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Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969–1976, Volume XVII, China, 1969–1972

China, 1970


Document 57: Memorandum From Laurence E. Lynn, Jr. and Lindsey Grant of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 519, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. III. Secret. Sent for information. Lynn initialed the memorandum but not Grant. A notation on the memorandum indicates Kissinger saw and initialed it.


Document 58: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 16, President's Daily Briefs. Top Secret; Sensitive; Contains Codeword. There is no indication that the President saw it.


Document 59: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 700, Country Files, Europe, Poland Vol. I Warsaw Talks up to 1/31/70. Secret. Sent for information. Kissinger initialed the memorandum. According to a handwritten notation, it was returned from the President on January 14. An attached covering memorandum indicates that Holdridge forwarded it to Kissinger at the latter's request on January 9.


Document 60: Backchannel Message From the Ambassador to Afghanistan (Neumann) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 700, Country Files, Europe, Poland Vol. I Warsaw Talks up to 1/31/70. Top Secret. Haig forwarded the cable to Kissinger under a January 15 covering memorandum entitled “Items to Discuss with the President During Telephone Call Tonight.” This item was check-marked; however, the same item appeared on the “Items” memorandum for January 23. (Ibid.) A note attached to another copy reads: “No further dis. per AMH.” (Ibid., Box 334, Subject Files, Items to Discuss with the President 1/5/70 to 4/30/70)


Document 61: Memorandum From Secretary of State Rogers to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POLCHICOM–US. Secret; Nodis. Drafted by Anderson (EA/ACA) on January 13, and cleared by Swank, Green, and U. Alexis Johnson. A typed notation at the top of the memorandum reads: “Cable cleared and sent WH—Mr. Kissinger cleared. Changes made in cable per Green/Kissinger telcon 1/17/70. (RLBrown to FHess)” According to a January 17, 11:40a.m. telephone conversation between Green and Kissinger, Kissinger's major problem with the draft instruction—and the President endorsed Kissinger's view—was with the “tone.” Kissinger told Green, “It seems we are trying a little too hard to prove our good intentions.” Green replied, “You mean we are defensive?” Kissinger agreed, “that is a better word—we are protesting too hard. I think we will be more impressive to them if we give the feeling of moderation produced by strength.” Kissinger then went on to suggest a number of specific language changes. Kissinger also told Green that he had checked “this idea of eventually reducing our presence on Taiwan with the President, and he thought that was fine.” (Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box 361, Telephone Conversations, Chronological File)


Document 62: Telegram From the Embassy in Poland to the Department of State

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POLCHICOM–US. Secret; Immediate; Nodis. Received at 2 p.m. Kissinger forwarded the cable to the President on January 21 in his daily briefing memorandum. (Ibid., Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 16, President's Daily Briefs) The Embassy sent the full record of the meeting to the Department of State on January 24 in Airgram A–25 from Warsaw. (Ibid.) See Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. E–13, Document 3Stoessel, Kreisberg (Advisor), Donald M. Anderson (Interpreter), Thomas W. Simons (Scribe), Lei Yang (Chargé d'Affaires), Li Ch-ching (Advisor), Ch'ien Yung-nien (Interpreter), and Yeh Wei-lan (Scribe) attended both the January 20 and February 20 meetings.


Document 63: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 700, Country Files, Europe, Poland Vol. I Warsaw Talks up to 1/31/70. Secret; Nodis. Sent for information. According to a handwritten notation, the memorandum was returned from the President on January 26. A covering memorandum, attached but not printed, indicates that Holdridge drafted it at Kissinger's request.


Document 64: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon


Document 65: Memorandum From John H. Holdridge of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 519, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. III. Secret. Sent for information. Printed from an unsigned copy.


Document 66: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 430, Backchannel Files, Backchannel Messages, Derksen, J.J.—Backchannel (Lodge Initiative) 1970–1972. Secret; Sensitive; Nodis; Eyes Only. The date on the memorandum is handwritten. Derksen's given name was Jacobus Jerome.


Document 67: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 700, Country Files, Europe, Poland Vol. II Warsaw Talks 2/1/70–6/30/70. Secret; Nodis. Sent for action. An attached February 10 memorandum from Holdridge to Kissinger contained a lengthy analysis of the recent Warsaw meeting by Holdridge and indicated that he was the drafter of the memorandum.


Document 68: Telegram From the Embassy in Poland to the Department of State

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POLCHICOM–US. Secret; Immediate; Nodis. A full record of the meeting is in Airgram A–84 from Warsaw, February 20. (Ibid.) See Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. E–13, Document 4. The Chinese suggested the February 20 date during a February 2 visit to the Embassy in Warsaw. (Telegram 215 from Warsaw, February 2; National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 700, Country Files, Europe, Poland Vol. II Warsaw Talks 2/1/70–6/ 30/70)


Document 69: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 700, Country Files, Poland, Vol. II Warsaw Talks 2/1/70–6/30/70. Secret; Nodis. Sent for information. The date is handwritten. Haig signed for Kissinger. The “I” is apparently Haig. According to a handwritten notation, the memorandum was returned from the President on February 26.


Document 70: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 520, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. IV. Secret; Nodis. The handwritten date on this copy, February 27, 1970, is apparently incorrect, as Kissinger noted in his memoirs that he met with Hilaly on February 22 (see footnote 2 below). Another copy of this memorandum, without Nixon's handwritten comments but dated February 23, is in National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1032, Files for the President—China Material, Cookies II, [Chronology of Exchanges with the PRC, February 1969–April 1971]. “Cookies II” was a collection of materials documenting contact with the PRC up to the time of Kissinger's trip in July 1971. This copy also bears the notation “Handcarried to Gen. Haig. No cover memo.”


Document 71: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 520, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. IV. Secret; Sensitive. Sent for information. Drafted by Holdridge and forwarded to Kissinger on March 5. According to a handwritten notation on the first page, the memorandum was “OBE'd.”


Document 72: Memorandum From Secretary of State Rogers to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POLCHICOM–US. Secret; Nodis. Drafted by Kreisberg on March 4, approved by Green, and forwarded with a covering letter and attachments to Holdridge on March 5. Holdridge then forwarded the memorandum to Kissinger on March 11.


Document 73: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to Secretary of State Rogers

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POLCHICOM–US. Secret; Nodis.


Document 74: Letter From President Nixon to the President of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 751, Presidential Correspondence File, Republic of China, President Chiang Kai-shek. Sent in telegram 45340 to Taipei, March 27. (Ibid., RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POLCHICOM–US) In an April 11 memorandum to Nixon, Kissinger indicated that he sent the response to the ROC while Nixon was in Key Biscayne, Florida. (Ibid., Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 700, Country Files, Europe, Poland Vol. II Warsaw Talks 2/1/70–6/30/70) The response was drafted in EA, then forwarded by Green to Rogers for approval on March 16. Kissinger modified this response after receiving it under a covering memorandum from Eliot on March 21.


Document 75: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Memoranda of Conversations, Feb. 1969–Sept. 1971, Box CL 278. Secret. Sent for information.


Document 76: Memorandum of Conversation

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 520, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. IV. Secret; Nodis. According to the President's Daily Diary, the meeting was held from 7:05 to 8:05 p.m. prior to a White House State Dinner. (Ibid., White House Central Files) The memorandum of conversation was drafted by Anderson, who also served as an interpreter for the Warsaw talks. Kissinger approved it on May 14. The Vice Premier was in the United States April 18–28, and in Washington April 20–24. Chiang Ching-Kuo's schedule is ibid., NSC Files, Box 913, VIP Visits, Vol. II Visit of Vice Premier Chiang Ching-Kuo of China, April 21–23, 1970. He met with Rogers, Green, McConaughy, and other Department of State officials on April 21. Records of these meetings are ibid., RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POLCHINAT–US. According to an April 16 memorandum from Rogers to the President, Chiang was scheduled to meet on April 22 with Laird, McCracken, and Schlesinger, Acting Director of BOB. A memorandum of conversation of Chiang's meeting with McCracken and Schlesinger is ibid., POL 7 CHINAT. For his meeting with Laird, see Document 78.


Document 77: Memorandum of Conversation

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 913, VIP Visits, Vol. I Visit of Vice Premier Chiang Ching-Kuo of China, April 21–23, 1970. Secret; Sensitive. According to a covering memorandum drafted by Holdridge, Kissinger approved this memorandum of conversation on June 2. It was to have “in-house distribution only.”


Document 78: Memorandum of Conversation

Source: Washington National Records Center, RG 330, ISA Files: FRC 330 73 A 1975, China, Rep. of, 1970, 333 January. Secret. Prepared by Doolin and approved by Nutter on April 29 and Laird's office on May 25. The meeting was held in Laird's dining room at the Pentagon.


Document 79: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1031, Files for the President—China Material, Material Concerning Preparations for First China Trip by HAK, July 1971. Top Secret; Nodis; Eyes Only. Sent for information. An unsigned May 3 version of this memorandum is ibid., RG 59, S/P Files: Lot 77 D 112, Policy Planning Staff, Director's Files, Winston Lord Chronology, May 1970.


Document 80: Editorial Note


Document 81: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 520, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. IV. Confidential. Sent for information. A notation on the memorandum indicates the President saw it. A May 20 covering memorandum indicates that Holdrige prepared the memorandum.


Document 82: Special National Intelligence Estimate

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, Job 79–R1012, NIC Files. Top Secret; Sensitive; Controlled Dissem; Limdis. According to a note on the cover page, the Central Intelligence Agency and intelligence organizations of the Departments of State and Defense, and the NSA participated in the preparation of this estimate. All members of the USIB concurred with the estimate except for representatives from the FBI and AEC, who abstained on the grounds that the subject was outside their jurisdictions. For the full text of this SNIE, see Tracking the Dragon, p. 678. In a March 25 memorandum to Helms, Kissinger wrote: “In order to obtain a sound basis for U.S. policies in Southeast Asia and China over the next five years, we need to obtain an analysis of Chinese attitudes and behavior toward Southeast Asian insurgencies.” (National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Agency Files, Box 207, CIA—Vol. II 1 Jan 70–30 June 70) This report covered much of the same ground as the June 11 SNIE 13–10–70, Chinese Reactions to Certain Courses of Action in Indochina, which noted that “In particular, this paper assesses the likelihood of the Chinese using ‘volunteers’ in response to successful guerilla operations to interdict communist lines of communication in this area.” (Central Intelligence Agency, Job 79–R1012, NIC Files)


Document 83: National Intelligence Estimate

Source: National Archives, RG 59, INR/EAP Files: Lot 90 D 110, National Intelligence Estimates, NIE 13–3–70. Secret; Controlled Dissem. Another copy is in Central Intelligence Agency, Job 79–R1012, NIC Files. According to a note on the covering sheet, the Central Intelligence Agency and intelligence organizations of the Departments of State and Defense, AEC, and NSA participated in the preparation of this estimate. All members of the USIB concurred with the estimate on June 11 except for the representative from the FBI, who abstained on the grounds that the subject was outside his jurisdiction. For the full text of this NIE, see Tracking the Dragon, p. 678.


Document 84: Message to Be Delivered by Major General Vernon A. Walters to the Government of the People's Republic of China

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1031, Files for the President—China Material, Exchanges Leading up to HAK's Trip to China, December 1969–July 1971. Top Secret; Sensitive; Nodis; Eyes Only. A typed note attached to the message reads: “June 16, 1970. Typed version—exactly like this—but without signature—was hand carried by Jim Fazio to General Walters this date w/cover memo which is also in this file.” A copy of the message in the file is signed by the President. Attached but not printed is a June 15 memorandum from Haig to Walters, which reads in full: “Pursuant to your discussions with my friend [apparently Kissinger], attached is the text you should use in your discussions in Paris. As I understand it, you will not hand over this text to the other side but will follow it literally in your discussions. Jim Fazio, who is carrying this memorandum and its enclosure, will also provide you with an additional supply of one time pads.” Fazio, assistant director of the White House Situation Room, delivered this message and Haig's memorandum to Walters in Paris on June 17. His account of meeting Walters was included in two memoranda from Fazio to Haig, both June 22. (Ibid., Box 1327, Unfiled Material, 1971, 5 of 12) “One-time pads” are sheets of random numbers used for encryption purposes. An account of Sino-American contact in Paris is in Vernon A. Walters, Silent Missions (Garden City, NY: Double-day & Company, 1978). Walters' account of the timing of these initiatives varies from the documentation printed here.


Document 85: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 520, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. IV. Top Secret; Umbra. Sent for information. A notation on the memorandum indicates the President saw it.


Document 86: Telegram From the Embassy in the Republic of China to Secretary of State Rogers and Secretary of Defense Laird

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, DEF 1 CHINAT–US. Secret; Priority. Copies were sent to CINCPAC, COMUSTDC, CHMAAG Taiwan, and 327th Air Division, part of the 13th Air Force.


Document 87: Memorandum From Lindsey Grant of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 520, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. IV. Secret. Sent for information. A notation on the memorandum indicates Kissinger saw it. The memorandum was date-stamped “August 11 1970.”


Document 88: Assessment Prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency

Source: National Archives, RG 59, EA/ROC Files: Lot 73 D 38, Pol. Assessment–US/GRC. Secret. An attached but not printed covering memorandum from Nelson to Green states that this report was prepared by the CIA.


Document 89: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1031, Files for the President—China Material, Exchanges Leading up to HAK's Trip to China, December 1969–July 1971. Top Secret; Sensitive; Exclusively Eyes Only. Sent for information.


Document 90: Memorandum of Conversation

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1031, Files for the President—China Material, Exchanges Leading up to HAK's Trip to China, December 1969–July 1971. Top Secret; Sensitive; Eyes Only. The meeting was held in Jean Sainteny's Paris apartment. Sainteny was a French banker and political figure. He served as a source of information and contacts with the Vietnamese. He had served in French Indochina as Commissioner, 1945–1947; Governor of the Colonies, 1946; and Delegate General to North Vietnam, 1954–1958.


Document 91: Memorandum From the President's Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Haig) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 520, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. V. Secret. Kissinger wrote “OK, HK” and “Peng is former student of mine” on the memorandum.


Document 92: Telegram From the Embassy in the Republic of China to the Department of State

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POLCHINAT–US. Secret; Immediate; Limdis. Repeated to CINCPAC, COMUSTDC, and CHMAAG.


Document 93: Memorandum of Conversation

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POLCHINAT–US. Secret; Nodis. The meeting was held in the Oval Office. A November 10 memorandum by Lord transmitting a copy of this memorandum to Kissinger reads: “You [Kissinger] were the only other person at these meetings and I have boiled down and sanitized your personal notes. Your full records will go into your personal files.” (Ibid., Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 520, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. V) No other record of this conversation has been found. According to the President's Daily Diary, Yen and the President met from 3:21 to 3:59 p.m. (Ibid., White House Central Files)


Document 94: Editorial Note


Document 95: National Intelligence Estimate

Source: National Archives, RG 59, INR/EAP Files: Lot 90 D 110, National Intelligence Estimates, NIE 13–7–70. Secret; Controlled Dissem. According to a note on the covering sheet, the Central Intelligence Agency and intelligence organizations of the Departments of State and Defense, AEC, and NSA participated in the preparation of this estimate. All members of the USIB concurred with the estimate on November 12 except for the representative from the FBI, who abstained on the grounds that the subject was outside his jurisdiction. For the full text of this NIE, see Tracking the Dragon, pp. 583–599.


Document 96: Memorandum From John H. Holdridge of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 520, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. V. Secret; Limdis. Sent for action.


Document 97: National Security Study Memorandum 106

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Boxes H–176 and 177, NSSM Files, NSSM 106. Secret; Sensitive. Copies were sent to Stans and Kennedy. According to an October 19 memorandum from Lord to Kissinger, the impetus for the study came in part from an October 8 letter fro. Richard Moorsteen. Kissinger noted on this memorandum: “I agree with Moorsteen. Do it as NSSM of policy review for SRG.” (Ibid., RG 59, S/P Files: Lot 77 D 112, Policy Planning Staff, Director's Files, Winston Lord Chronology, November 1970. Moorsteen's letter was attached.) Moorsteen had served on Richardson's staff in 1969 as a Foreign Service Reserve officer. In a November 18 memorandum to Kissinger, Holdridge, Colonel Kennedy, Wright, and Sonnenfeldt noted that Kissinger transmitted his request for the draft NSSM through Lord and that the study would be under the chairmanship of the Under Secretary of State. (Ibid., Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 520, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. V) The Department of State was also moving ahead with a re-evaluation of policy toward the PRC. In a November 18 memorandum to Nixon, Rogers announced that he had ordered the Department of State, under the coordination of EA, to initiate a “thorough study and review” of Sino-American relations and Chinese representation in the United Nations. This was undertaken at the suggestion of Brown, in his November 17 memorandum to Rogers. (Both ibid., RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, UN 6 CHICOM) Documentation on Chinese representation in the United Nations, including NSSM 107, November 17, is in Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, volume V.


Document 98: Telegram From the Embassy in Pakistan to the Department of State

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POL 15–1 PAK. Secret; Priority; Exdis; Eyes Only. Kissinger relayed the contents of the telegram to the President in his December 15 daily briefing memorandum. (Ibid., Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 29, President's Daily Briefs) A notation on another copy of this telegram reads: “HAK: This cat is out of the bag. You may get a call from Secy Rogers asking what the President's discussion was about. JHH. I called Eliot per your request and told him Pres. simply said we [were] interested in finding ways to improve relations. JHH.” (Ibid., Box 1031, Files for the President—China Material, Exchanges Leading up to HAK's Trip to China, December 1969–July 1971)


Document 99: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1031, Files for the President—China Material, Exchanges Leading up to HAK's Trip to China, December 1969–July 1971. Top Secret; Sensitive. Printed from an unsigned copy.


Document 100: Record of Discussion Between the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) and the Pakistani Ambassador to the United States (Hilaly)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1031, Files for the President—China Material, Exchanges Leading up to HAK's Trip to China, December 1969–July 1971. No classification marking. Hilaly and Kissinger met from 11:30 to 11:45 a.m. (Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box 438, Miscellany, 1968–1976, Record of Schedule) Hilaly drafted the record of conversation. A handwritten notation indicates that Hilaly delivered it to Kissinger at 6:15 on April 27; see footnote 1, Document 118.


Document 101: Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to the Chairman of the Under Secretaries Committee (Irwin)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 520, Country Files, Far East, China, Vol. V. Secret; Sensitive.