys of the Pious Fund made in 1852. It has remained in my possession ever since it was given me by him. I produce it in evidence because Sir Edward Thornton in his decision of the case indulged the presumption that the Archbishop’s demand on Mexico and Mexico’s refusal to pay must both have been verbal, and I produce this paper to show that such was not the case. I did not put it in evidence before the former arbitral court because I did not, at the time, regard it as important.

With respect to the sale of the hacienda Ciénega del Pastor by the Mexican Government a discovery has been asked from Mexico, first, of the letter from Señor Trigueros dated October 25, 1842, to the Señores Encargadosde la Tesoreria General, and, second, of the official communication of Señor Trigueros of the ministerio de hacienda dated November 23, 1842, to the same parties with endorsements thereon and the memorandum of November 23, 1842, etc. While I assume that such discovery will be made by Mexico in pursuance of the engagements of the protocol, yet lest anything should prevent the same I should state here that the copy, which in the demand for discovery is proposed for admission as authentic in case of the discovery not being made, is taken from a pamphlet the full title of which is as follows: “Documentos relativos al piadoso fondo de misiones para Conversion y Civilizacion de las numerosas tribus bárbaras de la Antigua y Neuva California, Publicalos el lie. Juan Rodriguez de S. Miguel, apoderado del illmo. Sr. Don Fr. Francisco Garcia Diego, primer Obispo de aqnella Diócesis. Mexico Año de 1845, Imprenta de Luis Abadiano y Valdés, Calle de las Escalerillas Numo. 13.”

In the said pamphlet the text of said first-mentioned letter is given as in the copy thereof I now hand the notary, and which is marked “Exhibit No. 3” to my deposition, with the following entry immediately after it shown on said Exhibit No. 3; and that of the second letter above mentioned is given in the same pamphlet in the words of the copy thereof I now hand the notary, and which is marked by him “Exhibit No. 4” to my deposition, with the entry and memorandum immediately after it as if copied from the letter itself, as shown on said Exhibit No. 4.

I am also informed by a person whose name I do not feel at liberty to give, but whom I confidently believe to be correctly informed, that the escritura de venta in the exhibits referred to is now in the official custody of a notary in the City of Mexico named Gil Mariano Leon; that it bears date November 29th, 1842; was executed in the presence of the notary, D. Ramon Villalobos, by Señores D. Tranquilino de la Vega y D. Nicolás María Fagoaga, como Ministros de la Tesorería General de la Nacion, and conveys to the Señores Liquidatários y demas socios de la estinguida empresa del Tabaco, las tres cuartas partes que le supreme gobierno tenía en la hacienda Ciénaga del Pastor y sus anexas, y en la hacienda San Augustin de Amoles con sus anexas de San José, Lavaya, San Ignacio del Buey, Custodio, Buena Vista, y todas las otras tierras y rancherías que cons tan en los respectivos documentos y se han considerado y consideran como pertenecientes á dicha finca, excepto la de San Pedro de Ibarra. Estan ubicadas estas propiedades [Page 403]en los estados de Guadalajara, San Luis Potosi, y Tamaulipas; Fueron pertenencia del fondo piadoso de Galifornias; el preeio de venta fué de $428,500. And that the document contains an entry in the words:

Acceptaron la escritura los Señores Francisco Paula Rubio y Manuel Fernandez como socios liquidatarios, y en representacion de los Señores Rubio Hermanos, Joaquin Maria Errazu, Filipe Neri del Barrio, Manuel Escandon, Benito de Maqua y Muriel Hermanos, que formaron la estinguida empresa del tabaco.

The price named, $428,500, is arrived at by capitalizing the several sums which said several properties produced as rent and adding thereto $3,000 for the llenos on the Ciénaga del Pastor; thus, the rent of the haciendas “San Agustin de Amoles,” “El Custodio,” “San Ignacio del Buey,” and “La Baya” was $12,705; three-fourths of the rent of the “Cienaga del Pastor” was $12,825; total rents, $25,530.

The price of the three-fourths of the Ciénaga del Pastor therefore was $12,825 capitalized at 6 per cent, which was $213,750, plus $3,000 for the llenos makes $216,750. This item we were entitled to our share of, but lost it by the deduction made in consequence of an attachment, which appears not to have affected the price for which Mexico sold it.

2. The charge in the memorial that $7,000 was erroneously deducted from the capital of the fund as a bad debt involves merely a correct appreciation of the expression of D. Pedro Ramirez in his enumeration of créditos activos del fondo, under the heading la hacienda pública, in these words:

Otro de siété mil ps (pesos) que por órden executiva del supremo Gobierno para que entregaren los Señores Revillas veinte mil, exibió su apoderado D. Francisco Barrera en 20 de Octubre de 1829, y un pagare contra la Compañia Alamania Mexicana, que no se cobró.

In this passage the words “que no se cobro” (which was not collected) refer in my opinion to the pagaré or promissory note of the German Mexican Company, and I therefore understand the transaction here mentioned to have been this: The Government, desiring to pay to the Señores Re villas $20,000, ordered that amount to be paid to their apoderado D. Francisco Barrera, out of the Pious Fund, on his depositing against it the pagaré of the German Mexican Company for $7,000 of the amount. The relation is not complete, but considering the habit of the Government of resorting to the Pious Fund, when other sources of ready cash were not available, this appears to me the most probable interpretation of it, and if it be correct, instead of asking for seven thousand dollars here, I should have demanded $20,000. It is for the official interpreters of the tribunal to say whether my interpretation of it is correct. I think it undoubtedly was intended to state a demand on behalf of the fund against the Government, which must have been solvent for this sum as for the other and larger demands enumerated against it.

My authority for stating in the memorial, on information and belief, that the Mexican Government borrowed from the Pious Fund about July, 1834, various sums amounting to $22,763.15 is the letter of D. Pedro Ramirez of January 28th, 1842, addressed to the minister of justice and public instruction, where, discussing the question whether the costs of the expedition of colonization therein mentioned should be borne by the Pious Fund, he mentions (Transcript, p. 160) that, examining last evening a bundle of papers containing an account of the rents of the Arroyo Sarco, which was one of the estates of the fund, he found an acknowledgment that there had been taken from [Page 404]that source $5,200 for the purpose, and in another it is seen that the late General Parres, who then administered the hacienda Ciénega del Pastor, had expended $6,000 in the comisaria de Jalisco, which were remitted to the treasurer of the navy at San Bias for the expense of embarking, and that in another it appeared that the late junta del fondo piadoso had turned over $5,154.4 reals which were in the fund for its proper objects, and had given a draft in favor of the supreme Government for $6,008 dollars odd reals and grains for the same purpose, to which should be added $400 already employed in the same way, amounting in all to $22,763 and over.

The name of the vessel (La Corbetta Morelos) and the point of embarcation (San Bias) identify this enterprise with the colonization (expedition) which sailed from San Bias about August 1st, 1834, under Padres and Hijar, of which an account will be found in any history of California of that period. In Bancroft’s it occurs at Vol. III, page 259 et seq.

The same letter of Ramirez discloses another transaction of the Mexican Government with the Pious Fund, which should lead to an augmentation of its capital over what the Mixed Commission allowed it, is that, as Mr. Ramirez points out, the Government had borrowed sixty thousand dollars at two per cent per month interest, and hypothecated the whole of the Pious Fund as security for the loan. Mr. F. Ramirez had already paid more than thirty thousand dollars out of the fund on account of this transaction, for which reason he was forced to ask indulgence in the way of time to pay Mr. Barron two thousand which he was pressed to do (p. 160, Transcript).

After the ratification of the treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo, between the United States and Mexico, the U. S. Congress passed an act under which a commission was appointed for ascertaining and settling private claims to land in the State of California. It consisted of three commissioners, with their secretary and interpreters, and before them all private claims to land within the State were required to be presented and proved. The United States were represented before the tribunal by a law agent and his assistant, as mentioned in the first part of this deposition. I was retained, in conjunction with Mr. Eugene Casserly, by Rt. Rev. Joseph S. Alemany, then R. C. Bishop of Monterey (who was afterward translated to the archdiocese of San Francisco), to present to and prove before this commission court the claim of the Catholic Church, represented by him, to the church edifices, cemeteries, mission buildings, orchards, vineyards, and gardens, etc., at each of the missions in this State, as well as some other lands claimed by the church under grant from the Mexican Government for ecclesiastical purposes, as, ex. gr., the support of a particular church, the founding and support of a college, etc., and with Mr. Casserly conducted the said proceedings.

Certain correspondence between Bishop Francisco Garcia Diego and the Supreme Government of Mexico, a copy of which, certified by the U. S. surveyor-general for this State (in whose custody the records of the proceedings of said commission court are now retained by law), is now produced and maked Exhibit No. 5 to the deposition of John T. Doyle, and identified by my signature. That correspondence was proved, offered, and accepted in evidence in the aforesaid proceedings in the said land commission court. 1 have myself compared the [Page 405]copy certified by the surveyor-general of the “peticiones que ha hecho al Supremo Gobierno el I. Sr. Obispo de Californias” and the official memorandum and certificate at the end thereof, which occupy the first six pages of said exhibit, with the original document on the files of the surveyor-general’s office, and found the same to be a correct copy thereof and of the whole thereof. The seventh page of said exhibit 1 did not personally compare.

The lands petitioned for by said Bishop Alemany in said proceeding were, by decree of said commission court, confirmed to him on behalf of the church, and patents therefor were duly issued by the United States, under which said lands are now held. I now present an extract from the opinion and decision of the court in that case, which is marked Exhibit No. 6 to the deposition of John T. Doyle, and identified by my signature. It is a correct and true extract from said opinion and shows the ground on which the decision proceeded. The whole opinion is too long to be quoted in extenso, as, besides quoting decisions by other courts of the legal questions presented, it contained a description of the various parcels of land, the title of which was confirmed, rendering it of very great length.

The appeal from the decision of the land commission court to the district court of the U. S., which was by the law directed in all cases where the decision was adverse to the United States, was dismissed by the Attorney-General of the U. S. of his own motion, thus distinctly acquiescing in the propriety of the decision of the commission court.

In examining the printed transcript I have discovered various typographical errors, more especially in the paper in foreign languages. Most of them I think are to be accounted for by the bad handwriting in which originals are written, and in almost all instances the errors are explainable on the face of the papers. On page 172, however, the words “que no sé cobro” are omitted at the end of line 25 and should be supplied as [illegible word] correctly on page 491, line 12, where the same document is repeated. The bull of appointment of Bishop Alemany on pp. 43 and 44 is full of blunders, but they are of no materiality, and I believe the document appears correctly in another part of the transcript.

John T. Doyle.

And therefore I, James T. O’Keefe, being such notary public, in. and for the county and State aforesaid, hereby certify that the foregoing deposition so made by said John T. Doyle was reduced to writing by me personally and was thereafter carefully read by me to the said deponent and was corrected and signed by him in my presence.

I further certity that the said deponent, John T. Doyle, is personally known to me and that he is entitled to full faith and credit in everything he says. I further certify that I am not the attorney for either of the parties in the above-entitled suit and have no interest in the claim before the court. Nor am I the attorney for any person having such interest.


[seal.]
Jas. T. O’Keefe,
Notary Public in and for said San Mateo County,
State of California.
[Page 406]

Exhibit No. 1.

[Copy telegram.]

Eugene Casserly,
U. S. Senate, Washington:

Present to joint commission, sitting in Washington, a claim by Archbishop Alemany and Bishop Amat, successors of Francisco Garcia Diego, bishop of the Californias, on behalf of themselves all interested, for the income of proceeds of property belonging to Pious Fund of the missions of California. The fund arose entirely from private contributions, beginning with a donation to the Jesuits, by Marquis of Villa-Puente, in 1735, upon trust for the maintainance and propagation of the faith in California. After 1767 it was administered by trustees, appointed first by the Crown, afterwards by the Republic. The sixth section of act of Mexican Congress, Sepr. 19, 1836, gave administration to the bishop aforesaid, to whom claimants respectively succeeded; it was taken from Diego’s possession by Santa Anna’s decrees February 8th and October 24th, 1842, both of which acknowledge and promise to fulfil the trust. This claim first became due American citizens by treaty Queretaro whereby both trustees and beneficiaries became Americans. Amount is three millions. AIL rents and proceeds received since February 2d, 1848, fall within convention of July 4th, 1868; prior spoliations perhaps released. Thursday is last day.

John T. Doyle.

Confirmed.
James Croke, V. G.

For identification.
John T. Doyle.

Before the arbitral court under the Hague Convention, in the case of the United States of America against the Republic of Mexico. Exhibit No. 1 to the deposition of John T. Doyle.

Jas. T. O’Keefe, Notary Public.

Exhibit No. 2.a

Ministerio de Justicia y Negocios Eclesiásticos. Department of Justice and of Church Affairs.
I. S.: Se habia. demorado la contestation debida á la nota que S. S. I. dirigió á este Ministerio en 26 de Julio último relativa á que fuesen auxiliadas las miciones del Obispado de Monterrey con los bienes que los fundadores del fondo piadoso de Californias dejaron segun se dice para atender a la convercion de infieles de aquel pais por que era preciso reunir [Page 407]antecedentes é inspeccionar antiguos documentos quediesen la luz necessaria para la resolucion justa y conveniente de este negoeio; mas habiendose esto verificado ya y resultando que las cuantiosas donaciones que formaban aquel fondo no tenian por objeto el esclusivo de atender á las miciones de California sino á la conversion de infieles en la America Septentrional a eleccion (faltando en cualquier caso a quellas miciones de personas determinadas en las fundacion) y á las que ha succedido el Gobierno ne la República por el patronato que le compete en esta elacedebienes; S. A. el. Sr. Presidente no puede conceder derechos en los bienes del fondo ya mencionado á la Iglesia de la Alta California separada en la actualidad de la nacion y aunque desearìa miuistrarle algunas sumas en calidad de auxilio no puede verificarlo por la penuría conocida del Erario público y por la situacion de pobreza y atrazo en que se hallan las miciones que bajo su amparo ecsisten en el territorio de la Republica y a las que debe atender preferentemente. Sir: An answer to the note which your illustrious highness addressed this office on the 26th of last July, relative to whether the missions of the bishop of Monterey might be assisted with the properties which the founders of the Pious Fund of the Californias left, as is asserted, for the conversion of infidels of that county, has been delayed because it was necessary to collect information and examine old documents that would throw needed light for the just and proper decision of the matter.
The subject has now been examined, and as it shows that the large donations which composed that fund had not for an exclusive object the aiding of the missions of California, but also for the conversion of infidels in North America at discretion (there being in any case in those missions a lack of the persons indicated in the foundation), and (for the aid of the missions) to which the government of the republic has succeeded through the right which is its due in such properties. His Excellency the President can not grant to the church of Upper Calif ornia, which is now separated from the nation, a right to the properties above mentioned. And although it might wish to donate some moneys in the way of assistance, it can not do so on account of the well-known penury of the public treasury and on account of the state of poverty and backwardness in which the missions under its protection in the territory of the republic are found, and those missions that it ought preeminently to aid.
Tengo el honor de decirlo asi á S. S. I. en debida contestacion á su nota relativa y de protestarle las distinguidas consideraciones de mi apprecio. In having the honor to state the foregoing to your illustrious highness, in due reply to your note, I beg to assure you of my distinguished regard.
Dios y Libertad. God and Liberty.
México, Setiembre 29 de 1852.
Aguirre.
Mexico, Sept. 29, 1852.
Aguirre.
I. S. D. Fr. José Sada Alemani,
Obispo de Monterey en la Alta California.
Your illustrious highness José Sada Alemani,
Bishop of Monterey in Upper California.

Before the arbitral court under the Hague Convention on the case of The United States of America, on behalf of the R. C. Church of Upper California, against the Republic of Mexico.

For identification:

John T. Doyle.

Exhibit No. 2 to the deposition of John T. Doyle.

Jos. T. O’Keefe, Notary Public.
[Page 408]

Exhibit No. 3.

Ministerio de hacienda, Section Núm. 2711. T. Núm. 4916. para a cuerdo. Enterados de pronto los eincuenta mil pesos. Octubre 27. S. Tesoraria. Los liquidatorios y demas socios de la estinguida empressa de tabacos han hecho las siguientes proposiciones.
Primera. Compramos al Supremo Gobierno, la hacienda conocida con el nombre de Amoles consus anecsas, Y las tres cuartas partes que le pertenecen en la de Cienega del Pastor y sus anecsas, ubicadas la primera, en el departamento de San Luis Potosí, y la segunda en el de Guadalajara, pertenecientes ambas al fondo piadoso de Californias, y cuyo valor secalculará por lo que produzcan sus actuales arrendamientos á razon de un 6 por 100 al año; es decir, que si estos producen anualmente 24 mil ps. el precio de estas dos fincas será el de 400 mil. ps. y en lamisma proportion si el arrendamiento es mayor ó menor. Daremos en pago 50 mil ps. que se enteraran inmediatamente en la tesoreria general. Doseientos eincuenta mil pesos que por resultado de nuestra cuenta con el Banco nos deben ser pagados en abonos de 35 mil ps. mensuales con los productos de la renta del tabaco de las administraciones de Zacatecas y Guadalajara, tan luego como se amortizen las órdenes anteriores que se nos están pagando en la actualidad, por las mimas administraciones con arreglo al decreto supremo de 12 de Noviembre de 1841.
[Translation.a]
Department of Finance (hacienda).—Section … No. 2711. T. No. 4916, October 27, S. Treasurer’s Office.—Memorandum.— The five thousand pesos immediately deposited. The liquidators, and the other members of the extinct tobacco monopoly have made the following proposal:
1st. We will buy from the supreme Government the estate known by the name of “Amoles,” with its outlying properties (anexas) and three-fourths of the Cienega del Pastor and its outlying properties (anexas), which also belong to it; the first situated in the District of San Luis Potosí, and the second in that of Guadalajara, both belonging to the Pious Fund of Californias, the value of which shall be determined by the capital which at the rate of 6 per cent per annum would produce their present rents; that is to say, that if these yield annually twentyfour thousand dollars, the price of these two estates shall be four hundred thousand dollars; and in the same proportion if the income from rents be greater or less. We will give in payment fifty thousand dollars, to be deposited immediately in the general treasury. Two hundred and fifty thousand, which as a result of our account with the bank (banco) ought to be paid us in monthly installments of $35,000, together with proceeds of the revenues of tobacco from the districts of Zacatecas and Guadalajara as soon as the above orders shall fall due, which are being paid at present by said districts in accordance with the supreme order of the 12th of November. 1841.
2°. Lo que f altare hasta completar el total valor de dichas haciendas, [Page 409]lo entregaremos en la tesorería general en créditos reconocidos por la nacion, verificándolo en el término de ocho meses que se contarán desde la fecha de la aprobacion de esta propuesta. 2nd. The amount lacking to complete the total value of the said estates we will pay into the general treasury in notes approved by the nation; redeeming the same in the period of eight months, which will be counted from the approval of this offer.
3°. El supremo gobierno saneará en todo easo la venta de dichas fincas, y cualquiera reclamacion que pueda bacerse contra las mismas será de cuenta del gobierno satis facerla; sin que por ningun motivo se nos inquiete en la pacifica posesion de ellas, y n cualquiera gasto ó perjuicio que se nos pueda originar por este motivo nos debera ser indemnizado por la hacienda publica. 3rd. The supreme Government shall guarantee in every case the sale of said estates; it shall be the obligation of the Government to satisfy any claims whatsoever that may be brought against the estates, so that we may not for any cause be disturbed in the peaceful possession of them, and any expense or loss which may originate through this cause must be made good by the public treasury (hacienda).
4°. No estaremos obligados á ecshibir ninguna otra cantidad que las ya espresadas por esta compra. 4th. We will not be held liable for any other amount than those already stated by reason of this, purchase.
5°. Nos obligamos á cumplir las escrituras de arrendamiento de dichas haciendas hasta su término, si en ellas se espresare que los arrendatarios no deben ser molestados ni aun en el caso de enagenacion de las mencionadas fincas. Y en virtud de la autorizacion que concede el gobierno el decreto de esta fecha admite el Ecsmo. Sr. presidente provisional esta proposition, bajo el concepto de que los eincuenta mil pesos que se ofrecen entregar en numerario se ecshibirán en al acto. Dios y libertad. Mexico, Octubre 25 de 1842. Trigueros. Señores encargados de la teroseria general. En 26 del mismo entregaron los 50 mil ps. que recibió la tesoreria en clase de depósito, segun consta del certificado que dió á los interesados. 5th. We bind ourselves to carry out the contracts of the leases of said estates until their expiration, if therein it be provided that the tenants must not be disturbed even in case of the sale of the said estates. And in virtue of the authority conceded to the Government by the decree of this date, his excellency, the provisional president, accepts this offer upon the condition that the $50,000 which is offered to be paid in coin be delivered immediately. God and liberty. Mexico. October 24, 1842. Trigueros. Gentlemen in charge of the general treasury. On the 26th of the same month they delivered the $50,000, which the treasury received as a deposit, as will appear from the certificate which it gave to the interested parties.

Exhibit No. 4.

Ministerio de hacienda. Section 2. Num. 2803. T. Núm. 5346. Dada cuenta al Escmo. Sr. presidente sustitute con el ofico de V.SS. núm. 201 de 17 del que rige en que consultan si al venderse las haciendas [Page 410]de Ciénaga del Pastor y San Agustin de los Amoles, pertenecientes al fondo piadoso de Californias, se tuvo presente el valor de los llenos, ecsisteneia deudas y mejoras; se ha servido acordar S.E. diga á V.SS. en contestacion, como lo verifico, que teniendo en consideration el supremo gobierno que se computaron los llenos de las haciendas referidas para apreciar sus arrendamientos, á los que se acomodó el preci ó valor contenido en el contrato celebrado con los liquidatarios y demas socios de la estinguida empresa del tobaco, para la venta de las fincas espresadas, cuya aprobaeion comunique a V.SS. bajo el núm. 2711, en 25 del último Octubre, no se insiste en que sean pagados por separado. En consecuencia dispone S.E. se admita la propuesta que han hecho los interesados verbalmente, reducida á ecshibir tres mil pososen el ceto, y con calidad de que si los llenos aparecieren pertenecer á tercera persona, será de cuenta de los mismos su devolusion ó contenta, sin que esta incluy responsabilidad alguna que tenga que cubrir el gobierno. De suprema órden lo comunico à V.SS. para su intelegencia, y que desde luego se proceda à otorgar la correspondiente escritura de enagenacion. Dios y Libertad. México, Noviembre 23 de 1842. Trigueros. Señores encargados de la tesoreria general. Noviembre 24. Seccion de créditos. Rubricado por el Sr. Fagoaga. En esta fecha y en protocolo de esta tesorería general otorgaron los Señores ministros la escritura de venta prevenida.
México, Noviembre 29 de 1842.
Ramon Villalobos.
Department of finance (hacienda Section second, number two thousand eight hundred and three. T. Number five thousand three hundred and forty-six. His excellency the provisional president having been notified by the letter of your excellencies, No. 201 of 17 instant, in which you discuss as to whether or not account was taken of the utensils (llenos), stock, debts, and improvements of the hacienda Ciénega del Pastor and San Augustin de los Amoles belonging to the Pious Fund of Californias at the time of their sale, his excellency has seen fit to say in reply to your honors, to which I attest, that inasmuch as the supreme Government took into consideration the farming utensils (llenos) on the said estates in order to determine their rents, by means of which the price of value contained in the contract made with the liquidators of the extinct tobacco monopoly for the sale of the aforesaid estates was computed, the approval of which contract I communicated to your honors under number 2711 on the 25th of October last, it is not required that the utensils be paid for separately. Therefore his excellency orders the acceptance of the proposal made verbally by the parties interested, provided three thousand dollars be paid down, and with the understanding that should the utensils (llenos) thereon belong to a third party it will be the duty of the purchasers to restore the same or give satisfaction, relieving the Government from all responsibility. By supreme order I communicate the same to your honors for your information and that you may forthwith proceed to execute the corresponding deed of sale. God and liberty. Mexico, November 23, 1842. Trigueros gentlemen in charge of the general treasury. November 24, department of credits. Signed by Señor Fagoaga. On this day and in the record of this general treassury the ministers executed the deed of sale aforesaid.
Mexico, November 29, 1842.
Ramon Villalobos.
[Page 411]

Before the arbitral court under the Hague Convention in the case of The United States of America (on behalf of the R. C. Church of Upper California) against the Republic of Mexico. For identification:

John T. Doyle.

Exhibit No. 4 to the deposition of John T. Doyle.

Jas. T. O’Keefe,
Notary, Public.

Exhibit No. 5.

Peticiones que ha hecho al Supremo Gobierno el Y. Sr. Obispo de Californias en su nota de 7 del corriente y carta particular de la misma fecha. petitions which were made to the supreme government by the bishop of californias in his note of the 7th of the present month and in a private letter of the same date.
Desde que se quitaron á los misioneros las temporalidades que ellos mismos crearon y aumentaron, con su trabajo personal y sus sinodos, entraron á disfrutar los bienes de las, misiones los seculares y sus familias y entre el los algunos que no conozco á quienes no se podia fiar ni aun una pequena cantidad. Ya se deja entender la ruina de tales bienes en semejantes manos. En el ministerio de V. E. deben exister los reclamos, que sobre eso tengo hechos, y por los que el congreso general dio una ley suspensiva de la que mandaba la secularization de misiones, la que hasta ahora segun entiendo no se ha cumplido quizas por justas considerations del gobierno. En posteriores reclamos que hice en el año treinta y seis, informé al Supremo Gobierno de los males que los misioneros padecen y entre ellos no es el menor, qui los administradores de la misiones se apoderaron de las casas en que vivian los padres; unas casas fabricadas por los religiosos, y en cuya construction invirtieron los sinodos que percibian y el trabajo de sus manos. Se han visto reducidos a vivir allí como arruinados y con bastante incomodidad [Page 412]como yo mismo lo ví. Tienen en la misma habitacion á unas gentes que en muchas noches no los dejan descanzar por las embriagueses, juegos óbailes que con escandalo estan presenciando los neo fitos! Vida insufrible ciertamente! Vida amarguisimapara unos religiosos recoletos, y tanto que muchos de ellos han pensado abandonar las misiones, y retirarse á butscar la tranquilidad y paz de sus espiritus! Vida penosa que ha retraido y retrae à muchos de ir á las misiones por no exponere á tantos padecimentos y desprecios de su caracter! Mas no se crea por esto que quiero se lleve á efecto la entregada de las temporalidades á los religiosos. Sé muy bien y aun lo tengo dicho al gobierno que dentro de breve tiempo ya no nabra nada de los bienes que tenian aquellas opulentas misiones los que recibieron los administradores cuando los padres las entregaron. Lo que quiero es que para las misiones nuevas que se vayan estableciendo, se tomen medidas legislativas para que no se repitan las graves desordenes. De otro modo, Que padre misionero habrá que quiera trabajar por aumentar los bienes de los Yndios infelices si sabe por experieneia que se les han de quitar á sus legitimos dueños, y se han de entregar á otros para que los disfruten, roben, y tiren sin haberles costado ningun trabajo? Cual será el religioso que quiera hacer casa ni plantar huerta para su recreo y sueomodidad, si ha visto que con la moyor injusticia se las quitan, y entran á poseerlas hombres que antes se socorrian con limosnas por los mismos misioneros y que repentinamente se mudan los Señores y tienen los infelices padres que vivir á sus espensas? En lo que insisto é insistiré siempres es, en que queden á los misioneros las casas y huertas que ellos ó sus antecesores hicieron que estan contiguas a las iglesias y con inmediata comunicacion [Page 413]á ellas. Los administradores (como que tienen á su disposicion á los Yndios y los intereses de las misiones) pueden hacer casa para elles, y dejar á los padres quietos y en paz. Esta medida la juzeo tan necesaria que sino se toma no tabra quien quiera ir á servir las misiones, yo desde ahora lo prevengo al Supremo Gobierno; y si para los misioneros es una medida tan necesaria, que se debe decir con respecto al Obispo? Esto será une cosa bien dura que mientras puede edificar su casa, no tenga en donde recogerse con su familia ni en donde poner sus estudiantes y ministros, ni en donde dar principio á su seminario? Por esto pues suplico al Supremo Gobierno. Since there has been taken from the missionaries the properties which they established and increased by their personal la bors and with their allowances, the secular and their families have begun to enjoy the properties of the missions, and among them some I am not acquainted with and who could not be trusted with even the smallest amount. Already the ruin of the properties has begun in such hands. In the department of your excellency there must be the reclamations which I have made, and for which the General Congress made a law suspending that which ordered the secularization of the missions, which up to this time, as I understand, has not been carried out, perhaps through just considerations of the Government. In the later reclamation which I made in the year 1836, I informed the Supreme Government of the injuries suffered by the missionaries, and not the least of them was that the administrators of the missions took possession of the houses in which the fathers were living; some houses having been built by the religious, and in whose construction were applied the allowances which they received and the work of their own hands. They were compelled to live in them as ruined and with great inconveniences as, I myself saw. There were in the same building some persons who, many nights, would not allow them to rest for their drunkenness, games, and dances in which the neophytes scandalously indulge! A life most distressing for religious recluses; indeed, so very distressing that many of them have thought of abandoning the missions and retiring in search of tranquility and peace of spirit! This painful life has dissuaded and does dissuade many from going to the missions, not wishing to expose themselves to such abuses and depreciations! But it must not be thought by this that I wish to cause the transfer of the properties to the religious. I know very well, and yet I have told the Government that within a short time there will remain nothing of the properties which belonged to those such missions and which were received by the administrators when the fathers turned them over. What I wish is that for the new missions which are about to be established legislative measures be taken to prevent the repetition of such serious disorders. Otherwise, what missionary father is there who wants to labor to increase the properties of the unfortunate Indians if he knows by experience that they are to be taken from their legitimate owners and are to be delivered to others to enjoy, plunder, and waste without having cost them any exertion? Where could be found the religious who would wish to erect a house or plant a garden for his diversion and convenience, if he has seen them taken from him with the greatest injustice and men entering into their possession who had formerly been aided with alms by the same missionaries, and suddenly the superiors are changed and the unfortunate fathers have to live at their own expense. What I insist on and always will insist is that there shall belong to the missionaries the houses and gardens they or their predecessors made which are contiguous to the churches and immediately communicating with them. The administrators (inasmuch as they have under their control the Indians and the interests of the missions) can build a house for them, and leave the fathers in quiet and peace. This measure I consider so necessary that unless it be taken there will be no one to go to serve the missions, of which fact I now warn the supreme Government; and if this measure be so necessary for the missionaries, what should be said with regard to the bishop? Would it not indeed be a hardship if while he might build his house he would have no place in which to bring his family nor in which to place his students and ministers, nor in which to start his seminary? Therefore I petition the supreme Government:
1°. Que se da una orden (la misma que yo llevaré) para que se entreguen á los misioneros las casas y huertas de las misiones, y que la de San Diego ó la de San Luis Rey sea ocupada interinamente por el obispo y sus familiares juntamente con el padre misionero, hasta que el obispo pueda hacer su casa episcopal y el edificio para su seminario. 1st. That an order be given (the same as I shall deliver) that the houses and gardens of the missions be delivered to the missionaries, and that that of San Diego or that of San Luis King be occupied temporarily by the bishop and his associates, together with the father missionary, until the diocese can erect its episcopal house and the building-for its seminary.
2°. Los administradores niegan por lo regular los servicios de los Yndios á los padres, y esto aun pagandoles lo justo. Esto exige otra disposicion del Supremo Gobierno para que se me franqueen sirvientes con sus salarios equitativos y no arbitrarios. Juntamente suplico se me dé el terreno para edicif ar mi iglesia, mi casa y mi seminario. 2nd. The directors commonly withheld the services of the Indians from the fathers, even though they paid them a just compensation. This necessitates another arrangement on the part of the Supreme Government in order that servants may be allowed me with equitable and not arbitrary salaries. At the same time I pray that land be allowed me in order that I may build my church, my house, and my seminary.
[Page 414]3°. Bien sabe el Supremo Gobierno que no tengo en mi obispado mas eclesiasticos que los religiosos Fernandinos, Zacaltecanos y Dominicos de esta Provincia de Mexico, y si los prelados de estas corporaciones nos quitan a sus subditos las gracias que por misioneros tienen en su or den., y esta medida influiria mucho para que aquellos vinieron y para que otros no vayan á las misiones, y debe extraerles la consideracion de que los sacrificios que hacen le son inutiles en su religion. Vengo pues al Supremo Gobierno que oficio al Reverendo Padre Provincial para que no se haga innovacion alguna y que sigan los misioneros lo mismo que estan hasta que el obispo tenga clerigos que puedan ocupar su lugar, y ellos puedan dedicarse á las conversiones vivaces. Quiero ademas que el Gobierno me recomiende con los Reverendos Padres Guardianes de Guadalupe de Zacatecas y San Fernando para que me auxilien con religiosos, y que si algunos me quieren acompanar no se les impida. 3d. The Supreme Government well knows that I have not in my bishopric other priests than the Franciscans, Zacaltecans, and Dominicans of this province of Mexico, and if the prelates of these orders deprive us of the privileges which their brethren have as missionaries in their orders, this measure would be of great influence, so that the latter might not and others would not come to the missions, and that the considerations that the sacrifices which they make are of no avail in their order ought to be removed from them, I appeal further to the Supreme Government that it may intervene with the reverend fathers provincial in order that no change be made and that the missionaries pursue their present course until the bishop may have priests who can take their places and the former may apply themselves to new conversions. Furthermore, I wish that the Government would aid me with the reverend father superiors of Guadelupe de Zacatecas and San Fernando in order that they may aid me with priests, and that if any wish to accompany me they be not hindered.
4°. El Supremo Gobierno pidió al Santo Padre por conducto de nuestro enviado á Roma, que se me concediera llevar á mi obispado á cuantos sacerdotes quisieran accompañarme y fueran de mi aprobaeion sin que sus respectivos prelados pudieran estorbarlo. Tal facultad no vino entre las que tengo en mi poder. Quisiera por tanto que se le reclamara al Señor Montaya sobre el particular y en el entretanto que Gobierno se interesara con los prelados, cuando alguno, ya sea del clero secular ó regular le escriba que quiere acompanarme y yo diga al mismo Gobierno que es de mi aprobaeion. 4th. That the supreme Government ask of the Holy Father, by means of our envoy to Rome, that I be allowed to receive in my bishopric as many priests as wish to accompany me as I may approve without their respective superiors being able to prevent it. Such power does not come within those which I possess. I desire therefore that a demand be made of Señor Montaya on this particular point and that in the meantime the Government interest itself in those priests, when any of them, secular or regular, who writes that he wishes to accompany me and I notify the Government of my approbation.
5°. Como una de mis principales miras debe ser la convercion de [Page 415]los gentiles y propagation de la fé, es indespensable pue tenga operation para el logro de mis deses. Los colegios aprobados de la republica estan acabando, excepto el de Guadelupe y de Zacatecas, y apenas podrá cubrir las diez misiones de que se tiene cargo. Creo pues de necesidad que me conceda liciencia para fundar en mi obispado colegio de misioneros para que estos sigan formando nuevas misiones ó pueblos, y suplico al Gobierno que por conducto de nuestro enviado á Roma impetre del Santo Padre pueda yo proceder á la fundacion aunque sea con un solo religioso para que este de habitos y propriones á los que quieran dedicase á la importantisima conversion de gentiles. Ygualmente suplico se me dé para local de este colegio la isla llamada de los Angeles ú otro terreno aproposito. 5th. Since one of nry principal objects ought to be the conversion of the heathen and the propagation of the faith, it is necessary that 1 may have the necessary assistance to succeed in my desires. The colleges approved by the Republic are falling off, except that of Guadelupe and Zacatecas, and that can scarcely take care of the ten missions which it has in its charge. I think, therefore, that it is necessarjr that license be granted me to found in my bishopric a college of missionaries, in order that they may continue founding new missions or villages, and I pray the Government that by means of our envoy to Rome it intercede with our Holy Father that I may be allowed to proceed with this foundation, although it be with but one priest, so that he may afford an example to those who wish to devote themselves to the most important conversion of the heathen. Likewise I pray that there be given mo for the site of this college Angel Island, or another suitable place.
6°. Las niñas en general han carecido de education y de eseñanza para que sean utiles á la sociedad: quiero pues fundar en el lugar de mi residencia un colegio de educandas, para el que tambien necesito terreno suficiente. 6th. The girls in general have lacked the education and learning that would make them beneficial to society; I wish, therefore, to found in the neighberhood of my residence a school for girls, and fcr this, also, there is need for sufficient land.
7°. Por una anomalia que no entiendo se ha estado cobrando ne mi obispado los diezmos por parte del Gobierno civil de Sonora. Debe pues prohibirse esto á aquellas autoridades para que queden los fieles libres para darlos á la Yglesia en lo sucesivo, lo que aunque paucos ayundarán á los grandes proyectos de publicabeneficencia que tengo formados. 7th. By some disobedience of rules, which I do not understand, tithes have been collected in my bishopric by the government of Sonora. This ought to be forbidden those authorities, in order that the faithful may be free to give them to the church in the future, and which, although small, will be of assistance to the great projects of public welfare which I have formed.
8°. El Gobierno gravó al Fondo Piadoso de mi Yglesia con un prestamo que hizo el Señor Teren de sesenta mil pesos el ruinoso lucro de dos por ciento mensuales, se comprometió el Gobierno á abanar dos cientos y mas pesos diarios (segun estoy informadó) [Page 416]para estinguir esta deuda ominosa. Cumplió este promiso por un poco de tiempo y despues lo ha dejado al cargo del Fondo quien por no perder su capital arnenazado por las mismas condiciones del prestamo ha estado haciendo sacrifios asi para amortizar la deuda como para pagar los reditos mensuales. En tales circunstancias se halla dicho Fondo sin arbitrios para dar los sinodos á los misioneros cuyos libramientos tiene pendientes y sin poderme ayudar á mi en los gastos que debo hacer para marchar á mi diocesis, los que son muchos como no se oculta á la penetracion de V.E. Es pues justicia que pido el que se arbitre algunos medios por el Gobierno para cubrir cuanto antes la deuda del Señor Teran para que quede libre el Fondo. 8th. The Government has burdened the Pious Fund of my church with a loan which Señor Teran made of $60,000 with the ruinous interest of 2 per cent per month. The Government promised to pay daily installments of 200 odd dollars (as I am informed) in order to extinguish this threatening debt. It fulfilled this promise for a short time and afterwards left it to the charge of the fund, which, in order that it may not lose its capital by the very terms of the loan, has been making sacrifices not only that it may extinguish the debt, but also pay the monthly interests. Said fundisinthesecircumstances without means of paying the salaries of the missionaries whose drafts it has outstanding, and without being able to help me in the expenses which I ought to incur to my diocese, which are great, as is not unknown to your excellency. In justice, therefore, I ask that some means betaken by the Government to discharge, as soon as possible, the debt of Señor Teran, in order that the fund may remain unincumbered.
En mi oficio se me pasó decir que deseo poner mis edificios, ó mas bien fundar una poblacion en un xancho que se halla f rente de San Diego asi por la comodidad que presenta de agua, de leña; como por no estar litoral y espuesto á la invasion de algun pirata. Es ademas de muy buen temperamento. Si el Gobierno quisiera poner alli alguna fuérza militar seria de suma importancia para la comunicacion con Senora, pues contendria a los Yndios del Rio Colorado, y tambien seria muy al caso para intentar la reduccion de estos probrecitos y on felicidad espiritual y temporal. Estoy persuadido que con esta medida se facilitaria la comunicacion con el interior de nuestra republica, y el Gobierno tendria mas frecuentes noticias de aquel departamerito. In my official letter I forgot to say that I wish to erect my buildings, or rather to establish my settlement, on a ranch which is situated opposite to San Diego, not only on account of the supply of water and wood which it affords, but also because it is not near the coast and exposed to the invasion of any pirate. Besides, it has a very good climate. If the Government should desire to place a military force there, it would be of the greatest importance in communicating withSonora, becauseit would be a check to the Indians of the Colorado River, and also it would be material in the reduction of those unfortunates and to their spiritual and temporal welfare. I am persuaded that by this means the communication with the interior of our Republic would be facilitated and that Government would have more frequent advices from that region.
Nov. 17 de 1840. El Exmo. Presidente se ha servido proveer de conf ormidad con todo lo pedido por el Reverendo obispado de Californias en esta nota hasta donde alcanzan las atribuciones de S. E. [Page 417]y da lugar el decreto del congreso de 7 de Nov. de 1835, que mando reponer las misiones á su antiguo stado; á cuyo fin se estenderá orden general al Señor Gobernador de Californias, para que por medio de las autoridades subalternas se restituya sin dilation ni embarazos á los Padres Misioneros las posesiones y bienes que usaban bajo su administracion para la conversion de los infieles, y esa y las demas ordenes que ban de espedirse en obsequio de la petition del Reverendo Obispo se pondran en mano de S. Y. para su meior exito, y se le dará otra orden, á fin de que el Señor Gobernador le auxilie en cuanto importe á la fundaeion del obispado. Y por lo toea á los terrenos de que no esté ó hayan estado en posesion de las misiones librese oficio á la Junta Directiva del (Ramo?) á fin de que acuerde con S. Y. hasta dondo pueda su notoria piedad lo que mas facilite sus peticiones; y en lo que no alcanzan los arbitrios del (Ramo?) le manifiesta al Gobierno para que se inicie al Poder Legislativo á se provea como haya lugar en derecho: y contestese con este decreto al Reverendo Obispo. Nov. 17/1840. His Excellency the President has seen fit to grant everything which has been asked by the reverend bishop of the Californias in his note as far as his excellency’s powers extend, and he is permitted by the decree of Congress of the 7th of November, 1835, which ordered that the missions be restored to their old standing, to which end a general order will be transmitted to the governor of the Californias in order that by means of the subordinate authorities the possessions and properties which they were accustomed to use under their administration for the conversion of the heathen be restored to the missionary fathers without delay or hindrance, and this and the other orders which are to be given in accordance with the petition of the reverend bishop shall be placed in your excellency’s hands in order that it may be better carried dut, and another order will be given you to the end that the governor may aid you as much as may be necessary in the foundation of the bishopric, and that he may give an order to the directive board of the department with respect to the lands of which the missions are not or may not have been in possession, to the end that it may agree with your highness in so far as his well-known piety may be able to further your desires, and concerning that to which the powers of the department do not extend he may make it known to the Government in order that the legislative authority may be properly invoked and answer the reverend bishop with this decree.
Es copia. Mexico, Nov. 21 de 1840. A copy. Mexico, November 21, 1840.
(Firmado) Y. Yturbide. (Signed) Y. Yturbide.
Mexico, Oct. 8 de 1852. Conforme. Mexico, Oct. 8, 1852. Compared.
[sello.] José M. Duran. [seal.] José María Duran.
(A stamp of one real, 1852–1853.) (Sella cuarto un real 1852, 1853.)
Office of the U. S. Surveyor-General for California.
1, surveyor-general of the United States for the State of California, [Page 418]and as such, having in my office and in my charge and custody a portion of the archives of the former Spanish and Mexican Territory or Department of Upper California, as also the papers of the late board of commissioners to ascertain and settle the private land claims in California, by virtue of the powers vested in me by law, do hereby certify that the seven preceding and hereunto annexed leaves, numbered from one to seven, inclusive, and written on one side only, exhibit a true, full and correct copy of the original “Exhibit No. 1, P. L., annexed to deposition of José Miguel Gomez, Dec. 29, 1854. Joseph S. Alemany. Lands of the Catholic Church (C.) filed in office Dec. 29, 1854. Geo. Fisher, Recorder in Rec. of Evid., Vol. 18, p. 571 to 574,” and also “Exhibit No. 2, P. L., annexed to deposition of José Miguel Gomez, Dec. 29, 1854. Joseph S. Alemany. Lands of the Catholic Church. Filed in office Dec. 29, 1854. Geo. Fisher, Recorder in Record of Evidence, Vol. l8, pp. 775 and 779,” and now on file in this office and in my custody; that I have carefully compared the same with said originals, and that the same are a correct transcript therefrom and of the whole of such originals.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto signed my name officially and caused my seal of office to be affixed at the city of San Francisco, this twenty-fifth day of August, 1902.
W. S. Graham,
U. S. Surveyor-General for California.
Seal surveyor-general’s office, California.
(Endorsed on back): Exhibit No. 5 to the deposition of John T. Doyle. Jas. T. O’Keefe, notary public. For identification: John T. Doyle.
[Page 419]El infrascrito oficial major del Ministerio de Eielationes Certifica: ser autentica la firma que antecede (de) del Sr. D. José Ma. Duran official mayor del Ministerio de Justia. The undersigned, chief clerk of the department of foreign relations, certifies that the foregoing seal of Don José Maria Duran, chief clerk of the department of justice, is authentic.
Mexico, Octubre 8 de 1852.
J. Miguel Arroyo.
Mexico, October 8, 1852.
J. Miguel Arroyo.
Ministerio de la interior. Department of the interior.
Ylmo. Sor: Dada cuenta al E. S. Presidte con el oficio de V. S. Y. cle 7 del corriente é impuesto de todo cuanto en él expone con el objeto de dar lleno á sus graves onligaciones como obispo de Californias, se ha servido proveer de conformidad con todo lo pedido en el citado oficio y con lo que tambien solicitó en carta separada de igual fecha hta. donde el alcanzan las atribuciones de S. E. y dá lugar el decreeo del congreso grāl de 7 de Novb. de 835 que dispuso se mantubieran las misiones en el estado que tenian antes de la Ley de 17 de Agosto de 1833 á cuyo fin se libra orden por este Ministo. al E. S. Gobr. de Californias para que por medio de las autoridades subalternas se restituya sin dilaciones ni embarazos á los Padres Misioneros las posesiones y bienes Hue estaban bajo su administracion para la conversion de los infieles.
Y lo digo á V. S. Y. en contestation.
Dios y Lihertad, Mexico.
Novb. 17 de 1840.lb/>Marin. (Rúbrica.)
Y. S. Obispo de Californias.
Esteemed Sir: Information having been given to His Excellency the President by the official letter of your highness of the 7th instant, and taking into account all that is expressed in it with a view to accomplishing your weighty obligations as bishop of the Calif ornias, he has been pleased to concur with all that is asked in the said letter, as well as with that which was asked in a separate letter of the same date, as far as his power extends, and as he is authorized by the decree of the General Congress of the 7th of November, 1835, which ordered that the missions be continued in the state which they had before the law of the 17th of August, 1833, to which end an order has been made by this department to his excellency the governor of the Californias, so that by means of the inferior authorities he may restore without any delays or hindrances to the missionary fathers the possessions and properties which were under their administration for the conversion of the heathen. And I say this to your excellency by way of answer.
God and liberty, Mexico.
November 17, 1840.
(Rubric.) Marin.
His Excellency the Bishop of the Californias.
A pedimento del Señor Obispo de Calif ornias, certifico por la presente quo la firma agreda á este documento es la del Ministro del Interior, de aquella época del [Page 420]Señor Marin segun me consta por otros documentos oficiales, que he visto de dieho Señor. At the request of the bishop of the Californias I certify by these presents that the seal attached to this document is that of the minister of the interior of that time, Senor Marin, as appears to me by other official documents, which I have seen of said officer.
San Francisco, Diciembre 20, 1851.
[Rúbrica] W. Schleiden,
Vice-Consul de la Mepublica Mejicana en San Francisco.
San Francisco, December 20, 1851.
[signed]
W. Schleiden (Rubric),
Vice-Consul of the Mexican Republic in San Francisco.
(Sello. Viceconsulado de la Republica Mejicana en San Francisco.) [Seal vice-consulate of the Mexican Republic in San Francisco.]

Exhibit No. 6.

[Extract from the opinion and decision of the U.S. Land Commission in the case of Joseph S. Alemany, bishop of Monterey, v. The United States; deposed to by me before James T. O’Keefe, notary public, August 20th, 1902.—John T. Doyle.]

These decisions do but recapitulate the principles laid down in all the books which discuss the subject of right to property by dedication. They are, however, more especially valuable here because they both declare the principle and make the application of it to cases of dedication arising, like that now under consideration, under Spanish and Mexican law. They show that there as well as here under our law, although the mere naked title were in the Government, the usufruct of the property might be in the church, and that the dedication of such usufruct constituted a right to the estate which would never have been violated by the former sovereign, and which neither conquest nor revolution nor cession can destroy.

Ecclesiastical property was here, as under the civil law, known as a class of property standing by itself in legal nomenclature and governed by rules not applicable to other estates, intended to protect and perpetuate its use to the benefit of the church. By the laws of Spain as well as by the canon law which was recognized throughout the Spanish dominions, ecclesiastical property was regarded as comprised in two classes: The first embraced property usually denominated sacred, and which was in a formal manner consecrated tp God and destined to the purposes of divine worship as its instruments. Such are the church edifices, the cemeteries, the sacred vessels of the altar, the vestments, etc. The second class comprised property of whatever kind which was held by the church or the ministers who officiated at the altar, by any temporal title, and which was appropriated to the maintenance of divine worship or to the support of the officiating ministry. These are not, like the first class, consecrated directly to divine purposes, but since they yield a support to the clergy and the service of the temples they are considered indirectly set apart for the worship of God, and therefore of divine right. Under this class were included lands occu pied for the residence of the priest and other buildings necessary for his convenience, the gardens and grounds used for the supply of his table or of any of the sacramental purposes of the church and that [Page 421]from which revenue was derived for its support. Property falling within the class of ecclesiastical can be alienated only when certain, necessities arise, and then under the proceedings provided by the canon law. Such property was regarded as withdrawn from the dominion and traffic of man; in the expressive language of the civil law, it was “out of commerce.” Every church was required to have upon its organization an endowihent for its support, and property which it had long held for such uses was presumed, where no other title was shown, to have been acquired by donation or by gift for its endowment, and property produced by the labor of persons devoted to the service of religion became ecclesiastical property. (Ferraris Biblio, verb, alienare, ISala Mexicano, 226. 1 Febrero, Mex., 297, Escriche verb. Bienes Ecclesiasticos.)

These concurrent proofs bring us irresistibly to the conclusion that before the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo these possessions were solemnly dedicated to the use of the church and the property withdrawn from commerce. Such an interest is protected by the provision of the treaty and must be held inviolable under our laws.

Exhibit No. 6 to the deposition of John T. Doyle.

J. T. O’Keefe, Notary Public.

For identification:
John T. Doyle.
  1. English translation added for the convenience of the court.
  2. This translation does not form a part of the exhibit, but is incorporated herein for the convenience of the tribunal.—J. H. Ealston, Agent of the United States.